Some astronomers disagree with the blueshift and redshift theory. Halton Arp, Fritz Zwicky and Grote Reber were some of the more famous and infamous scientists who proposed or investigated alternative interpretations and theories.
Grote Reber … American astronomer and radio engineer who built the first radio telescope and was largely responsible for the early development of radio astronomy, which opened an entirely new research front in the study of the universe.
… In 1954 he joined the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Tasmania, Australia, one of the few places on the surface of the Earth at which the atmosphere is occasionally transparent to electromagnetic radiation more than 30 metres in wavelength.
… An energetic and entertaining speaker, in his later years Reber spoke out on what he perceived to be problems with relativity theory and big-bang cosmology. He believed that much of the redshift observed in the spectra of distant galaxies was due to the forward scattering of light as it traversed the cosmos.
Grote Reber – American astronomer | Encyclopædia Britannica
He had paid his dues
When Reber submitted this article to the “Astrophysical Journal” it was the first time an article reporting radio emission from the sky had been submitted to an astronomical publication. The “Astrophysical Journal” was, and is, a refereed journal, that is, manuscripts submitted to it are sent to anonymous third party experts for their appraisal. Accordingly, Dr. Otto Struve, the journal editor sent Reber’s manuscript to a number of referees.
Astronomer referees returned Reber’s manuscript with the comment that they didn’t understand the radio terminology. Radio engineer referees returned the manuscript stating that they didn’t grasp the astronomical implications. So Struve found no reviewer willing to defend the paper or recommend its publication.
Noting that Reber was a member of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Struve wrote in desperation to the Institute headquarters to find if it had any information about Reber’s qualifications and reputation. In due time Struve received a reply which stated that Grote Reber was a member in good standing of the Institute of Radio Engineers and that he paid his dues regularly!
At this point Dr. Struve was in a quandry. He had ample grounds for rejecting Reber’s contribution; but reasoning that a good article rejected would be a greater evil than a poor paper accepted, he approved Reber’s article for publication.
The First 50 Years of Radio Astronomy, Part 2: Grote Reber and the First Radio Maps of the Sky | Cosmic Search
Redshift wrong – Tired Light explains redshift-distance relationship
Reber was not a believer of the big bang theory; he believed that red shift was due to repeated absorption and re-emission or interaction of light and other electromagnetic radiations by low density dark matter, over intergalactic distances, and he published an article called Endless, Boundless, Stable Universe which outlined his theory. Reber was supportive of the Tired light explanation for the redshift-distance relationship.
Final years – Grote Reber | Wikipedia
Tired Light theories have been around for nearly 100 years and provide an alternative to the Big Bang and an expanding Universe. In Tired Light, redshifts are explained in terms of photons of light interacting with the electrons in the plasma of space. The photons lose energy, their frequency decreases, their wavelength increases and they have been redshifted. The energy transferred to the recoiling electron is re-radiated as a secondary photon and these form the CMBR.
Tired Light an explanation of redshifts in a static universe
Grote Reber, the birther of radio astronomy
Grote Reber was not a crack pot astronomer but his different ideas on light shifting, that it may be the wrong analysis of the data, could give him an honorary membership to the science fringe. Reber could have even forward scattered to receive it.
Grote Reber … was a ham radio operator, studied radio engineering, and worked for various radio manufacturers in Chicago from 1933 to 1947. He learned about Karl Jansky’s discovery (1932) of radio waves from the Galaxy (i.e., the Milky Way), and wanted to follow up this discovery and learn more about cosmic radio waves. Were the waves coming only from the Milky Way, or from other celestial objects? What process produces the radio waves?
… In the 1930s Reber applied for jobs with Karl Jansky at Bell Labs and with astronomical observatories to study cosmic radio waves, but none of them were hiring at the time, since it was in the middle of the great depression. Reber decided to study radio astronomy on his own. The telescope was constructed by Grote Reber in 1937 in his back yard in Wheaton, Illinois (a suburb of Chicago). He built the telescope at his own expense while working full time for a radio company in Chicago.
