Author Topic: Biophotonics - light emitting humans (auras) and acupuncture  (Read 48958 times)

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Biophotonics - light emitting humans (auras) and acupuncture

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electrobleme

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Imaging of Ultraweak Spontaneous Photon Emission from Human Body Displaying Diurnal Rhythm

Abstract
The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon emission with an improved highly sensitive imaging system using cryogenic charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. The diurnal changes in photon emission might be linked to changes in energy metabolism.


Masaki Kobayashi1*, Daisuke Kikuchi1, Hitoshi Okamura2,3*
1 Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, Japan, 2 Department of Systems Biology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto, Japan, 3 Department of Brain Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan




Introduction

Bioluminescence, which is weak but visible, is sometimes produced in living organisms, such as fireflies or jellyfish, as the result of specialized enzymatic reactions that require adenosine triphosphate. However, virtually all living organisms emit extremely weak light, spontaneously without external photoexcitation [1]. This biophoton emission is categorized in different phenomena of light emission from bioluminescence, and is believed to be a by-product of biochemical reactions in which excited molecules are produced from bioenergetic processes that involves active oxygen species [1], [2]. Human body is glimmering with light of intensity weaker than 1/1000 times the sensitivity of naked eyes [3], [4]. By using a sensitive charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera with the ability to detect light at the level of a single photon, we succeeded in imaging the spontaneous photon emission from human bodies [3].

Previously, for obtaining an image, it took more than 1 hour of acquisition, which is practically impossible for the analysis of physiologically relevant biophoton emission. By improving the CCD camera and lens system, here we have succeeded in obtaining clear images using a short exposure time, comparable with the analysis of physiological phenomena. Since metabolic rates are known to change in a circadian fashion [5], [6], we investigated the temporal variations of biophoton emission across the day from healthy human body.
Results and Discussion Top

A cooled CCD camera operated at ?120°C with slow scanning mode read-out was used with a specially designed high-throughput lens system. The camera was placed in a light-tight room in complete darkness (schematic illustration of the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1A). Five healthy male volunteers, in their 20?s, were subjected to normal light-dark conditions and allowed to sleep from 0:00–7:00. On the days of photon imaging, volunteers were kept in a room (400 lux) adjacent to the dark room. For imaging purposes, the body surface was wiped and the subject was left 15 minutes in the dark room for dark adaptation, after which the naked subject in sitting position was exposed for 20 minutes to the CCD camera. Measurements were carried out in every 3 hours from 10:00 to 22:00 and continued for 3 days. Just before and after the measurements, the surface body (thermography) and oral temperature were taken. Saliva was also collected after the photon measurements for the analysis of cortisol level as a biomarker of endogenous circadian rhythms. Temporal variation of photon emission intensity was calculated from image data with extraction of the face and body intensity.

Figure 1.A. Schematic illustration of experimental setup. B–F. Images of ultraweak photon emission from human body. B. Image of the subject under light illumination. C. Image at 10:10. D. Image at 13:10. E. Image at 16:10. F. Image at 19:10. G. Image at 22:10 with a calibration bar which indicates the estimated radiation intensity expressed by photon number per unit of time per unit of skin surface. H. Daily rhythm of photon emission from face and body from 5 volunteers. Significant difference from the photon emission at 10:00 AM (n = 15, Mean±SD; **P<0.01, *P<0.05). I. A typical thermographic image of the subject from Fig. 1B–G.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006256.g001

The daily variation of photon emission is shown in Fig. 1B–G. In all images, photon emission intensity from the face was higher than from the body. Moreover, photon emission intensity from the face was not homogeneous: the central area around the mouth and the cheeks was higher than the lateral area and the orbits. Furthermore, the photon emission intensity on the face and upper body appeared to display time-dependent changes. We plotted total photon emission intensity over the body and face against time, averaged across the 5 volunteers (Fig. 1H). Photon emission was weak in the morning, increased in the afternoon and peaked in the late afternoon (ca 16:00) (one way ANOVA, F4,74 = 4.10, P<0.005). These data strongly suggest that there is a diurnal rhythm of photon emission from the human body. To further support this conclusion, immediately following the end of the previous experiment three volunteers were kept awake in a light (400 lux) environment and photon emission was measured at 1:00, 4:00 and 7:00 AM (Supplementary Figure S1). Photon emission formed a peak at late afternoon, then gradually decreased and stayed low at 1:00–7:00 AM in a constantly exposed light condition (400 lux), indicating the diurnal rhythm of photon might be caused by endogenous circadian mechanism.

