Marklund convection is an important process in Plasma Cosmology and for the Electric Universe theory (EU theory).
Marklund convections create interesting results for plasma like Birkeland filaments (Birkeland currents).
Are Marklund convections an essential part of planetary formations in our solar system for both rocky and gas giants? Does it also effect the structure of our Sun?
In my paper in Nature the plasma convects radially inwards, with the normal E x B/B2 velocity, towards the center of a cylindrical flux tube. During this convection inwards, the different chemical constituents of the plasma, each having its specific ionization potential, enter into a progressively cooler region.
The plasma constituents will recombine and become neutral, and thus no longer under the influence of the electromagnetic forcing. The ionization potentials will thus determine where the different species will be deposited, or stopped in their motion.
Göran Marklund quote about Marklund convection | plasma-universe
Marklund convection information
Marklund convection (after Göran Marklund) is a natural plasma convection process that takes place in filamentary currents, that may cause chemical separation. It may occur within a plasma with an associated electric field, that causes convection of ions and electrons inward towards a central twisting filamentary axis. A temperature gradient within the plasma will also cause chemical separation based on different ionization potentials.
The mechanism provides an efficient means to accumulate matter within a plasma. In a partially ionized plasma, electromagnetic forces act on the non-ionized material indirectly through the viscosity between the ionized and non-ionized material.
Marklund convection | plasma-universe
Birkeland current pairs have been shown by both experiment and supercomputer simulations to form an axial sump of plasma, segregated radially by Marklund convection. Marklund convection causes helium to form a diffuse outer layer, followed by a hydrogen layer, then oxygen and nitrogen in the middle layers, and iron, silicon and magnesium in the inner layers. So electric stars should have a core of heavy elements and an upper atmosphere mostly of hydrogen.
Assembling the Solar System | holoscience
When a pinch in a Birkeland current occurs in cosmic space the magnetic flux tubes are not directly observable themselves, but the associated plasma filaments can often be observed by the radiation they emit.”
When several different chemical elements are contained within such a region of compression, they do not mix homogeneously. Rather, they tend to distribute themselves radially according to their ionization potentials. This effect was studied by G.T. Marklund and is now called Marklund convection. While discussing Marklund convection, Peratt also says,
“The most abundant elements of cosmical plasma can be divided into groups of roughly equal ionization potentials as follows: He (24eV); H, O, N (13eV); C, S (11eV); and Fe, Si, Mg (8eV).... These elements can be expected to form hollow cylinders whose radii increase with ionization potential. Helium will make up the most widely distributed outer layer; hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen should form the middle layers, while iron, silicon, and magnesium will make up the inner layers. Interlap between the layers can be expected and, for the case of galaxies, the metal-to-hydrogen ratio should be maximum near the center and decrease outwardly.... Mirabel and Morras (1984) have detected the inflow of neutral hydrogen toward our own galaxy.”
Any time charges are accelerated (as they are in the case of a Birkeland current) “synchrotron” electro-magnetic radiation at various frequencies occurs – typically from microwaves through hard x-rays. Thus, a Birkeland current performs a scavenging effect, gathering and concentrating whatever (neutral or ionized) elements it passes near. The result is analogous to a cosmic coaxial cable transmission line.
Fig. 4. Elements form into concentric cylinders in a Birkeland current. Radii are proportional to their ionization voltage.
Cosmic (Birkeland) Currents | Donald E Scott (PDF)
elements with the lowest ionization potential are brought closest to the axis, and form concentric hollow cylinders whose radii increase with ionization potential ... The drift of ionized matter from the surroundings into the rope means that the rope acts as an ion pump, which evacuates the surroundings. Regions with extremely low densities can be produced in this way
Hannes Alfvén - Marklund convection | plasma-universe
If an element has a high ionization potential, that mean it takes a highter amount of voltage to strip it of its electron; it does NOT mean it is more easily ionized. A high ionization potential means it has a harder time being ionized.
The reverse also applies. If an element has a low ionization potential, it means it is more easily ionized because it takes a low voltage to strip an electron away. So "high" means it can't ionize very quickly and "low" means it can. The hardest element to ionize is helium. That means it has the highest ionization potential.
Ionization Potential | Genesis Science Research
Now, Marklund wrote that the matter in a Birkeland Current is sorted according to their ionization potential. The elements with the LOWEST ionization potential are brought closest to the axis of the current column. The convectional process via the viscosity layer between ionized and non-ionized matter referred to by Perratt et al, was expanded on in Marklund's paper. The elements brought to the axis are usually the heaviest elements.
