Author Topic: Astronomicalgate - Is that a Fact or Faction?  (Read 57928 times)

electrobleme

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Enceladus model - a model of Fact or Faction !
« Reply #15 on: January 14, 2010, 02:27:15 »

mathematical models gone mad and what are the odds?

south pole amazingly young (or old)....immense amounts of heat released for a frozen planet (x3 that global warming Earth could produce)...their calculations (based on theories) say it can not have happened continuously...model based on earth (?) and they guessed a slightly important bit... "Calculations told scientists it would be impossible for Enceladus to have continually produced heat and gas at this rate."
The last paragraph of the article is awesome. Fact or Faction?

"These tumultuous periods are rare and Cassini happens to have been watching the moon during one of these special epochs." We have not been observing Enceladus for very long so how do we know? Apart from a model that will prove to be very wrong. The same model (or a modified version of the previous models) that predicted zero of the effects we have witnessed..

"Heavily cratered plains in the northern part of the moon appear to be as old as 4.2 billion years, while a region near the equator known as Sarandib Planitia is between 170 million and 3.7 billion years old. The south polar area, however, appears to be less than 100 million years old, possibly as young as 500,000 years." Thats narrowed it down then. Anything else they predict is not a guess but based on malleable or strong facts and also very cold facts.

But don't worry that nothing that was predicted or has been observed was in any previous model because "This idea assembles the pieces of the puzzle".


Quote
As The Crust Turns: Cassini Data Show Enceladus in Motion

Blobs of warm ice that periodically rise to the surface and churn the icy crust on Saturn's moon Enceladus explain the quirky heat behavior and intriguing surface of the moon's south polar region, according to a new paper using data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

"Cassini appears to have caught Enceladus in the middle of a burp," said Francis Nimmo, a planetary scientist at the University of California Santa Cruz and a co-author of the new paper in Nature Geoscience. "These tumultuous periods are rare and Cassini happens to have been watching the moon during one of these special epochs."

The south polar region captivates scientists because it hosts the fissures known as "tiger stripes" that spray water vapor and other particles out from the moon. While the latest paper, released on Jan. 10, doesn't link the churning and resurfacing directly to the formation of fissures and jets, it does fill in some of the blanks in the region's history.

"This episodic model helps to solve one of the most perplexing mysteries of Enceladus," said Bob Pappalardo, Cassini project scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., of the research done by his colleagues. "Why is the south polar surface so young? How could this amount of heat be pumped out at the moon's south pole? This idea assembles the pieces of the puzzle."

About four years ago, Cassini's composite infrared spectrometer instrument detected a heat flow in the south polar region of at least 6 gigawatts, the equivalent of at least a dozen electric power plants. This is at least three times as much heat as an average region of Earth of similar area would produce, despite Enceladus' small size. The region was also later found by Cassini's ion and neutral mass spectrometer instrument to be swiftly expelling argon, which comes from rocks decaying radioactively and has a well-known rate of decay.

Calculations told scientists it would be impossible for Enceladus to have continually produced heat and gas at this rate. Tidal movement – the pull and push from Saturn as Enceladus moves around the planet – cannot explain the release of so much energy.

The surface ages of different regions of Enceladus also show great diversity. Heavily cratered plains in the northern part of the moon appear to be as old as 4.2 billion years, while a region near the equator known as Sarandib Planitia is between 170 million and 3.7 billion years old. The south polar area, however, appears to be less than 100 million years old, possibly as young as 500,000 years.

Craig O'Neill of Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia, and Nimmo, who was partially funded by the NASA Outer Planets Research program, adapted a model that O'Neill had developed for the convection of Earth's crust. For Enceladus, which has a surface completely covered in cold ice that is fractured by the tug of Saturn's gravitational pull, the scientists stiffened up the crust. They picked a strength somewhere between that of the malleable tectonic plates on Earth and the rigid plates of Venus, which are so strong, it appears they never get sucked down into the interior.

Their model showed that heat building up from the interior of Enceladus could be released in episodic bubbles of warm, light ice rising to the surface, akin to the rising blobs of heated wax in a lava lamp. The rise of the warm bubbles would send cold, heavier ice down into the interior. (Warm is, of course, relative. Nimmo said the bubbles are probably just below freezing, which is 273 degrees Kelvin or 32 degrees Farenheit, whereas the surface is a frigid 80 degrees Kelvin or -316 degrees Farenheit.)

