Below are some quote and information on plasma, that is so important to the Electric Universe theory (EU theory) and obviously plasma cosmology and plasma mythology. More links and explanations of what is so important about plasma will be added over time.
The fourth state of matter, everywhere
The universe is made of up of space plasma. Plasma is the word given to the fourth state of matter (solid, liquid, gas, plasma). A plasma is a gas that is so hot that some or all its constituent atoms are split up into electrons and ions, which can move independently of each other. Because they are made up of electrically charged particles, plasmas can be strongly influenced by electrostatic and electromagnetic fields and forces, which can lead to very complex and interesting behaviour.
Plasmas are found throughout the Solar System and beyond: in the solar corona and solar wind, in the magnetospheres of the Earth and other planets, in tails of comets, in the inter-stellar and inter-galactic media and in the accretion disks around black holes. There are also plasmas here on Earth, ranging from the inside of a nuclear fusion reactor to a candle flame.
What is Space Plasma? | University College London
The magnetosphere provides a barrier between our planet and particles continually given off by the Sun’s corona called the “solar wind.” These particles constitute a plasma – a mixture of electrons (negatively charged) and ions (atoms that have lost electrons, resulting in a positive electric charge).
Plasma is not a gas, liquid, or solid – it is the fourth state of matter. Plasma often behaves like a gas, except that it conducts electricity and is affected by magnetic fields. On an astronomical scale, plasma is common. The Sun is composed of plasma, fire is plasma, fluorescent and neon lights contain plasma.
“99.9 percent of the Universe is made up of plasma,” says Dr. Dennis Gallagher, a plasma physicist at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. “Very little material in space is made of rock like the Earth.”
Plasma, Plasma, Everywhere | NASA
Estimates of the filling fraction for ionized particles in the interstellar and intergalactic medium range from a few percent to 100 percent. As shown by Earth’s ionosphere where the ionization fraction can be less than one percent, plasma processes can be important even for very low filling fraction. Plasmas are a combination of neutrals, ions, electrons and fields that have conductive and collective effects and where interparticle dynamics is not dominated simply by binary collisions. This condition applies for most astrophysical systems. Even though space plasmas usually maintain quasi-neutrality to within less than about 1 part per million, there can still be substantial currents, convection, plasma flows, plasma waves and shocks and other plasma effects that interconnect plasmas over vast expanse as demonstrated by direct measurements of solar system space plasmas. Radio jets, interstellar shocks, stellar systems (especially neutron stars), and many astrophysical phenomena now appear to involve important plasma effects. Plasma astrophysics is the cutting edge of 21st century astrophysics and cosmology studies.
Plasma Astrophysics | Plasmas.org
Plasma is 99% of the matter in the observable universe
It is estimated that 99% of the matter in the observable universe is in the plasma state…hence the expression “plasma universe.” (The phrase “observable universe” is an important qualifier: roughly 90% of the mass of the universe is thought to be contained in “dark matter,” the composition and state of which are unknown.) Stars, stellar and extragalactic jets, and the interstellar medium are examples of astrophysical plasmas. In our solar system, the Sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetospheres and/or ionospheres of the Earth and other planets, as well as the ionospheres of comets and certain planetary moons all consist of plasmas.
The plasma universe | Southwest Research Institute
Temperatures of space plasmas
The temperatures of space plasmas are very high, ranging from several thousand degrees Celsius in the plasmasphere to several million degrees in the ring current. While the temperatures of the “cooler” plasmas of the ionosphere and plasmasphere are typically given in degrees Kelvin, those of the “hotter” magnetospheric plasmas are more commonly expressed in terms of the average kinetic energies of their constitutent particles measured in “electron volts.” An electron volt (eV) is the energy that an electron acquires as it is accelerated through a potential difference of one volt and is equivalent to 11,600 degrees Kelvin. Magnetospheric plasmas are often characterized as being “cold” or “hot.” Although these labels are quite subjective, they are widely used in the space physics literature. As a rule of thumb, plasmas with temperatures less than about 100 eV are “cold,” while those with temperatures ranging from 100 eV to 30 keV can be considered “hot.” (Particles with higher energies–such as those that populate the radiation belt–are termed “energetic.”)
