It seems to be a natural consequence of our point of view to assume that the whole of space is filled with electrons and flying ions of all kinds.
We assume each stellar system in evolution throws off electric corpuscles into space. It is not unreasonable therefore, to think that the greater part of the material masses in the universe is found not in the solar systems or nebulae, but in ‘empty’ space.
Kristian Birkeland quote 1913
His most famous works related to the Electric Universe theory is The Norwegian aurora polaris expedition, 1902-1903 – On the cause of magnetic storms and the origin of terrestrial magnetism, by Kr. Birkeland (massive PDF file!) – visit archive.org for full download version options.
Kristian Birkeland biographies by Electric Universe theory websites
Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland (13 December 1867 – 15 June 1917) was a Norwegian scientist who has been called “the first space scientist” and “the father of plasma experiments in the laboratory and space”. He is perhaps most well-known for his scientific work on the aurora using a terrella (a magnetized globe), and as inventor of an electromagnetic cannon, and, a method of electrically producing artificial fertilizer. He also became a full professor of physics at the University of Oslo at the age of 31.
Birkeland also had astrophysical research published on cathode rays, the Zodiacal lights, comets, the Sun and sunspots, the origin of planets and their satellites, the Earth’s magnetism.
Kristian Birkeland | plasma-universe.com
At the turn of the century geophysicists began to be interested in electrical discharges, because it seemed possible that the aurora was an electrical discharge. Anyone who is familiar with electrical discharges in the laboratory and observes a really beautiful aurora cannot avoid noting the similarity between the multi-colored flickering light in the sky and in the laboratory.
Birkeland was the most prominent pioneer. He made his famous terrella experiment in order to investigate this possibility (Birkeland, 1908). Based on his experiments and on extensive observations of aurora in the auroral region, he proposed a current system which is basically the same as is generally accepted today. However, the theory of electric discharges was still in a very primitive state.
When Sydney Chapman began his investigations on magnetic storms and aurora one or two decades later, he proposed a current system [the Chapman and Vestime system (Chapman and Vestine, 1938)] which was located entirely in the ionosphere. His most important argument against Birkeland’s current system was that above the atmosphere there was a vacuum, and hence there could be no electrons or ions which could carry any currents.
Hannes Alfvén in his Double Layers and Circuits in Astrophysics (PDF)
Birkeland was amongst the first to speculate that the Northern Lights were charged particles ejected from the Sun, captured by the Earth’s magnetic field, and directed towards the polar atmosphere. To prove this theory, Birkeland performed his famous ‘Terella’ experiment, where he artificially created the aurora in the laboratory. His theories were initially laughed at, and it is only now in the space age that measurements from satellites are proving Birkeland correct.
Significantly, his approach to science was broad, comprising observation and laboratory experimentation in addition to mathematical modelling. He was not content with a merely theoretical approach, despite having trained as a mathematician.
A Brief History of Plasma – Kristian Birkeland 1867-1917 | plasmacosmology.net
Electromagnetic disturbances (geomagnetic storms) are observed when bright aurorae are seen. In 1903, Birkeland’s Arctic expedition found electric currents from the Aurora Borealis flowing parallel to the auroral formation. Because those electric currents must flow in a circuit, and the auroral glow appeared to result from events in space, he proposed that they flowed down from space at one end of the auroral arc and back out to space at the other.
In 1973, when the magnetometer onboard the U.S. Navy satellite Triad found two gigantic electric current sheets carrying a million amperes or more, one descending from the aurora’s morning side and the other ascending from the evening side, they were named “Birkeland currents,” since it was his research that predicted them.
Birkeland’s polar electric currents are known today as “auroral electrojets” and are connected to electric currents that follow Earth’s geomagnetic field into and away from the Arctic region. They have been called a “new” discovery by NASA scientists who continue to ignore Birkeland’s work. The words “plasma” and “currents” are often used in NASA press releases, but they are usually paired with “impacts,” “collisions,” and “streams.”
Electrodynamic Duo Part Two | thunderbolts TPOD
Kristian Birkeland was a renowned Norwegian scientist and Nobel Prize nominee who set up observatories in the Arctic Circle to study the Aurora Borealis. His story can be read in Lucy Jago’s biography, The Northern Lights. His theory that the aurora is due to ‘charged particle beams’ from the Sun has only recently been confirmed. Birkeland’s approach was largely experimental. He managed to reproduce sunspot behavior in his famous Terrella experiments where he applied external electrical power to a magnetized globe suspended in a near vacuum.