The model fits the activity on Enceladus when the churning and resurfacing periods are assumed to last about 10 million years, and the quiet periods, when the surface ice is undisturbed, last about 100 million to two billion years. Their model suggests the active periods have occurred only 1 to 10 percent of the time that Enceladus has existed and have recycled 10 to 40 percent of the surface. The active area around Enceladus's south pole is about 10 percent of its surface.
As The Crust Turns: Cassini Data Show Enceladus in Motion | nasa.gov

« Last Edit: January 14, 2010, 02:31:05 by electrobleme »

electrobleme

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New Model Army - Scientists completely astonished it worked
« Reply #16 on: January 14, 2010, 02:51:25 »

Scientists completely astonished model worked


Is that because they know that all the Dark Stuff, their theories and the old models are all bollox?

"The 'Lambda Cold Dark Matter' theory of the universe. This theory suggests that about 72 percent of the cosmos is made of up a mysterious force called dark energy, while another 23 percent is composed of an invisible type of matter called dark matter. That leaves only 4 percent of the universe made of normal, visible matter, including all the stars and planets that we see."
Do you believe that?

So everything based on the old models will now be changed/updated?


Quote
Mystery Behind Galaxy Shapes Solved

Galaxies come in many shapes and sizes, but until recently astronomers have been at a loss to explain why.

Now scientists have used dark matter theory to predict the menagerie of galaxies found in the universe. Their new model reproduces 13 billion years' worth of cosmic evolution, resulting in a surprisingly accurate tally of the different kinds of galaxies we see.

"We were completely astonished that our model predicted both the abundance and diversity of galaxy types so precisely," said researcher Nick Devereux of Embry-Riddle University in Arizona.

American astronomer Edwin Hubble first developed a classification system in the 1930s, known as the Hubble Sequence, which divides galaxies into two main types: spirals, and ellipticals.

Elliptical galaxies look like eggs of light — a central, solid nest of stars. Spirals, on the other hand, are the stereotypical swirling galaxies that many people think of, and include our own Milky Way and our closest neighbor, Andromeda. Spiral galaxies come in two kinds — with and without a bar of thick material in the center, from which the spiral arms wind out. (The Milky Way is a barred spiral.)

Researchers created a new supercomputer model, based on observational data and the "Lambda Cold Dark Matter" theory of the universe. This theory suggests that about 72 percent of the cosmos is made of up a mysterious force called dark energy, while another 23 percent is composed of an invisible type of matter called dark matter. That leaves only 4 percent of the universe made of normal, visible matter, including all the stars and planets that we see.

The new supercomputer model was able to predict roughly the right relative numbers of spirals and ellipticals that exist today.

"It really boosts my confidence in the model," said astronomer Andrew Benson of Caltech, a co-researcher in the study.

The researchers said the inclusion of dark matter is likely crucial to their results, because theory predicts that galaxies sit inside larger spheres, called halos, of the invisible stuff. The behavior of a galaxy's dark matter halo could affect its evolution and help determine whether it becomes a spiral or an elliptical, they added.

"These new findings set a clear direction for future research," Devereux said. "Our goal now is to compare the model predictions with observations of more distant galaxies seen in images obtained with the Hubble [Space Telescope] and those of the soon-to-be-launched James Webb Space Telescope."
Mystery Behind Galaxy Shapes Solved | space.com


electrobleme

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M94 spiral galaxy - back to the drawing board?
« Reply #17 on: January 19, 2010, 21:06:28 »

M94 Galaxy - not what was expected


M94 spirals galaxy in the Canes Venatici constellation

Back to the drawing board or just carry on with the theory?

Quote
An international team of astrophysicists based at the Blackbird Observatory, New Mexico, spent three years looking at M94 – which is located 15 million light-years away – for evidence of the spirals.

The galaxy, which was first discovered in 1781, is a popular target for astronomers and lies in the northern constellation of the hunting dogs, Canes Venatici.

Until recently it was widely believed that the galaxy’s inner spiral region was surrounded by a faint, broad ring of stars in an oval shape.

However, the new image clearly shows spiral arms sweeping across the outskirts of the galaxy.

The team, which includes scientists from the universities of Cardiff and Cambridge, used ultraviolet and infared technologies to get an enhanced view of M94.

In addition to the spiral arms, they also found evidence that the outer disk is actively engaged in star formation.

Background galaxies beyond the outer arms are also visible in the image, while the three bright stars in the foreground are part of our own Milky Way galaxy.
Astronomers discover new depths to neighbouring island universe M94 | telegraph.co.uk


electrobleme

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Science/astronomers wet dreams

I am not saying that nothing can not move faster than light, in fact i dont see why things can't travel faster than the speed of light in an Electric Universe. Even nearly instantly across vast distances. Somehow in the gravityVerse the strange force that we do not know 100% what it is, we know what it does, acts on everything at the same time.