Ultraweak biophoton emission was completely different from thermographic images showing surface temperature (Fig.1I). High photon emission were detected from the cheeks, followed by the upper neck and the forehead, while high temperature was detected in the supraclavicular lateral neck region, from which photon emission was low. In cheek, the highest level of emission reaches to 3000 photon/s·cm2 at 16:00 which is about double to the value at 10:00.

Next, we examined the correlation of photon emission to other physiological parameters known to show circadian variations. In the subject of Fig.1B–G, we found a temporal decrease of cortisol from morning to evening, in opposite to the increase of photon emission (Fig. 2A). Cortisol concentration shows a clear daily rhythm, peaking in the morning and negatively correlated with photon emission intensity (p<0.002; from 5 volunteers; Fig. 2B). Body temperature, another parameter showing daily rhythms peaking at night, does not show significant correlation with photon emission (Supplementary Figure S2).
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Figure 2.A. Comparison of temporal variation of biophoton emission intensity and cortisol concentration in saliva observed through 3 days. Shaded regions indicate sleeping time. The subject is the one of Fig. 1B–G. B. Daily change of cortisol secretion (left; n = 15, Mean±SD) and its correlation with photon emission intensity (right). A negative correlation was found (r = ?0.3074, P<0.002).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006256.g002

The photon emission mechanism is thought to originate from the generation of free radicals in energy metabolic processes. The spectra of photon emission detected from the palm skin span from 500 to 700 nm, with primary and secondary emission peaks at 630–670 nm and 520–580 nm, respectively [7]. Free radicals subsequently react with lipid or protein, generating electronically excited species as byproducts [1]. These excited molecules, such as carbonyl group in excited triplet state from lipid peroxidation or proteins including excited tyrosine or tryptophan, can further react with fluorophores through energy transfer and lead to photon emission [8], [9]. Higher level photon emission on facial skin might be caused by differences in the content of melanin fluorophores [10] between facial and thoracic skin.

No significant correlation of daily photon intensity and temperature was found, and the dissimilarity between photon emission and thermal image suggest that the diurnal rhythm of photon emission is not a consequence of a change of temperature or microcirculation. Moreover, a clear negative correlation of temporal changes of photon emission and cortisol might suggest that the diurnal rhythm of photon emission reflects the changes of cellular metabolic processes under the control of the circadian clock. Circadian rhythms are generated in most cells throughout the body, driven by clock genes interlocked in transcription/translation feedback loops [11], [12]. Recent advances of chronobiology have revealed that the redox state of the cells regulates circadian gene expression, indicating the importance of metabolic cues for clock oscillations [6], [13], [14]. Indeed, glucose utilization, accompanied by oxygen consumption, shows robust rhythms in the main mammalian circadian center [5]. By the regulation of cellular respiratory chain producing reactive oxygen species, which in turns react with molecules including proteins, lipids and fluorophores, whose excited states emit biophotons [1], [8], [9], [10], the human body glitters to the rhythm of the circadian clock.

Materials and Methods

CCD camera system

Spectral Instruments 600 series CCD camera system (Spectral Instruments, Inc., AZ, USA) was used. Mounted CCD42-40 (e2v technologies Ltd., Essex, UK), which is a back-illuminated, full-frame operation CCD with a 2048×2048 pixel resolution and 13.5×13.5 µm pixel size. The camera system is equipped with a cooling head to maintain the CCD at ?120°C using a closed-cycle mechanical cryogenic unit. Under these conditions, quantum efficiency is 75% at the peak wavelength. Dark current is 0.65 electron/pixel/h and readout noise in the slow scanning mode is less than 4.5 electron rms. The CCD camera head has a specially designed lens system, which is designed to maximize the light collection efficiency (numerical aperture (NA) of the lens system on the detector side is 0.5 and the number of lenses is restricted 7 pieces). Magnification of the lens system is 1/20 and the light collection efficiency to the surface of the subject is 1.0×10?3. In this experiment, the CCD was operated in the 8×8 binning mode, and the actual pixel number was 256×256. Taking into account the detection limit, which is determined by dark current and readout noise of the CCD, as well as light collection efficiency, the minimum detectable number of photons on each pixel is estimated ca 100 photon/s/cm2 on the surface of the subject under the measurement condition.


