Geology is just a theory …

geology is only a theoryGeology is just a theory ... it is not a law, it is not correct, it is just an interpretation of data.

A long-standing fact widely accepted among the scientific community has been recently refuted, which now has major implications on our understanding of how Earth has evolved.

Until recently, most geologists had determined the land connecting North and South America, the Isthmus of Panama, had formed 3.5 million years ago. But new data shows that this geological event, which dramatically changed the world, occurred much earlier. In a comprehensive biological study, researchers have confirmed this new information by showing that plants and animals had been migrating between the continents nearly 30 million years earlier.

'This means the best-dated geological event we ever had is wrong,' said Prosanta Chakrabarty, LSU associate professor in the Department of Biological Sciences and Curator of Ichthyology at the LSU Museum of Natural Science.
Geological game changer

And a good theory should predict and geology should not be so surprised by nearly everything.

Geology theory wrong?

We found that Pluto’s surface displays a wide variety of landforms and terrain ages, as well as substantial albedo, color, and compositional variation. Evidence was also found for a water ice–rich crust, geologically young surface units, tectonic extension, surface volatile ice convection, possible wind streaks, volatile transport, and glacial flow. Pluto’s atmosphere is highly extended, with trace hydrocarbons, a global haze layer, and a surface pressure near 10 microbars. The bulk densities of Pluto and Charon were found to differ by less than 10%, which is consistent with bulk rock contents for the two bodies that are likewise similar. This could imply that both precursor bodies were undifferentiated (or only modestly differentiated) prior to their collision—which would have profound implications for the timing, the duration, and even the mechanism of accretion in the ancestral Kuiper Belt.

Pluto’s large moon Charon displays extensional tectonics and extensive resurfacing, as well as possible evidence for a heterogeneous crustal composition; its north pole displays puzzling dark terrain. The sizes of Pluto’s small satellites Nix and Hydra were measured for the first time, as were their surface reflectivities, which are puzzlingly higher than Charon’s. No new satellites were detected.

The New Horizons encounter revealed that Pluto displays a surprisingly wide variety of geological landforms, including those resulting from glaciological and surface-atmosphere interactions as well as impact, tectonic, possible cryovolcanic, and mass-wasting processes. This suggests that other small planets of the Kuiper Belt, such as Eris, Makemake, and Haumea, could express similarly complex histories that rival those of terrestrial planets. Pluto’s diverse surface geology and long-term activity also raise fundamental questions about how it has remained active many billions of years after its formation.
The Pluto system: Initial results from its exploration by New Horizons

Perhaps other geology theories may have some truths in them? For example the intriguing idea of an expanding Earth instead of plate tectonics in the accepted way.

One hundred years ago, a German explorer and scientist published a work that would revolutionise our understanding of our planet. In The Origin of Continents and Oceans, Alfred Wegener proposed the radical idea that Earth’s continents had, hundreds of millions of years before, formed a vast single land mass that had subsequently broken apart, with those broken pieces eventually drifting to their current locations.

... “At the time, scientists believed continents had been linked by land bridges over which species had spread but which had sunk and disappeared,” says palaeontologist Richard Cifelli, of Oklahoma University. “Wegener dismissed the idea of land bridges and argued instead that the continents had once been united.”

The trouble was that he could provide no mechanism to explain how continents drifted. As a result, his work was derided and ignored for decades with hostility that endured for half a century. David Attenborough recalls asking a geology lecturer at Cambridge in the late 40s why he was not giving lectures about continental drift. “The idea was moonshine, I was informed.”

Proof that Wegener was correct all along was not provided until the 1950s and 60s with the discovery of sea-floor spreading, which causes oceans like the Atlantic to expand. We now know that Earth’s outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle, the rocky inner layer that lies above our planet’s molten core. Some plates slowly move apart, and hot magma wells up through the gaps.
Did the Earth move for you? The man who first answered: ‘Yes’