… Synchrotron radiation results from electrons moving at speeds close to the speed of light in magnetic fields. Our galaxy is full of high speed charged particles, including electrons, known as “cosmic rays”. We now believe that these particles were blasted into interstellar space as a result of supernova explosions. This is the origin of most of the radio radiation from the Milky Way that Jansky and Reber measured.
In the 1950s, Reber sought a field that seemed neglected by most other researchers and turned his attention to cosmic radio waves at very low frequencies (1-2 MHz, or wavelength 150-300 meters). Waves of these frequencies cannot penetrate the Earth’s ionosphere except in certain parts of the Earth at times of low solar activity. One such place is Tasmania, where Reber lived for many years. He died in Tasmania on December 20, 2002.
Grote Reber | National Radio Astronomy Observatory
If you book them, they will come
In the yard of his house in Wheaton, Illinois, at 212 West Seminary Avenue, Reber designed and constructed a radio telescope. It was a 31-foot paraboloid dish that could focus a range of radio wavelengths, and could be steered in azimuth. No one in Wheaton had ever seen anything like it. By 1937, Reber could begin listening to “cosmic static” from different parts of the sky. By the 1940s, he was publishing maps of cosmic emission in radio journals.
For most of a decade, he was the only person on Earth doing radio astronomy.
After World War II ended, astronomers and physicists left war work and returned to universities and other institutions. Reber had established that investigating the radio sky was worthwhile, and – thanks to wartime radio work – both surplus equipment and scientists with the know-how to employ it were available. The infant science of radio astronomy began to grow.
Eventually, Reber’s pioneering instrument was dismantled. It wound up being reassembled at the entrance to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia. It’s proudly displayed beside a replica of Karl Jansky’s original Bell Labs antenna, showing visitors the ancestry of the larger and more modern radio telescopes operating there.
Grote Reber and the Wheaton What-Is-It, Now Seen from the Air | beamjockey
Born in Chicago, Reber graduated in radio engineering from what is now the Illinois Institute of Technology. An amateur astronomer and radio ham, he began to think about the possibilities of radio astronomy in 1931, while still a student, his imagination having been fired by the extraordinary experimental results achieved by the radio engineer Karl Jansky, of Bell Telephone Laboratories.
While investigating the sources of interference on short-wave radio transmissions used for ship-to-shore communications, Jansky had discovered there was a constant stream of radio waves emanating from the stars. At first, the stream of very weak signals seemed to be coming from the sun. But the direction of strongest reception slowly drifted away from the sun, and made a circuit of the sky. Jansky decided the strongest signals were coming from the Milky Way, particularly from the direction of Sagittarius, towards the centre of the galaxy.
The finding made front-page news, but Jansky’s interests lay elsewhere and his results received little attention from other scientists; the discovery had too many drawbacks to explain away, and the recording instruments seemed capable of only producing incomprehensible squiggles and fuzzy patches.
It was left to Reber to combine his ham radio knowledge, and his fascination with astronomy, to determine whether the waves were coming from our own galaxy, the Milky Way, or from some other celestial objects.
… Finally, in 1938, a third receiver at 160 megahertz (1.9 metres wavelength) picked up radio emissions from the Milky Way, confirming Jansky’s discovery. After two years of intense work, Reber published Cosmic Static, a series of articles in the Astrophysical Journal that many scientists regard as the birth of intentional radio astronomy. In 1944, he produced the first detailed contour radio map of the sky, with brighter areas indicating richer radio sources – the brightest was the centre of the Milky Way, and there were other bright sources in Cygnus and Cassiopeia.
Over the years, Reber’s increasingly detailed measurements were published in many prestigious journals, including Nature and the Journal of Geophysical Research. His sky surveys ensured that radio astronomy became a major field of research, and paved the way for the discoveries of quasars, pulsars and the remnant glow left over from the Big Bang.
Grote Reber | The Guardian
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