Worlds in Collision by Immanuel Velikovsky is an essential book to read for those interested in chronology revision, world catastrophism, alternative mythology interpretation, comparative mythology and especially the Electric Universe theory (EU theory).
How have the Worlds in Collision general theories and Velikovsky's specific ideas held up since then?
Especially against the massive increases in technology, data and modified or totally new science theories and hypothesis?
But how do you nudge Earth into a new zip code? The most plausible model, out of several other unlikely mechanisms that were only present in the very young solar system, is a gravitational billiard ball game called planet-planet scattering.
... This idea leaves me a little chagrined because it sounds like some of the wacky imaginary planet Nibiru predictions for the 2012 doomsday warnings. What's more, in the 1970s Sagan ridiculed Immanuel Velikovsky's ad hoc theories of a runaway Venus and other colliding planets. Velikovsky's ideas were built around comparative mythology and not dynamical modeling.
Was Earth a Migratory Planet? | Discovery.com
Surprisingly a number of important people and organisations of Velikovsky inspired sites and societies, and the 'official' EU theory proponents of the Thunderbolts Project, have some doubts about parts of Velikovsky's books, ideas, chronology etc.
Velikovsky’s book title is misleading. It is not about colliding planets or asteroids. It seems there is an intrinsic avoidance mechanism involving cosmic electric discharges.
The impact of pseudo-science | Holoscience (Wal Thornhill)
In a bizarre twist the modern EU theory seem to be going away from Velikovsky’s 'planets colliding' idea to electromagnetic encounters between planets with no worlds in collisions.
Whereas science in the past few decades is now starting to propose all sorts of theories involving planets, moons, comets and asteroid collisions, fusing and chaos.
Worlds in Collision book review
This Worlds in Collision book review and discussion series will briefly investigate the individual sections of each chapter, where Velikovsky proposes an alternative theory or idea to the accepted or standard science view. Then compare Velikovsky's speculations to modern science theories and the (Thunderbolts) Electric Universe theory, as well as other peoples EU theory based ideas.
In an Immense Universe - Chapter 1 - Worlds in Collision
Velikovsky starts by describing how the confident and in theory the nearly all knowing Homo sapiens might actually be Homo ignoramus. He lists a number of things with most still a puzzle or theory. Some are now even more of a mystery because of what science has found or did not find, compared to theory predictions.
Immanuel Velikovsky finishes this part of the chapter with the idea behind the books title.
In this work, of which the present book is the first part, some of these questions will be answered, but only at the cost of giving up certain notions now regarded as sacred laws in science — the millions of years of the present constitution of the solar system and the harmonious revolution of the earth — with all their implications as regards the theory of evolution.
Relatively recently has the solar system configuration changed? Have the planets orbits changed or been in a chaotic state? Have the worlds been in collision?
Planets in Collision?
Science suggests that the moon was created by a large two body planetary impact (Theia Impact hypothesis). Other geology features on other space bodies are suggested to be large body impacts.
The most commonly invoked explanation for lunar formation holds that a giant protoplanet, sometimes called Theia, struck the newly formed Earth 4.5 billion years ago and created a cloud of debris that quickly coalesced into the moon.
Giant Impact Theory of Lunar Formation Gains More Credibility | Scientific American
A chaotic solar system and planets colliding seem to have more and more proposed theories, which suggests a slowly gathering approval for planets colliding - Worlds in Collision type events.
Current theories argue that the system formed from a giant impact between two icy objects with a total mass about 30% larger than Pluto’s current mass. Immediately after the event Charon was much closer to Pluto, but then it drifted away over a period of about one to ten million years.
The Formation of Pluto and Its Moons | SciTech Daily
It is now thought that Pluto and Charon may have been two bodies that collided before going into orbit about each other.
Charon | Wikipedia
Contact binary comets (comet 67P) and contact binary asteroids are a new proposed theory that 2 comets or 2 asteroids have slowly collided and melted together. As we have only observed a few comets and asteroids the observations seem to suggest that most are contact binaries.
According to science theory you also now have the possibility of contact binary moons (or bodies). Pluto's moon Kerberos has the 'rubber duck' shape of contact binary comets and asteroids. Hydra also is irregular shape and might turn out to a contact binary planet.
Binary and contact-binary minor planets are thought to form from collisions, mutual capture, or fission.
Radar observations of 8P/Tuttle: A contact-binary comet | Link to PDF
Kerberos appears to have a double-lobed shape, with the larger lobe approximately 5 miles (8 kilometres) across and the smaller lobe approximately 3 miles (5 kilometres) across. Science team members speculate from its unusual shape that Kerberos could have been formed by the merger of two smaller objects.
Kerberos completes family portrait of Pluto’s moons
And perhaps planets?
As discussed later in the book review series Velikovsky's dating of these worlds colliding events will be very different and recent compared to sciences.
Pluto and Charon are thought to have formed in a collision between a “proto-Pluto” object and an impacting body. The massive collision would have scattered debris around the system, and the family of moons are thought to have formed from that material.