The plasma universe | Southwest Research Institute
Plasma is overwhemingly the dominant constituent of the universe as a whole. Yet most people are ignorant of plasmas. In daily life on the surface of planet Earth, perhaps the plasma to which people are most commonly exposed is the one that produces the cool efficient glow from fluorescent lights. Neither solid, nor liquid, nor gas, a plasma most closely resembles the latter, but unlike gases whose components are electrically neutral, plasma is composed of the building blocks of all matter: electrically charged particles at high energy.
Plasma is so energetic or “hot” that in space it consists soley of ions and electrons. It is only when plasma is cooled that the atoms or molecules that are so predominant in forming gases, liquids, and solids that we are so accustomed to on Earth, is possible. So, in space, plasma remains electrically charged. Thus plasmas carry electric currents and are more influenced by electromagnetic forces than by gravitational forces. Outside the Earth’s atmosphere, the dominant form of matter is plasma, and “empty” space has been found to be quite “alive” with a constant flow of plasma.
Given its nature, the plasma state is characterized by a complexity that vastly exceeds that exhibited in the solid, liquid, and gaseous states. Correspondingly, the study of the physical and especially the electrodynamical properties of plasma forms one of the most far ranging and difficult research areas in physics today. From spiral galaxies to controlled fusion, this little-known state of matter, the fundamental state, is proving to be of ever greater significance in explaining the dynamics of the universe and in harnessing the material world for the greatest technological result.
What is a Plasma? | Plasma Universe .info
Plasmas carry electrical currents and generate magnetic fields
Plasmas are conductive assemblies of charged particles, neutrals and fields that exhibit collective effects. Further, plasmas carry electrical currents and generate magnetic fields. Plasmas are the most common form of matter, comprising more than 99% of the visible universe.
What is a Plasma? | Plasma Universe .info
Plasma accelerated and steered by electric and magnetic fields
Plasma consists of a collection of free-moving electrons and ions – atoms that have lost electrons. Energy is needed to strip electrons from atoms to make plasma. The energy can be of various origins: thermal, electrical, or light (ultraviolet light or intense visible light from a laser). With insufficient sustaining power, plasmas recombine into neutral gas.
Plasma can be accelerated and steered by electric and magnetic fields which allows it to be controlled and applied. Plasma research is yielding a greater understanding of the universe. It also provides many practical uses: new manufacturing techniques, consumer products, and the prospect of abundant energy.
T Eastman – What is a Plasma? | Plasma Universe .info
Gases, solids and liquids can be brought back into a plasma state
The gases, solids, and liquids can be brought back into a plasma state, from which they derived, by the application of intense energies, such as meteorite impacts, earthquakes, or nuclear explosions.
For example liquid and ground shocking by either earthquakes or nuclear explosions leads to interesting plasma effects such as luminescence and weak electromagnetic radiation.
Ionized gases, liquids, and solids are weak examples of plasmas. The former, ionized gases, have been extensively studied in the laboratory. However, while ionized gases belong to the plasma family, plasmas are not ionized gases. This fact leads to misconceptions in the nature of plasmas in space and the universe. To parapharse Timothy Eastman:
Plasmas are for Everyone. Gases and plasmas are distinct states of matter. The fluids states of gas and liquid are treated with the Navier-Stokes equation whereas plasmas are treated with the Boltzmann and Maxwell equations. The term plasma is for everyone and not just for specialists.Plasma is defined as a partially or fully ionized medium which exhibits collective effects due to interactions with electric and magnetic fields.Often, the solar wind is described as a “vast stream of ions” (neglecting electrons and the fields), strongly implying (incorrectly) a Navier-Stokes fluid. Plasmas are not simply a type of gas. Let’s be more accurate and recognize as well that plasmas are for everyone.