The intense heat and magnetic pressure in pinches is more than enough to create solid accretion of matter in dusty clouds, particularly when the discharge quenches. Experiments by plasma physicist C J Ransom, for example - found that martian blueberries can be formed in the lab when certain electrical discharges strike layers of hematite and compress them into balls.
Plasmoids seem to form in interstellar clouds in the densest parts of plasma filaments surrounded by dust, and this filamentary form of star formation does seem to be the important method (as the mainstream keeps finding, albeit erroneously attributing to sonic booms). Once the discharge quenches the plasmoid may scatter or become cometary and perhaps start fissioning or ejecting matter which enters into a region of lower current-density. This can possibly account for binary and triple star systems as well.
The ejection of plasmoids from a cosmic electric discharge was also alluded to by Halton Arp when he found out that Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN's) had a strong relationship (in terms of energy and brightness contours) to that of Quasars - as well as apparent visual connections that back up the statistical relationship. Active Galactic Nuclei may well be particularly electrically-stressed plasmoids. Now - the implications of this is that bright QSO's (quasar stellar objects) forming as a result of plasma fissioning should not preclude the likelihood of star-formation or even planetary formation via similar electrical processes.
Magnetic Pinches and Marklund Convection | PersianPaladin
Figure 3 shows the true nature of the filaments inside the molecular cloud. The electric field vector (E) and helical magnetic field configuration (B) are shown. Inward Marklund convection of ions at velocity, V, across a temperature gradient VT is a mechanism for rapid filament formation and chemical separation in cosmic plasma. In consequence, the heavy elements (“metals” in astrophysics-speak) are concentrated on-axis and must therefore constitute the core matter of stars rather than hydrogen!
Stars in an Electric Universe | Wallace W Thornhill (PDF)
Observations of neutral hydrogen (HI) emission profiles produced by gas in the local interstellar medium are found to be characterized by four linewidth regimes. Dominant and pervasive features have widths on average of 5.2, 13, and 31 km/s and a very broad component approximately 50 km/s wide.
A striking coincidence exists between these linewidths and the magnitudes of the critical ionization velocities of the most abundant atomic species in interstellar space: 6 km/s for sodium and calcium, 13 km/s for carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, 34 km/s for helium, and 51 km/s for hydrogen. The data relate to observations near neutral hydrogen structures that are filamentary.
Observation of the CIV Effect in Interstellar Clouds: A Speculation on the Physical Mechanism for Their Existence | A. L. Peratt (link to PDF)
Marklund convection and formation of planets
What is very important in the Plasma Model is something called Marklund Convection. Marklund Convection is the term used for the way plasma filaments will sort elements. The elements that are the most easily ionized (can get electrons stripped off them) end up in the center and the other elements are layered toward the outside so that the hardest ones to ionize are on the outside. The tendency is for the heaviest elements to be in the interior although this is not an inviolable rule.
... The electromagnetic explanation for the structure of the planets is that they were formed as a series of plasma pinches which worked their way in from the outside of a much larger (internally fractured) plasma filament, and that each of the planets then exhibited the effects of Marklund Convection in their layering. The last part to pinch was the innermost, which then lit and became our sun. Marklund Convection, if this model holds, would also predict the relative sizes of the nickel-iron cores of the planets in relation to their place in the solar system. Mercury, being the closest to the center, would have the largest core relative to its size and the cores would then decrease in relative size to the planet the farther out the planet is from the sun.
We hold with the electromagnetic model because it does predict exactly what we see. Above is a comparison of the inner planets with their cores. Obviously, Mercury's core is the largest relative to the size of that tiny planet. The one thing that could be corrected above is that we have recently found that Venus' core is larger than ours, and so somewhat larger than pictured above. In the illustration below, the size of the earth is shown in comparison to the outer planets. It does appear as though the planets themselves demonstrate the effects of Marklund Convection with regard to the size of their iron-nickel cores in relation to the rest of each individual planet.
The result of this type of planet formation is that the planets did not start out as molten masses, but as relatively cool bodies which then heated from their interiors due to the concentration of radioactive materials in their cores. This means that the planets did not start as hot, molten masses, but as relatively cool bodies that heated from the inside. This, in turn, would explain why Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune all indicate they are giving off more heat than they get from the sun.
Solar System Formation | Genesis Science Research