The chaotic behavior of the Pluto-Charon system could have broader implications in the Universe. “We are learning that chaos may be a common trait of binary systems,” Hamilton said. “It might even have consequences for life on planets in such systems.”
Chaotic orbital interactions keep flipping Pluto’s moons
Planets in chaos?
A 'Newtonian clockwork' type solar system suggests that once the solar system was formed that it ticked along mechanically and nothing much happened. Yet it is suggested by some that any system involving 3 bodies or more will eventually end in a chaotic state - Worlds in Collision?
"Planets don't like to stay still, they like to move," said Minton during a presentation at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md., on April 10.
This is proven by the discovery of hundreds of extrasolar planets that reinforce a radical new idea that would have never even been considered in the 1950s: Planet migration seems the rule rather than the exception among the stars. This explains the estimate of billions of "hot Jupiters," which are predicted to have moved to orbits precariously close to their stars — to the point of evaporating away.
Was Earth a Migratory Planet? | Discovery
Recent research and theories seem to suggest that the planets orbits are chaotic, that over millions or billions of years planetary chaos will occur in the solar system. A few sample research papers and articles are quoted here as there are a lot of them.
The article - Was Earth a Migratory Planet? - also has more details on proposed science theories that suggested a chaotic solar system and a Worlds in Collision type scenario. Although the time lines they are talking about are billions of years compared to Velikovsky's relatively few thousand years.
Over the last two decades, there has come about a recognition that chaotic dynamics is pervasive in the solar system. We now understand that the orbits of small members of the solar system—asteroids, comets, and interplanetary dust—are chaotic and undergo large changes on geological time scales. Are the major planets' orbits also chaotic? The answer is not straightforward, and the subtleties have prompted new questions.
... In its scientific usage, chaos is not a synonym for disorder, rather it describes the irregular behavior that can occur in deterministic dynamical systems, i.e., systems described by ordinary differential equations free of external random influences. Chaotic systems have two defining characteristics: they show order interspersed with randomness, and their evolution is extremely sensitive to initial conditions.
... We have understood, within the last two decades, that the orbits of many of the small members of the solar system (asteroids, comets, dust particles), subjected to the combined gravitational perturbations of the major planets, are chaotic and unstable on million-year time scales.
... They find that the terrestrial planetary subsystems with smaller dynamical distances (<18RH) are likely to become unstable in a short time scale (<107 years). This rapid instability is caused by the strong gravitational perturbation from massive Jovian planets. Thus it seems that the present wide dynamical separation among terrestrial planets (>26RH) is possibly one of the significant conditions to maintain the stability of the planetary orbits in giga-year time spans.
These recent advances are the beginning of a quest to tease out the critical properties of our solar system (and its subsystems) that give it the curious character of being only marginally chaotic or marginally stable on time spans comparable with its current age.
Chaos and stability of the solar system
When, how, why, what those the process, triggers, forces, dates, mechanics may have been according to science, Velikovsky and the Electric Universe theory will be also be explored and reviewed later.
To investigate the role of the Earth-Moon system in the dynamical stability of the inner SolarSystem, Innanen, Mikkola and Wiegert performed several numerical experiments integrating the equations of motion without certain inner planets. They have obtained rather unexpected results: Earth plays a crucial role in the long-term stability of the orbits of the inner planets. In the absence of Earth the orbits of Venus and Mercury would be heavily exposed to strong destabilising resonances with giant planets.
... The Solar System is chaotic, and thus unstable, in a sense that one cannot predict the trajectory of Earth for periods of time exceeding, say, 100 Myrs. On the other hand, it is structurally stable, since small variations of the parameters of the planets, comparable with the accuracy of their measurements, lead to different but similar orbits – it is thus unlikely that the Solar System will fall apart during the next billion years. However, this structural stability is limited and the Solar System is fragile: if variations of the parameters were of the order of ten percents, the configuration of the system might suffer crucial qualitative changes. For instance, decreasing the mass of the Sun by half would strongly destabilise dynamics of the System.
On the stability of the solar system | Link to PDF
And if Velikovsky's ideas and dates have any semblance of truth then what does it mean for the theory of evolution or our interpretation of how old life is? Especially as evolution seems to be massively triggered by Earth catastrophes and not the very slow and steady Darwin evolution - Worlds in Collision evolution?
Eris, Sedna and Biden
Eris is a dwarf planet and one of the largest bodies in our solar system and the largest trans-Neptunian object (TNO). It has a very large eccentric orbit with a period of 557 years, which brings it inside the orbit of Pluto.
Then there are the planetoids Sedna and 2012 VP113 (known as VP or Biden) that have large eccentric orbits way past Pluto.
How many other planetoids are there? With such possible orbit lengths how many could come closer into the solar system and create chaos or collide with a planet?
