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Everything and anything => Electrical Universe DIScussion => : electrobleme May 07, 2010, 22:15:43

: what is space plasma? why does plasma show it could be an electrical universe?
: electrobleme May 07, 2010, 22:15:43

what is space plasma? why does plasma show it could be an electrical universe?

It has been calculated that 99% of all known matter in the known universe is made up of plasma. All stars our plasma including our Sun. "Space" itself is plasma. If plasma has electrical properties then is the universe electric? Is it an Electric Universe?

Definition of a Plasma

A plasma is a gas of charged particles, which consists of equal numbers of free positive and negative charge carriers. Having roughly the same bumber of charges with different signs in the same voume element guarantees that the plasma behaves quasineutral in the stationary state. On average a plasma looks electrically neutral to the outside, since the randomly distributed particle electric charge fields mutually cancel....

Since the particles in a plasma have to overcome the coupling with their neighbors, they must have thermal energies above some electrovolts. Thus a typical plasma is a hot and highly ionized gas. While only a few natural plasmas, such as flames or lightning strokes, can be found near the Earth's surface, plasmas are abundant in the universe. More than 99% of all known matter is in the plasma state.
Basic space plasma physics by Wolfgang Baumjohann and Rudolf A. Treumann (http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN186094079X&id=e4yupcOzJxkC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=6xtjT18iOQ&dq=plasma+99%25+universe&sig=i96aK5VoNeZsM9B3rN7igy2umyE#v=onepage&q=plasma%2099%25%20universe&f=false)

These 10 minute videos explain more about plasma and plasma cosmology and its relation to the Electric Universe Theory

Plasma Cosmology, a brief introduction  (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E7oPdXN_gt4)

Hannes Alfvén, Plasma and Electromagnetism in Space (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5BLPvs3JTyA&feature=related)

: how space plasma and water are formed at the same time
: electrobleme May 10, 2010, 12:42:13

Re: Dusty experiments are solving interstellar water mystery
New postby jjohnson » Sun May 09, 2010 10:03 am

If an electron is "knocked off" a molecule - any molecule - what results is an ion, a positively charged particle missing one or more electrons. What also results, no mystery in the Electric Model, is separation of charge (the negative electron and the ion are removed from one another, at least for a while, possibly a long while if the radiation source continues to pump in energy above the ionization potential of water), and a "cloud" which is composed, at least in part, of charged particles in motion.

Technically (i.e., in scientific terminology) this constitutes a plasma. Separation of charge creates an electric field. Moving charges constitute electric currents. Currents create magnetic fields. So now a magnetized plasma has been readily created out of water and UV radiation, both of which are hardly uncommon in space.

Motion of charged particles is easier when aligned with the local direction of the magnetic field contours, or lines of force, whereas they meet more resistance from the magnetized plasma when their motion is crossing the alignment of the magnetic field. This results in an acceleration which attempts to change their direction to become better aligned with the field. This is how electric currents in space become organized and can become "field-aligned" currents. In reality, which means "not theorized" but as actually measured and observed in lab experiments with plasmas and in many astronomical observations of complex mixes of field aligned, collimated 'jets' of particles and turbulent flows in plumes light years in length and breadth, the interactions are highly interactive and chaotic in nature. These complex conditions can be forerunners to star and planetary formation, and even, at larger scales, galactic formation. Pinches, high current densities, and Marklund segregation of ions can result in conditions which may create heavier elements, aggregate dust to chunks, and set up radial electromagnetic fields which yield planar solar system assemblies.

I am not sure which is more incorrect, that what was discovered is a new "phase" of water (I think they might mean 'state'), but it is simply ionized water, or a water plasma, one of the four known states of matter, or that it has never been observed before in space. What are the water masers in radio astronomical galactic observations?

Re: Dusty experiments are solving interstellar water mystery | thunderbolts forum (http://thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=3227#p35375)
: Plasma = negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions or dust
: electrobleme June 05, 2010, 16:19:05
Plasma = negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions or dust

Discovering the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere is Cluster's primary goal. The identical spacecraft are flying a tetrahedral formation in a highly elliptical orbit. Cluster is currently collecting information about how charged particles from the Sun enter the Earth's atmosphere through magnetic "funnels" at each pole.

Earth's complex, electrically active magnetotail (or plasma tail) extends for millions of kilometers, always pointing away from the Sun. The solar wind is captured by the magnetosphere, and along with ions ejected by the Earth, collects in a plasma sheet within the magnetotail that is held together by our planet's magnetic field.

Between 1902 and 1903, Kristian Birkeland's Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition found electric currents from the Aurora Borealis flowing parallel to the polychromatic displays. Since electric currents must complete a circuit, and because the aurora seemed to be influenced by energetic events beyond the atmosphere, he wrote that those currents probably flow down from space at one end of the auroral arc and back out to space at the other.

Toroids of charged particles, otherwise known as "plasma," surround Earth, confined by its magnetic field. They are commonly called "Van Allen radiation belts" after Dr. James Van Allen, whose Explorer I and Explorer 3 missions confirmed Birkeland's theoretical conclusions. Similar structures exist around other planets.

