Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND)

Rebel scum

There are some scientists who do not follow their peer reviewed colleagues ideas of dark energy, dark matter, Big Bang theory, Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, cosmological constant etc.

A reporter saying a paper proves standard theories happens to mention the Dark side opposition. But dare not speak their names of MOND, super void models …

dark matter opposition wrongResearch conducted by scientists at Rochester Institute of Technology rules out a challenge to the accepted standard model of the universe and theory of how galaxies form by shedding new light on a problematic structure.

The vast polar structure – a plane of satellite galaxies at the poles of the Milky Way – is at the center of a tug-of-war between scientists who disagree about the existence of mysterious dark matter, the invisible substance that, according to some scientists, comprises 85 percent of the mass of the universe.

… Opposing scientific thought rejects the existence of dark matter. This camp calls into question the standard cosmological paradigm that accepts both a vast polar structure of satellite galaxies and a hidden plane of dark-matter cloaked galaxies. Lipnicky and Chakrabarti’s study supports the co-existence of these structures and refutes the challenge to the accepted standard model of the universe.
Satellite galaxies at edge of Milky Way coexist with dark matter | Science Daily

Are they Dark side rebels, dark force rebels? Are they rebel scum? You rebel scum!

List of alternative dark energy theories

Tell me why? I don’t like MONDays

One alternative theory to dark stuff is MOND – Modified Newtonian Dynamics.

dark matter theory opposed alternative thinking scienceHe is one of those dark matter people,” Mordehai Milgrom said about a colleague stopping by his office at the Weizmann Institute of Science. Milgrom introduced us, telling me that his friend is searching for evidence of dark matter in a project taking place just down the hall. There are no ‘dark matter people’ and ‘MOND people,’ ” his colleague retorted.

“I am ‘MOND people,’” Milgrom proudly proclaimed, referring to Modified Newtonian Dynamics, his theory that fixes Newtonian physics instead of postulating the existence of dark matter and dark energy – two things that, according to the standard model of cosmology, constitute 95.1 percent of the total mass-energy content of the universe.

… The farther away the star is from the galaxy’s center, the slower it revolves around it; however, while at smaller radiuses the measurements were as predicted by Newtonian physics, farther stars proved to move much faster than predicted from the gravitational pull of the mass we see in these galaxies. The observed gap got a lot wider when, in the late 1970s, radio telescopes were able to detect and measure the cold gas clouds at the outskirts of galaxies. These clouds orbit the galactic center five times farther than the stars, and thus the anomaly grew to become a major scientific puzzle.

One way to solve this puzzle is to simply add more matter. If there is too little visible mass at the center of galaxies to account for the speed of stars and gas, perhaps there is more matter than meets the eye, matter that we cannot see, dark matter.

What made you first question the very existence of dark matter?

Modified Newtonian Dynamics MOND alternative Big Bang theory Einstein’s Theory of General RelativityWhat struck me was some regularity in the anomaly. The rotational velocities were not just larger than expected, they became constant with radius. Why? Sure, if there was dark matter, the speed of stars would be greater, but the rotation curves, meaning the rotational speed drawn as a function of the radius, could still go up and down depending on its distribution. But they didn’t. That really struck me as odd.

… I didn’t understand that scientists are just as swayed as other people by conventions and interests.

… Slowly but surely, this tiny opposition to dark matter grew from just two physicists to several hundred proponents, or at least scientists who take MOND seriously. Dark matter is still the scientific consensus, but MOND is now a formidable opponent that proclaims the emperor has no clothes, that dark matter is our generation’s ether.
The Physicist Who Denies Dark Matter | Nautilus

different other alternative views theories dark matter stuff big bang theory

Modified Newtonian Dynamics MOND different theories to dark matter Among other things, MOND points to a very deep connection between structure and dynamics in galaxies and cosmology. This is not expected in accepted physics. Galaxies are tiny structures within the grand scale of the universe, and those structures can behave differently without contradicting the current cosmological consensus. However, MOND creates this connection, binding the two.

This connection is surprising: For whatever reason, the MOND constant of a0 is close to the acceleration that characterizes the universe itself. In fact, MOND’s constant equals the speed of light squared, divided by the radius of universe.
The Physicist Who Denies Dark Matter | Nautilus

Dark matter of fact or fiction?

No need for dark energy in certain scenarios?