Read the quote below and think about what they are saying, what it means to every model/idea/theory. Is everything scientists/astronomers say all made up? What in this article is actual Fact not Faction?


Quote
Cosmic Currents May Move Faster Than Light
While nothing with mass can move faster than the speed of light, scientists now think some weird, faster-than-light currents may be the powerhouse for fast-spinning stars.

The idea may sound heretical to one of most deeply held tenets in physics, which states that the speed of light is the ultimate speed limit.

But the new proposal squeaks by on a loophole in that rule, which insists only that no mass or information exceeds the speed limit.

In this case, a faster-than-light current would pass through certain rapidly spinning stars. This would cause positively charged atoms in the star to move in one direction and negatively charged atoms would move in another. Each individual particle would move slower than the speed of light, but the wave of movement would pass through the star at a rate more rapid than light speed.

"No laws of physics were broken or harmed in this production," said researcher John Singleton of Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, N. M. "This is not science fiction; it's real."

Singleton and his colleague Andrea Schmidt, also of Los Alamos, proposed this process to explain how certain mysterious stars called pulsars shine. These stars are very dense and rapidly spinning, and emit a beam of light like a lighthouse. Exactly how pulsars do this has been a mystery.

The researchers think that pulsars' rotating magnetic fields create this current, which pushes the charged particles off in different directions, resulting in a focused burst of light.

"We think we can explain virtually all observational data using this method," Singleton said.

Nonetheless, it's a somewhat radical idea, so the scientists aren't expecting everyone to agree with them immediately.

"This essentially is a completely new approach to pulsars, so will be treated with a great deal of hostility until it settles in," Singleton said.

He and Schmidt presented their research this month at the 215th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Washington, D.C.
Cosmic Currents May Move Faster Than Light

electrobleme

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Sand Dunes size on Mars puzzle - mystery "solved" by a maths model?
« Reply #19 on: February 12, 2010, 18:03:20 »

Mystery cant be solved in real life or by standard models so keep adjusting math models

The title says "Martian Dune Mystery Solved by Bouncing Sand Grains" and at the end of the article it quotes “This study is very welcome, very informative,” Sullivan says. “The results go a long way toward explaining several mysteries.”

But what has been solved in real life? this is an adopted mathematical model based on Earth. Basically what they predicted using the old standard models did not work or explain the Dunes on Mars. So they adjust models based on earth until the mathematical model (not real life) gives and answer close to what they were expecting/wanting it to say. Then it is proof.

Nothing has been solved or proved apart from that scientists predictions/models/theories are constantly wrong. A good theory/model predicts therefore the standard theories and models are wrong.

Quote
Martian Dune Mystery Solved by Bouncing Sand Grains

That’s the conclusion of a new study that finds sand can move on Mars without much windy encouragement.

Mars’ sandy surface has clearly been shaped by wind. Its characteristic dunes and ripples are the kind formed by sand particles taking short wind-borne hops, a process called saltation.

But atmospheric simulations and landers’ direct measurements of wind speed have found that the Martian wind hardly ever blows hard enough to kick sand grains off the ground in the first place.

The new paper, to appear in an upcoming Physical Review Letters, suggests a solution to this paradox: a kind of billiard-ball effect in which one sand particle knocks the next one into motion. “It’s much easier to keep this process going than it is to start it in the first place,” says study author Jasper Kok, an atmospheric physicist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo., who did most of this research while at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. “It’s like when you ride a bike: It costs a lot of exertion to get it going, but once you’re going it’s easier to keep going.”

Kok modified a numerical model, previously applied to geological processes on Earth, to include Martian gravity and atmospheric conditions. Unlike in other models, Kok simulated a process called splashing, in which a flying sand particle knocks at least one new grain into the air as it smacks into the ground.

“That’s hard to study in a wind tunnel,” notes planetary scientist Robert Sullivan of Cornell University. The study “goes numerically where we have a hard time going with wind tunnel experiments,” he says.

The way sand grains knock each other around turns out to make all the difference, Kok says. Because Martian gravity and air density are so much lower than Earth’s, a small kick from the wind sends sand particles on Mars flying much higher, up to a meter off the ground.

“It’s like playing golf on the moon,” Kok says. Particles get caught in stronger winds as they rise, causing them to pick up speed and ultimately slam into the ground, where they kick up more particles and start the cycle over. “This splashing process is really efficient,” Kok says. “It can keep saltation, or sand blowing, going on Mars at relatively low wind speeds.” These jumping sand grains can create ripples over time even without high sustained winds, he says.