Twinkle, twinkle electric star | holoscience
It was Dr. Alex Dessler in 1967 who discovered the electric currents in space that Birkeland had predicted. He suggested that the transverse magnetic field components found in the Earth’s magnetosphere and auroras indicated electric currents essentially parallel to the magnetic field lines. Dessler called them ‘Birkeland currents,’ a term which is now generally accepted and sometimes generalized to mean all currents flowing parallel to the ambient magnetic field.
The ‘Spiral Galaxy’ at Saturn’s Pole | holoscience
Kristian Birkeland biographies by non EU theory sites
Birkeland proposed in 1908 in his book The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902–1903 that polar electric currents, today referred to as auroral electrojets, were connected to a system of currents that flowed along geomagnetic field lines into and away from the polar region. Such field-aligned currents are known today as Birkeland currents in his honour. He provided a diagram of field-aligned currents in the book, and this diagram is reproduced on the back of the Norwegian 200 kroner banknote in the lower right corner, and his terrella experiment is shown on the front at the left with a portrait of Birkeland on the right. The book on the 1902–1903 expedition contains chapters on magnetic storms on the Earth and their relationship to the Sun, the origin of the Sun itself, Halley’s comet, and the rings of Saturn.
Birkeland’s vision of what are now known as Birkeland currents became the source of a controversy that continued for over half a century, because their existence could not be confirmed from ground-based measurements alone. His theory was disputed and ridiculed at the time as a fringe theory by mainstream scientists
… Birkeland’s theory of the aurora was eventually confirmed, a classic example of a fringe theory, ridiculed by scientists supporting the then mainstream, that has come to be accepted as a mainstream theory.
Kristian Birkeland | wikipedia
Norwegian scientist Kristian Birkeland is known as the person responsible for explaining the natural phenomenon Aurora Borealis in great detail. He accomplished this by inventing two other scientific feats that were ahead of their time – the Birkeland-Eyde process and the electromagnetic cannon.
… To come up with more accurate data, Kristian Birkeland organized a series of expeditions to Norway. He concentrated on the high-latitude regions and compiled magnetic field data through the number of observatories that he and his team established in the entire region covered by the phenomenon. This series of expeditions known as the Norwegian Polar Expedition was completed over the period of 1899 to 1900. From this series a lot of light was shed on the Aurora Borealis phenomenon. Using the magnetic field data they gathered, the polar region’s electric current pattern was finally explained.
Kristian Birkeland | famousscientists.org
More than one hundred years ago Kristian Birkeland (1867–1917) first addressed the question as to why auroras appear overhead when the Earth’s magnetic field is disturbed. He laid foundations for our current understanding of geomagnetism and polar auroras. For the first time cosmic phenomena were scaled and simulated in a laboratory. Birkeland’s terrella experiments were ingenious. Even though the famous Lord Kelvin, in 1892, wrote that no matter passes between the Sun and the Earth, Birkeland’s first auroral theory from 1896 is based on charged particle of solar origin, illustrated by the following quotation: “the auroras are formed by corpuscular rays drawn in from space, and coming from the sun”. Thus, the year 1896 marks the founding of space plasma physics.
Kristian Birkeland: The first space scientist | sciencedirect.com
Olaf Kristian Bernhard Birkeland was born in Oslo, Norway, on December 13, 1867 and died in Tokyo on June 15, 1917. He was appointed professor of physics at The Royal Frederik University in Kristiania, near the end of the 19th century. His life spans a watershed period when insights about electricity and magnetism, codified by Maxwell in the mid-19th century, evolved from theoretical curiosities to become the basis for modern electronic technology as well as our understanding of the geospace environment. His mathematical training provided a superb foundation for developing the first general solution of Maxwell’s equations and energy transfer in 1895, by means of electromagnetic waves. He continued to investigate the properties of electromagnetic waves in conductors and wave propagation through space. From 1895 to 1917 his basic-science research focused on geomagnetic disturbances, auroras, solar-terrestrial relations and cosmology.
Birkeland was gifted with a wonderfully inventive mind that bubbled with ideas and sought to investigate any and all aspects of the physical sciences. His main work regarding auroras and geomagnetic disturbances is summarized in The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903; a 801-page monograph.
Kristian Birkeland | European Space Weather Week
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