Measurement procedure

All study participants were healthy males in their 20?s without any skin diseases or oral medications. The average time of sleep onset was 23:30 hours (range, 23:00 to 01:00 hours) and that for awakening was 06:15 hours (range, 06:00 to 07:00 hours). No attempt was made to synchronize the sleeping habits of the study participants before the study. From one week before the experiments, subjects were under controlled conditions to maintain regular sleeping hours. Subjects were not allowed to use cosmetics including aftershave lotion. Volunteers had lunch at 12:30 hours and dinner at 18:30 hours. Snacks and cold drinks were allowed between meals, at the study participant's discretion. During body imaging, participants were naked from the waist up. After a slight wipe of the body with lukewarm water, one by one the subjects were invited in the darkroom and where a relax chair was provided. Before photon emission measurements, the subjects were left 15 minutes in the darkroom for dark adaptation. During the dark adaptation, a thermograph to check the surface temperature of the body and a picture of the subject under weak light illumination for focusing are taken. Biophoton emission measurements are taken continuously for 20 minutes by the CCD camera. During measurements, comfortable music was provided for relaxation but sleep was not allowed. At the end of the measurements, thermograph and picture under weak illumination are taken again, together with the oral temperature. Photon emission intensity from the face and upper body was calculated from imaging data. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVAs followed by Bonferroni/Dunn's multiple comparisons were applied. The above experiments are approved by the Ethical Committee of Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine.


Supporting Information

Figure S1.Photon emission in sleep deprived volunteers. Three volunteers kept in constant light environment (400 lux) without sleep, and photon counts were measured at 25:00 (1:00AM), 28:00 (4:00AM) and 31:00 (7:00AM) (red dots). Note the levels of photon emissions at these time points are much lower than evening value. The values from 10:00–22:00 are adopted from Figure 1H (n = 15, Mean±SD).

Figure S2.Daily change of oral temperature (left; n = 15, Mean±SD) (a), and its correlation to photon emission intensity (b). There was no significant correlation between photon emission and oral temperature (r = 0.1630, p = 0.1682).


Acknowledgments

We thank Drs. M. Fustin and M. Okawa for critical reading of the manuscript.
Author Contributions Top

Conceived and designed the experiments: MK HO. Performed the experiments: MK DK HO. Analyzed the data: MK DK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MK. Wrote the paper: MK HO.


References

   1. Popp FA, et al. (1988) ‘Biophoton emission’ multi-author review. Experientia 44: 543–600. Find this article online
   2. Kobayashi M, et al. (1999) In vivo imaging of spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from a rat's brain correlated with cerebral energy metabolism and oxidative stress. Neurosci Res 34: 103–113.
   3. Kobayashi M (2003) Spontaneous ultraweak photon emission of living organisms—biophotons—phenomena and detection techniques for extracting biological information. Trends in Photohchem. Photobiol 10: 111–135. Find this article online
   4. Sauermann G, Mei WP, Hoppe U, Stab F (1999) Ultraweak photon emission of human skin in vivo: influence of topically applied antioxidants on human skin. Methods Enzymol 300: 419–428.
   5. Schwartz WJ, Gainer H (1977) Suprachiasmatic nucleus: use of 14C-labeled deoxyglucose uptake as a functional marker. Science 97: 89–91. Find this article online
   6. Merrow M, Roenneberg T (2001) Circadian clocks: running on redox. Cell 106: 141–143.
   7. Usa M (1991) Physiological state and biophoton emission of living body. In: Inaba H, editor. Final report on Inaba Biophoton Project: Res. Develop. Corp. Japan. pp. 239–277. (in Japanese).
   8. Cadenas E (1984) Biological Chemiluminescence. Photochem Photobiol 40: 823–830.
   9. Nakano M (1989) Low-level chemiluminescence during lipid peroxidations and enzymatic reaction. J Biolum Chemilum 4: 231–240.
  10. Teuchner K, et al. (1999) Femtosecond two-photon excited fluorescence of melanin. Photochem Photobiol 70: 146–151.
  11. Okamura H (2004) Clock genes in cell clocks: roles, actions, and mysteries. J. Biol. Rhythms 19: 388–399.
  12. Yamaguchi S, Isejima H, Matsuo T, Okura R, Yagita K, et al. (2003) Synchronization of cellular clocks in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Science 302: 1408–1412.
  13. Schibler U, Rippeyger JA, Brown SA (2001) Circadian rhythms. Chronobiology–reducing time. Science 293: 437–438.
  14. Reick M, Garcia JA, Dudley C, McKnight SL (2001) NPAS2: an analog of clock operative in the mammalian forebrain. Science 293: 506–510.