The finding could help solve other puzzles in the Martian landscape. Earlier models predicted that crescent-shaped sand dunes called barchan dunes should grow to at least 500 meters long — but many are only 100 meters. And the Mars rover Opportunity has found sand ripples made up of particles only 100 micrometers in diameter, so small that scientists had expected them to stay aloft once kicked up. The new model could explain both riddles by showing that splashing can keep particles moving at low wind speeds. Slow-moving sand grains don’t travel far and therefore make short dunes, but even tiny particles can get pushed into ripples, Kok says.

“This study is very welcome, very informative,” Sullivan says. “The results go a long way toward explaining several mysteries.”
Martian Dune Mystery Solved by Bouncing Sand Grains| wired.com



electrobleme

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The Standard Model and Higgs boson variations?
« Reply #20 on: June 15, 2010, 07:42:44 »


Quote
There may be multiple versions of the elusive "God particle" - or Higgs boson - according to a new study.

Finding the Higgs is the primary aim of the £6bn ($10bn) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment near Geneva.

But recent results from the LHC's US rival suggest physicists could be hunting five particles, not one.

The data may point to new laws of physics beyond the current accepted theory - known as the Standard Model.

The Higgs boson's nickname comes from its importance to the Standard Model; it is the sub-atomic particle which explains why all other particles have mass.

However, despite decades trying, no one, so far, has detected it.

The idea of multiple Higgs bosons has emerged from results gathered by the DZero experiment at the Tevatron particle accelerator, operated by Fermilab in Illinois, US.

DZero is designed to shed light on why the world around us is composed of normal matter and not its shadowy opposite: anti-matter.

Researchers working on the experiment observed collisions of protons and anti-protons in the Tevatron.

The collisions produced pairs of matter particles slightly more often than they yielded anti-matter particles.

The results showed a 1% difference in the production of pairs of muon (matter) particles and pairs of anti-muons (anti-matter particles) in these high-energy collisions.

Physicists had already seen such differences - known as "CP violation", but these effects were small compared to those seen by the DZero experiment.

The DZero results showed much more significant "asymmetry" of matter and anti-matter - beyond what could be explained by the Standard Model.
US experiment hints at 'multiple God particles' | news.bbc.co.uk

electrobleme

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dark energy and dark matter may not exist say scientists?
« Reply #21 on: June 16, 2010, 06:32:04 »


dark energy and dark matter may not exist say scientists?


dark energy and dark matter may not exist say scientists? thats no way to earn a nobel prize. interesting that they may be able to prove that something that cant be directly measured or obsvered, much like god, may not exist. whatever next? black holes are not black and shoot jets out at near light speed? the sun and the earth connect "magnetically" every few minutes in this oh so gravity universe of ours? that the nuclear sun has an 11 and 23 year year cycle?


Quote
Dark energy may not exist in space, scientists claim

Dark matter and energy, the mysterious forces thought to make up 96 per cent of the universe, may not exist according to a groundbreaking study.

British scientists have claimed that the method used to calculate the make-up of the universe may be wrong.

The universe as we know it – formed of recognisable components such as planets, stars, asteroids and gas - accounts for just four per cent of the cosmos, according to the decades old Standard Model.

The rest is thought to be made up of mysterious dark matter and dark energy. This permeates space and powers the expansion of the universe.

But physicists at Durham University now claim the calculations on which the Standard Model is based could be fatally flawed.

This raises the possibility that the “dark side” of the cosmos does not exist, which in turn could mean that the universe is expanding less quickly than previously thought.

Dr Robert Massey of the Royal Astronomical Society, which published the findings, said: “This would challenge greatly our assumptions about the long term future of the universe, because the assumption at the moment is that the universe is expanding and if it isn’t that would be a huge shock.

“It could even mean that the expansion of the universe is slowing down and could grind to a halt.”

A new analysis of measurements taken by NASA of Big Bang heat radiation in 2001 showed that the heat waves may be far smaller than previously thought.

When the measurements were first taken in 2001 the size of the ripples in the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation led scientists to conclude that the cosmos is made up of four percent "normal" matter, 22 percent "dark" or invisible matter and 74 percent "dark" energy.

But scientists now claim that the waves of radiation which were previously measured at about twice the size of the full moon may in fact be less than half that size.

Professor Tom Shanks, who led the research, said: “CMB observations are a powerful tool for cosmology and it is vital to check for systematic effects. If our results prove correct then it will become less likely that dark energy and exotic matter particles dominate the universe. So the evidence that the universe has a dark side will weaken.”
Dark energy may not exist in space, scientists claim | telegraph.co.uk
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