Everything about exo planets, stars, asteroids, moons, comets science finds is surprising and usually requires scientists to go back to the planetary formation theory drawing board.
This suggests that the actual practical and physical evidence proves that the planet formation theories they have are wrong. Which also suggests that the theories they are built on are also wrong.
No matter how much they modify or completely rewrite the theories of planet formation they will constantly be surprised, now and in the future.
If they keep being surprised in the future, even after modifying all their theories then does this show that the basic theories are still wrong?
Planet formation theory debunked - evidence
Molecular oxygen (O2), however, despite its detection on other icy bodies such as the moons of Jupiter and Saturn2, 3, has remained undetected in cometary comas. Here we report in situ measurement of O2 in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, with local abundances ranging from one per cent to ten per cent relative to H2O and with a mean value of 3.80 ± 0.85 per cent. Our observations indicate that the O2/H2O ratio is isotropic in the coma and does not change systematically with heliocentric distance. This suggests that primordial O2 was incorporated into the nucleus during the comet’s formation, which is unexpected given the low upper limits from remote sensing observations4. Current Solar System formation models do not predict conditions that would allow this to occur.
Abundant molecular oxygen in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko | Nature
They found that free oxygen was the fourth most common gas around the comet, after water vapour, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the scientists involved, Professor Kathrin Altwegg of Bern University said that the scientists involved in the study thought the result was a mistake when they first saw the data. "When we first saw it, we went a little bit into denial because it is not what you would expect to find on a comet," she said.
That is because oxygen reacts very easily with other elements to form compounds, rather than stay in its unique form. The researchers suggest that oxygen must have been frozen very quickly and became trapped in clumps of material early on in the formation of the Solar System.
"It was the most surprising discovery we have made so far (about the comet)," said Prof Altwegg. "The big question was how it got there".
Many current theories of how the planets and comets formed around the Sun suggest a violent process that would have heated up the frozen oxygen - which would then have reacted with other elements. The suggestion is that the Solar System formation must have been an altogether quieter affair.
"If we have O2 at the beginning of the formation of the comet, how did it survive so long?" said the study's author Andre Bieler, from the University of Michigan. "All the models say it shouldn't survive for so long, which tells us something about the building of our Solar System - it has to be very gentle to build these ice grains, it seems it is a pretty pristine material still.
"Now we have evidence that this significant part of this comet has in fact survived the formation of our Solar System."
Surprise discovery suggests 'gentle' start for Solar System BBC
About 4.45 billion years ago, 150 million years after the solar system formed, Earth was hit by a Mars-size object called Theia. The collision created the moon, but debate has raged exactly what happened during this event - and a mystery has persisted on why the moon and Earth are so similar in their composition.
Now, conflicting studies have provided two different theories - one that Theia was similar to Earth, and another that Earth and the moon were showered by debris following the collision.
How DID the moon form?
A joint analysis of data from the Planck space mission and the ground-based experiment BICEP2 has found no conclusive evidence of gravitational waves from the birth of our universe, despite earlier reports of a possible detection.
Gravitational waves from early universe remain elusive
They say the discovery indicates that planets have been forming almost from the time the Universe began ... "It is extraordinary that such an ancient system of terrestrial-sized planets formed when the universe was just starting out," says Huber.
Astronomers find oldest-known solar system
Protoplanet Vesta, visited by NASA's Dawn spacecraft from 2011 to 2013, was once thought to be completely dry, incapable of retaining water because of the low temperatures and pressures at its surface. However, a new study shows evidence that Vesta may have had short-lived flows of water-mobilized material on its surface, based on data from Dawn.
"Nobody expected to find evidence of water on Vesta. The surface is very cold and there is no atmosphere, so any water on the surface evaporates," ... "These results, and many others from the Dawn mission, show that Vesta is home to many processes that were previously thought to be exclusive to planets,"
Gullies on Vesta Suggest Past Water-Mobilized Flows
“Chondrules were long viewed as planetary building blocks,” Zuber notes. “It’s ironic that they now appear to be the remnants of early protoplanetary collisions.”
the findings may reclassify chondrites, a class of meteorites that are thought to be examples of the original material from which planets formed ... “This would be a major shift in how people think about our solar system,” says Ciesla,
A twist on planetary origins
astronomers who confirmed the detection of low-mass, rocky planets around a star that’s at least 11.2 billion years old, or more than twice the age of our own solar system ...
Even so, the team’s findings will likely help precipitate a paradigm shift of how planet hunters and astrobiologists view terrestrial planet formation within the Milky Way.
NASA Kepler Finds Milky Way's Oldest Known Earth-Mass Planets
“These features are almost certainly the result of young planet-like bodies that are being formed in the disc. This is surprising since such young stars are not expected to have large planetary bodies capable of producing the structures we see in this image,” said Stuartt Corder, ALMA Deputy Director.
“When we first saw this image we were astounded at the spectacular level of detail. HL Tauri is no more than a million years old, yet already its disc appears to be full of forming planets. This one image alone will revolutionise theories of planet formation,” explained Catherine Vlahakis
Most of what we know about planet formation today is based on theory.
Planet-forming disc around young star revealed in unprecedented detail
A team of researchers has discovered evidence that an extrasolar planet may be forming quite far from its star—- about twice the distance Pluto is from our Sun.
Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have found compelling evidence of a planet forming 7.5 billion miles away from its star, a finding that may challenge current theories about planet formation.
A planet 7.5 billion miles from its star should take more than 200 times longer to form than Jupiter did at its distance from the sun because of its much slower orbital speed and the deficiency of material in the disk. Jupiter is 500 million miles from the sun and it formed in about 10 million years.
An alternative planet-formation theory suggests that a piece of the disk becomes gravitationally unstable and collapses on itself. In this scenario, a planet could form more quickly, in just a few thousand years.
Exoplanet formation surprise: Evidence of farthest planet forming from its star
The mystery begins in interstellar space, the vast space between stars. There dwell enormous clouds of molecules, mainly hydrogen, with the mass of thousands or even millions of Suns. These molecular gas clouds condense and give birth to stars.
What's puzzled astrophysicists since the 1970s is their observations that only a small fraction of matter in the clouds becomes a star. The best computer simulations, however, predicted nearly all of a cloud's matter would cool and become a star.
Interstellar Mystery Solved by Supercomputer Simulations
Such discoveries have included the lightweight "super-Jupiter" TrES-4b, a low density giant planet that theoretically shouldn’t exist.
... Exoplanets have already been found orbiting their parent stars at extreme distances varying from less than a million kilometers to more than 100 billion kilometers distant.
Astronomers could soon find squished out exoplanets
Theories have suggested the planet was once dry, inhospitable and inhabitable until icy comets pelted the Earth, leaving water on the surface. But researchers at Ohio State University chased a different hypothesis, one that proposed the planet was initially formed with entire oceans in its interior and has been continuously supplying water to the surface ever since.
Where did the Earth really get its water from?