Citation: Kobayashi M, Kikuchi D, Okamura H (2009) Imaging of Ultraweak Spontaneous Photon Emission from Human Body Displaying Diurnal Rhythm. PLoS ONE 4(7): e6256. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006256

Editor: Joseph Najbauer, City of Hope Medical Center, United States of America

Received: March 4, 2009; Accepted: June 11, 2009; Published: July 16, 2009

* E-mail: masaki@tohtech.ac.jp (MK); okamurah@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp (HO)


Imaging of Ultraweak Spontaneous Photon Emission from Human Body Displaying Diurnal Rhythm - The article in "PLoS one" online peer reviewed site



electrobleme

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Biophotonics - Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century


Quote
Particularly interesting was the observation that frequently the bilateral emission from hands was higher in summer than in other parts of the year.







Google Books - Biophotonics - Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century - By Xun Shen, Roeland van Wijk
Not all the chapters are shown and part 2 is not there!






electrobleme

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Acupunctures Skin Impedance studies
« Reply #3 on: July 24, 2009, 18:26:31 »
This Forum DIScussion has a number of links relating to acupuncture and Biophotonics, both for and against.



The following article is obviously biased for acupuncture as it is written for naturalnews.com but the scientific reports it quotes and links to should be as neutral as scientists can be. They are not all Biophotonics but are related to electricity and energy fields/frequency.

Quote
Studies of Skin Impedance

Having established a healthy skepticism for the conclusions of any one study, it is commonly the case that when overwhelming amounts of scientific investigations point to a similar result, that result is eventually accepted as 'truth' -- at least in part.

For acupuncture, it has been overwhelmingly shown that skin impedance (the skin's resistance to electrical current) is lower on the acupoints, in other words, the points on the body that correspond to the TCM meridian system conduct electricity better than other points.

Let us review a short cross-section of some of the findings.


The China Academy of TCM in Beijing conducted an experiment which appeared in a 1999 issue of the Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research journal where a specific point on the pericardium meridian was found to have consistently lower impedance than other non-acupoints
The influence of acupuncture on the impedance measured by four electrodes on meridians. - Dept. of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing


In 2005, the American Journal of Chinese Medicine published a study demonstrating higher conductivity between two acupoints than between an acupoint and a non-acupoint. The results clearly show lower impedance on the path of the traditional TCM meridians (Lee MS, Jeong SY, Lee YH, Jeong DM, Eo, Ko)


Similar results were discovered in another 2005 study conducted at the Department of Internal Medicine at Sheba Medical Center in Tel Hashomer, Israel, and published in The Israel Medical Association Journal (IMAJ). This study took an important step further by observing how the amount of impedance found at an acupoint can serve to diagnose problems with the corresponding internal organ (Zimlichman, Lahad, Aron-Maor, Kanevsky and Shoenfeld)
Department of Internal Medicine at Sheba Medical Center, Israel


A 2006 study from the Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro in Mexico was published in the Complementary Therapies in Medicine journal and also found lower electrical impedance on acupoints. This study also demonstrates how common illnesses might be diagnosed by measuring the impedance factor on acupoints (Prokhorov, Prokhorova, González-Hernández, Kovalenko, Llamas, Moctezuma and Romero)
In vivo dc and ac measurements at acupuncture points in healthy and unhealthy people


In 2007, the peer-reviewed medical journal Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) published a study from the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Graduate Institute, in which lower skin impedance was systematically found on acupoints (Colbert, Yun, Larsen, Edinger, Gregory and Thong)
Skin Impedance Measurements for Acupuncture Research: Development of a Continuous Recording System


The studies on this subject number in the hundreds and the case seems overwhelming -- flesh at the acupoints conducts electricity better than non-acupoints. But what does that mean?

Since acupuncture follows the TCM meridian system, a theory which contends that bio-electricity (electric phenomena occurring in living organisms) has a tendency to follow certain paths in the body, scientific evidence of low skin impedance (higher electrical conductivity) on the points along the meridians seems to fit with TCM theory.
Acupuncture and Its Slow Acceptance in Mainstream Science Circles  - Studies of Skin Impedance - naturalnews.com



« Last Edit: July 24, 2009, 20:26:38 by electrobleme »

electrobleme

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Acupunctures meridians
« Reply #4 on: July 24, 2009, 19:12:14 »



Quote
The Meridians

There is a lot of controversy on the existence of the TCM meridians. At the root of the controversy is the old adage "seeing is believing." Conventional medical practices are mostly concerned with what can be detected physically, a practice that is most likely destined to change. The human body, however, is a bit more complicated than its physicalities simply because we are not machines, we are living beings. Although conventional medicine produces results, it does so by reducing humans to their constituent parts. Medical science must continue to move forward and embrace its own short comings so that it can better serve its purpose.