MOND or dark matter theories alternatives thinking modelsSearches for other proposed types of dark matter have turned up nothing, too. Couple this to the other major cosmological conundrum – the nature of the dark energy that is thought to be causing the universe’s expansion to accelerate – and it’s not unreasonable to question the standard model of cosmology, which is built on Einstein’s general relativity and requires both dark matter and dark energy to explain the observed universe.

… if you plotted the acceleration of the stars and gas against the distribution of normal matter, you should see a wide scatter in those dark-matter-dominated regions. Instead, the researchers found that the motion and normal-matter distribution are tightly related everywhere, with very little scatter. Even on the outskirts of galaxies, where dark matter supposedly dominates, there is still a one-to-one correlation between the way normal matter is distributed and the acceleration it experiences, even though this relation doesn’t conform to Newton’s laws. The relation holds across the enormous diversity of galaxies that the team studied. “It’s a dang good correlation,” says McGaugh. It certainly looks as though normal matter can account for the stellar motions; if you were open to modifying Newton’s laws in certain situations, you wouldn’t need to postulate that dark matter provides the additional necessary gravity.
Maybe Dark Matter Is All Just a Big Mistake | Nautilus

Unstable Friedmann universe (anomalous acceleration without dark energy)

Mathematicians Joel Smoller, Blake Temple, Zeke Vogler at the University of California and University of Michigan have proposed a mathematical alternative to Einstein’s cosmological constant now associated with dark energy.

“We set out to find the best explanation we could come up with for the anomalous acceleration of the galaxies within Einstein’s original theory without dark energy,” Temple said. The original theory of General Relativity has given correct predictions in every other context, Temple said, and there is no direct evidence of dark energy. So why add a “fudge factor” (dark energy or the cosmological constant) to equations that already appear correct? Instead of faulty equations that need to be tweaked to get the right solution, the mathematicians argue that the equations are correct, but the assumption of a uniformly expanding universe of galaxies is wrong, with or without dark energy, because that configuration is unstable.

Cosmological models start from a “Friedmann universe,” which assumes that all matter is expanding but evenly distributed in space at every time, Temple said. Temple, Smoller and Vogler worked out solutions to General Relativity without invoking dark energy. They argue that the equations show that the Friedmann space-time is actually unstable: Any perturbation – for example if the density of matter is a bit lower than average – pushes it over into an accelerating universe.

Temple compares this to an upside-down pendulum. When a pendulum is hanging down, it is stable at its lowest point. Turn a rigid pendulum the other way, and it can balance if it is exactly centered – but any small gust will blow it off. This tells us that we should not expect to measure a Friedmann universe, because it is unstable, Temple said. What we should expect to measure instead are local space-times that accelerate faster. Remarkably, the local space-times created by the instability exhibit precisely the same range of cosmic accelerations as you get in theories of dark energy, he said.

What this shows is that the acceleration of the galaxies could have been predicted from the original theory of General Relativity without invoking the cosmological constant/dark energy at all, Temple said. “The math isn’t controversial, the instability isn’t controversial,” Temple said. “What we don’t know is, does our Milky Way galaxy lie near the center of a large under-density of matter in the universe.”

The paper does include testable predictions that distinguish their model from dark energy models, Temple said.
Doing Without Dark Energy – Mathematicians Propose Alternative Explanation for Cosmic Acceleration | University of California, Davis

A unique simple wave perturbation from the radiation epoch is shown to trigger the instability, match the accelerations of dark energy up to second order and distinguish the theory from dark energy at third order. In this sense, anomalous accelerations are not only consistent with Einstein’s original theory of general relativity, but are a prediction of it without the cosmological constant or dark energy.
An instability of the standard model of cosmology creates the anomalous acceleration without dark energy

Giant cosmic voids

To avoid modifying gravity, some theorists have suggested that our galaxy and its neighborhood might lie within a giant void, an emptier-than-average region of space roughly 8 billion light years across. With so little matter to slow down its expansion, the void would expand faster than the rest of the universe. If we lived near the heart of this void, our observations of accelerating cosmic expansion would be an illusion.

“The advantage of giant void models is that they don’t require any new physics to explain the apparent acceleration of the universe, like the existence of some weird dark energy or a modified theory of gravity,” says theoretical cosmologist Phil Bull at the University of Oxford.
Who’s Afraid of the Dark? Alternatives to Dark Energy | Phys org

What other logically good thought experiments, peer reviewed(ish) theories are there to interpret and explain the universe?

Alternative theory links

MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) and different theory link.