Plasma where is it not? | Plasma Universe .info
Plasma is ionized, meaning that one or more electrons are stripped from the atoms in its substance, so it is electrically charged. Plasma does not behave like a pressurized gas, it behaves according to the tenets of plasma physics. Plasma can be accelerated and steered by electromagnetic fields.
Plasma is not a “substance”, per se, it is an emergent phenomenon; it can not be analyzed in terms of its component parts, it arises in response to complicated interactions. Such properties as filamentation, long-range attraction and short-range repulsion, braiding, characteristic velocities, formation and decay of plasmoids, and identity of properties at different scales are all aspects of the plasma phenomenon.
As previously written, laboratory experiments confirm that electricity flowing through plasma forms regions separated by thin walls of opposite charge called double layers. This is the “charge separation” so often mentioned in these pages. Could charge separation be the foundation for the electrical explosions known as supernovae?
Galactic Speedway | Thunderbolts TPOD
Space is not empty it is full of plasma
Many people believe the space in between the the Sun and its planets is empty, a vacuum devoid of energy or matter. But space is not empty. Our Sun constantly emits plasma, a superheated state of matter, which moves out in all directions at very high speeds to fill the entire solar system and beyond.
The Sun, a gravitationally bound plasma at the center of the solar system, displays a rich variety of instabilities that have come to be identified with this energetic state of matter. The photosphere, the chromosphere, and the corona are layers of plasma superimposed on the Sun like onion skins. At more than a million degrees, electrons and ions tend to escape the outer corona. This “solar wind” of plasma stretches out and permeates the entire solar system, interacting with the magnetic fields of the planets to form magnetospheres, eventually diffusing into the interstellar plasma between stars.
Space Plasmas | Plasma Universe .info
Because of its free electrons, a plasma is a good conductor of electricity, much better than than copper, silver, or gold. Lightning offers one of the most dramatic manifestations of this property. As a thunderstorm develops, negative charges accumulate along the cloud base, causing positive charges to build up on the ground below. The resulting electrical field between the concentrations becomes so strong that it ionizes the air. This creates a conducting path of free electrons and ions—a plasma—through which the lightning discharges.
A young engineer and chemist working for General Electric Company gave plasma its name. In 1923 Irving Langmuir, who went on to win the Nobel prize in chemistry, was fascinated with the effect of electrical discharges on gases. He borrowed the term plasma from medicine because it fitted the unstable, almost lifelike behavior of the ionized material with which he experimented.
While all matter is subject to gravitational forces, the negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions in a plasma also react to electric and magnetic forces that are 10^36 times as strong. Because of these additional interactions, plasma display structures and motions that are fare more complex than those found in neutral solids, liquids, or gases. Langmuir was among the first to note the separation of highly conducting plasma into charged-particle sheaths or cellular-like walls. This structure appears wherever samples with different densities, temperatures, or magnetic-field strengths come into contact.
Like flashes of lightning, terrestrial plasmas are by and large transient. Even in a neon or fluorescent bulb, the mixture of free electrons and ions remains only as long as the power is turned on. Extraterrestrial plasmas are much more long-lived, but until recently only a handful of scientists had speculated about the universal extent and character of such matter. Yet almost all of the observable universe is plasma. Stars, for example, are gravitationally bound plasmas, while all of interstellar and intergalactic space is plasma.
The Plasma Universe | Plasma Universe .info
small distance or area versus specific and thin boundary zones
Plasmas typically cannot store high-value electric fields and large voltages between any small distance or area, and the state of the electrical field tends to be quasi-neutral. But at specific and thin boundary zones, the voltage and electric field can be much greater and be confined within that zone.
Towards a natural plasma explanation of certain UFO phenomena | hozturner
Space plasmas low density
The plasmas of interest to space physicists are extremely tenuous, with densities dramatically lower than those achieved in laboratory vacuums. The density of the best laboratory vacuum is about 10 billion particles per cubic centimeter. In comparison, the density of the densest magnetospheric plasma region, the inner plasmasphere, is only 1000 particles per cubic centimeter, while that of the plasma sheet is less than 1 particle per cubic centimeter.
The plasma universe | Southwest Research Institute
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