Many experiments have been conducted to attempt to unravel the mysteries of the meridians.

One long-running French study, published as an editorial in a 1992 issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine (Vernejoule, Albarede, Darras) (9) shows a lot of promise in making the meridians 'visible'. In the study, the subject's limbs were injected with minute amounts of radioactive tracers so that the material could be detected within the body using computerized scintillation cameras. What was found was quite astonishing
The Journal of Nuclear Medicine (pdf)

When the subjects were injected in their blood or lymphatic vessels, the material was swept away quite quickly and in only one direction -- the direction of the flow of blood or lymph. Injection of the radioactive substance on non-vessel points and non-acupoints produced very little outward movement of the particles within a time-frame of a few minutes. Injection on acupuncture points showed the exact same thing as non-acupoints, but only for about 95% of the material. The remaining 5% was shown to travel either up or down the limbs along paths that closely correspond with the TCM meridian theory. The movement did not correspond with the movement or direction of the blood and lymph vessels. The material often went in opposite directions (and in some cases in both directions) of the vessels and also travelled much slower than what is expected from the movement of the vessels. The end conclusion was that there is some other mechanism at work within the body that, within the scope of this study, corresponds to TCM theory.


In 2005, similar findings were published in The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine when three doctors (Schlebusch, Maric-Oehler, Popp) (10) used infrared imaging to capture the results of light acupuncture stimulation on human bodies. The resulting images showed a clear connection to the traditional TCM meridian theory
Biophotonics in the Infrared Spectral Range Reveal Acupuncture Meridian Structure of the Body


The American Journal of Chinese Medicine published a 2007 study (Yang, Xie, Hu, Chen, Li) (Appearance of human meridian-like structure and acupoints and its time correlation by infrared thermal imaging.) where "meridian-like" structures were observed in the bodies of subjects also using infrared thermal imaging, that is, by detecting the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum within the body. A similar study, published in the same journal and year (Yang, Xie, Liu, Li, Guo) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17963315) also demonstrates the existence of meridians using red laser stimulation of acupoints and their subsequent emittance of light.

A 2008 study published in The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Li, Yang, Chen, Xu, Wang, Wang, Tong, Wang) Visualized Regional Hypodermic Migration Channels of Interstitial Fluid in Human Beings: Are These Ancient Meridians? confirms these findings using an MRI scanner. A group of doctors from the Cardiology Division of Beijing Hospital in Beijing, China, injected subjects with active tracers at acupoints and used MRI scans to record paths that closely correlate with the traditional TCM meridians.


Although there are many theories, the actual mechanism of the meridians is not fully understood. What is understood and repeatedly demonstrated is that there is some structure in the body that does not conform to any of the known structures, such as blood or lymph vessels, that closely corresponds to the traditional Chinese meridian theory.
Acupuncture and Its Slow Acceptance in Mainstream Science Circles  - The Meridians - naturalnews.com
« Last Edit: July 24, 2009, 20:27:16 by electrobleme »

electrobleme

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Are humans really beings of light?
« Reply #5 on: April 28, 2010, 06:08:44 »

Is DNA the next internet? Are humans really beings of light?


This is an immense article. its either correct,has a lot right or mostly complete rubbish!

You need to read the original article as its got lots of images and makes more sense but i have copied it here as its so good.


Quote
Are humans really beings of light?

Dan Eden for viewzone.com

I get lots of suggestions for stories, and I really appreciate them. But some of them are too good to be true. An example of this was a story of a giant human skeleton -- maybe 40 feet tall -- that was discovered by a Russian archaeological team. The story had photos and links accompanying it and looked promising. But when the links were researched they went in a circle. Each link used the other link as the source. Finally the elements of the photos turned up and we recognized a good Photoshop job had fooled everyone.

I had this same experience this week when I was sent an article where a Russian (again) scientist, Pjotr Garjajev, had managed to intercept communication from a DNA molecule in the form of ultraviolet photons -- light! What's more, he claimed to have captured this communication from one organism (a frog embryo) with a laser beam and then transmitted it to another organisms DNA (a salamander embryo), causing the latter embryo to develop into a frog!

But this was just the beginning.

Dr. Garjajev claims that this communication is not something that happens only inside the individual cells or between one cell and another. He claims organisms use this "light" to "talk" to other organisms and suggested that this could explain telepathy and ESP. It was like human beings already had their own wireless internet based on our DNA. Wow!

I tried to find a scientific journal that had this experiment. All I could find were blogs and other websites that carried the same story, word for word, without any references. That is until I stumbled on the work of Fritz-Albert Popp
. Then everything I had