With only a few exceptions planets moons always have the same side facing the planet.
Except for Saturn’s moon Hyperion, virtually all the moons in our solar system orbit their planets synchronously: their spin rate is the same as their orbital period. This means that the moon always points the same side at its host planet (as our own Moon does—that’s why we never see the lunar farside from Earth). It is the natural state for moons. Hyperion, and now Nix and Hydra, are bizarre deviations from this state, because it is impossible to predict which of their sides will face their host planets and when.
Pluto’s Perplexing Moons | Sky and Telescope
The majority of moons in the solar system are tidally locked to their host planet, like the Moon is to the Earth—we only see one side of the Moon. By examining the Hubble data, researchers were able to determine that Pluto’s four outer moons do not play by the same rules.
“Like good children, our Moon and most others keep one face focused attentively on their parent planet,” said Doug Hamilton, a University of Maryland astronomer and co-author of the study. “What we’ve learned is that Pluto’s moons are more like ornery teenagers who refuse to follow the rules.”
Chaotic orbital interactions keep flipping Pluto’s moons | Ars Technica
The Moon is tidally locked to the Earth, which means that it always shows one face to our planet. In fact, this is the case for most the large moons in the Solar System. What’s the process going on to make this happen? … If you could look at the Moon orbiting the Earth from above, you’d see that it orbits once on its axis exactly as long as it takes to orbit once around our planet. It’s always turning, showing us exactly the same face. What’s it hiding?
The Moon isn’t the only place in the Solar System where this happens. All major moons of Jupiter and Saturn show the same face to their parent. Pluto and Charon are even stranger, the two worlds are locked, facing one another for all eternity.
What is Tidal Locking? | Universe Today
The dwarf planet Pluto has five moons down to a detection limit of about 1 km in diameter. In order of distance from Pluto they are Charon, Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Charon, the largest of the five moons, is mutually tidally locked with Pluto, and is massive enough that Pluto–Charon is sometimes considered a double dwarf planet … Because Pluto always presents the same face towards Charon due to tidal locking, only the Charon-facing hemisphere experiences solar eclipses by Charon.
Moons of Pluto | Wikipedia
Hyperion not tidally locked
Hyperion orbits at a mean distance of 1,481,100 kilometers (920,300 miles) from Saturn in an eccentric orbit. This contributes to variation in the spin or rotation of Hyperion. A stronger effect on Hyperion’s rotation is that it is in resonance with Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, which orbits at 1,221, 850 kilometers (759,200 miles). Thus, the two objects speed up and slow down as they pass each other in a complex set of variations. Because Hyperion is much smaller than Titan, its rotation and orbit are affected vastly more than the larger moon, and Titan apparently keeps the Hyperion orbit eccentric rather than growing more circular over time.
The great distance from Saturn and resonance with Titan has also kept Hyperion from becoming tidally locked facing Saturn. Hyperion rotates roughly every 13 days during its 21-day orbit.
Moons – Hyperion | NASA
In the Saturnian system the small satellite Hyperion moves in an eccentric orbit outside Titan. The equilibrium position is reached at conjunction when Hyperion is at its aposaturnian … The orbital pattern for the 4/3 resonance of Titan-Hyperion in the Saturnian satellite system. Titan librates with an amplitude of 9° about the equilibrium position at a. The orbit of Hyperion is strongly perturbed by Titan.
Titan and Hyperion – ORBIT-ORBIT RESONANCES | NASA
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