... The planetoid is usually even colder, because it approaches the Sun this closely only briefly during its 10,500 year orbit around the Sun. At its most distant, "Sedna" is 130 billion kilometers (84 billion miles) from the Sun. That is 900 times Earth's distance from the Sun ... The extremely elliptical orbit of Sedna is unlike anything previously seen by astronomers; however, it resembles that of objects predicted to lie in the hypothetical Oort cloud.
... Brown says this "inner Oort cloud" may have been formed by gravity from a rogue star near the Sun in the solar system's early days. Brown explained, "The star would have been close enough to be brighter than the full Moon, and it would have been visible in the daytime sky for 20,000 years." Worse, it would have dislodged comets farther out in the Oort cloud, leading to an intense comet shower that could have wiped out any life that existed on Earth at the time.
Planet-Like Body Discovered at Fringes of Our Solar System | NASA
Oi Sedna, you can't form there!
There is only one other world in the solar system that has an orbit anything like 2012 VP113's: Sedna. ... The interesting thing about Sedna is the galaxy doesn't become important until 5 or 6 thousand AU. Maybe 3, depending on what you're doing. But it's thousands of AU.
Sedna is on an eccentric orbit, and it can't form on that orbit, it's got to be on a circular orbit in order to accrete. So it got scattered by something, but it's too far away from the planets for them to do it, because the perihelion is too large, and it's too close to the Sun for the galaxy to do it. So Sedna was a surprise because it's in a "no man's land" because we don't know of anything that could put it there.
... Here is where a possible planet comes in ... Mike Brown outlined his three favorite explanations for how Sedna formed: either there is an undiscovered planet orbiting the Sun near Sedna's perihelion position; or a passing star had approached to within several hundred AU of the Sun and disturbed orbits of objects it passed near; or a model relating to the fact that Earth was born in a star cluster.
A second Sedna! What does it mean? | Planetary
It is currently unknown how 2012 VP113 acquired a perihelion distance beyond the Kuiper belt. The characteristics of its orbit, like those of Sedna's, have been explained as possibly created by a passing star or a trans-Neptunian planet of several Earth masses hundreds of astronomical units from the Sun. The orbital architecture of the trans-Plutonian region may signal the presence of more than one planet. 2012 VP113 could even be captured from another planetary system.
However, it is considered more likely that the perihelion of 2012 VP113 was raised by multiple interactions within the crowded confines of the open star cluster in which the Sun formed.
Orbit - 2012 VP113 | Wikipedia
Wandering stars and our solar system in Collision?
Not just the chaotic orbit of planets but science is now suggesting the theoretical possibility there are rogue or wandering stars and also rogue star and planet systems that could cause chaos and perhaps catastrophe in our solar system.
Perhaps by being captured or at least the wandering star disrupting the hypothetical Oort cloud and sending asteroids and large proto planets into the inner solar system - modified Worlds in Collision?
Our world in Collision and Catastrophe?
If our world has been in collision with another planet or the planetary orbits in the solar system have gone into a chaotic state then this would very likely cause catastrophe on planet Earth. If it was more recent than science suggests, perhaps it would explain what Velikovsky says in the opening chapter?
Although man knows that he has lived on this planet for millions of years, he finds a recorded history of only a few thousand years. And even these few thousand years are not sufficiently well known.
Electric Universe theory in Collision
The various Electric Universe theories about the solar system configuration and formation also suggests that it was an unstable solar system. As they were originally inspired or have roots in some of the ideas of Velikovsky this may not be surprising.
But the various versions of the EU theory or the solar system cosmogony vary in what they think actually happened and when - Saturn Polar Configuration, Velikovsky / Ackerman scenario, God King Scenario based on the V/A scenario, Cosmos in Collision, Alfred de Grazi's Quantavolution etc.
What happens on Earth today is but a tame shadow of mankind’s earlier history. The evidence suggests that only a few thousand years ago planets moved close to Earth, producing electrical phenomena of intense beauty and terror. Ancient sky worshippers witnessed these celestial wonders and far-flung cultures recorded the events in great myths, symbols and ritual practices of antiquity.
I think they witnessed celestial bodies immersed in the charged particles of the Solar System’s dense plasma. These bodies, including Earth, spoke electrically to each other and produced heaven spanning electrical discharges. These planets were the gods. Mankind at once feared and worshipped them. During chaotic restructuring of the Solar System cosmic lightning evolved violently from one discharge configuration to another. They followed patterns observed in high energy plasma experiments. These electric phenomena have also been recently observed in deep space.
Wal Thornhill - Velikovsky the Unsung Genius | Thunderbolts TPOD
1. The present order of the planets is new. In geologically recent times the planetary system was unstable, and at least some planets moved on much different courses than they do today.
2. Erratic movements of the planets led to global catastrophe on Earth.
Talbott and Thornhill - Velikovsky's Ghost Returns | Thunderbolts
The harmonious revolution of the earth
Immanuel Velikovsky mentions changes to the steady turning of our planet and this will be discussed later.