Plasma contains charged particles. They can be negatively charged electrons, positively charged ions, or dust particles that have an excess of either positive or negative charge. Neon signs are plasma. Lightning is plasma. Earth’s magnetosphere, the solar wind, and the Sun itself are plasma. Nebulae in space, referred to most often as "hot gas and dust," are plasma. Dark interstellar clouds, mostly composed of hydrogen, are plasma because they exhibit magnetic fields and radiate in radio wavelengths.

Solar ions travel along Earth's magnetic field into the poles, causing atmospheric molecules to emit light: red from oxygen at high altitudes, green from oxygen lower down, and blue from nitrogen. Strong electromagnetic disturbances are observed when a bright aurora is seen.

Recently, ESA announced that Cluster has successfully measured the acceleration of ions as they enter Earth's environment. Although ESA mission specialists speculate that the aurora are created by so-called "magnetic reconnection" phenomena, previous Picture of the Day articles have demonstrated why that explanation is incorrect.

Conventional theories state that Earth's magnetosphere deforms like a teardrop because it is bombarded by the Sun's solar wind. The field is compressed on the sunward side and stretched on the dark side. Magnetic field lines are said to "flap like a flag waving in the wind."


When magnetic field lines cross and "reconnect" (through an unexplained mechanism), they are said to "detonate" with bursts of heat, light and electricity. The power from those "magnetic explosions" is thought to flow down into Earth's poles, energizing auroral colors.

Magnetic field lines cannot stretch, compress, or flap because they are no more "real" than lines of latitude and longitude: they are character symbols. A circuit schematic is no more a circuit board than magnetic field lines are a magnetic field. To say that magnetic field lines can cross, or flap, or break and reconnect is tantamount to saying that weather diagrams can produce rain.

"magnetic reconnections"

Hyperion's Daughter | thunderbolts.info/tpod (http://www.thunderbolts.info/tpod/2010/arch10/100604daughter.htm)

: plama and electric currents in space - wikipedia and the banned EU
: electrobleme July 30, 2010, 23:48:03

plama and electric currents in space - wikipedia and the banned EU

of all the topics you can think of the Electric Universe theory is banned from wikipedia. yet mentions of space plasma and the electromagnetic currents that are found everywhere in our universe do sometimes get a mention. in science you will find that they can not or will not normally mention the B or E words (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=138.0) but sometimes they just have to get down to basics.

i dont normally quote wiki but here is a mention of plasma and its role in space and electrical currents

Electric currents in space

Magnetic fields in the magnetosphere arise from the Earth's internal magnetic field as well as from electric currents that flow in the magnetospheric plasma: the plasma acts as an electromagnet. Magnetic fields from currents that circulate in the magnetospheric plasma extend the Earth's magnetism much further in space than would be predicted from the Earth's internal field alone. Such currents also determine the field's structure far from Earth, creating the regions described in the introduction above.

Unlike in a conventional resistive electric circuit, where currents are best thought of as arising as a response to an applied voltage, currents in the magnetosphere are better seen as caused by the structure and motion of the plasma in its associated magnetic field. For instance, electrons and positive ions trapped in the dipole-like field near the Earth tend to circulate around the magnetic axis of the dipole (the line connecting the magnetic poles) in a ring around the Earth, without gaining or losing energy (this is known as Guiding center motion). Viewed from above the magnetic north pole (geographic south), ions circulate clockwise, electrons counterclockwise, producing a net circulating clockwise current, known (from its shape) as the ring current. No voltage is needed—the current arises naturally from the motion of the ions and electrons in the magnetic field.

Any such current will modify the magnetic field. The ring current, for instance, strengthens the field on its outside, helping expand the size of the magnetosphere. At the same time, it weakens the magnetic field in its interior. In a magnetic storm, plasma is added to the ring current, making it temporarily stronger, and the field at Earth is observed to weaken by up to 1-2%.

The deformation of the magnetic field, and the flow of electric currents in it, are intimately linked, making it often hard to label one as cause and the other as effect. Frequently (as in the magnetopause and the magnetotail) it is intuitively more useful to regard the distribution and flow of plasma as the primary effect, producing the observed magnetic structure, with the associated electric currents just one feature of those structures, more of a consistency requirement of the magnetic structure.

As noted, one exception (at least) exists, a case where voltages do drive currents. That happens with Birkeland currents, which flow from distant space into the near-polar ionosphere, continue at least some distance in the ionosphere, and then return to space. (Part of the current then detours and leaves Earth again along field lines on the morning side, flows across midnight as part of the ring current, then comes back to the ionosphere along field lines on the evening side and rejoins the pattern.) The full circuit of those currents, under various conditions, is still under debate.

Because the ionosphere is an ohmic conductor of sorts, such flow will heat it up. It will also create secondary Hall currents, and accelerate magnetospheric particles—electrons in the arcs of the polar aurora, and singly-ionized oxygen ions (O+) which contribute to the ring current.
Electric currents in space | wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetosphere#Electric_currents_in_space)
: space plasma - earths magnetosphere and plasma electrical circuits
: electrobleme July 31, 2010, 00:02:40

space plasma - earths magnetosphere and plasma electrical circuits

(http://www.xearththeory.com/images/planetselectricalcircuits/earths-magnetosphere-plasma-currents-systems-circuits-image.jpg) (http://www.xearththeory.com/images/planetselectricalcircuits/earths-magnetosphere-plasma-currents-systems-circuits.jpg)
earths magnetosphere with its plasma currents systems and circuits

The magnetosphere in Figure 1  is cut away to reveal the different regions of charged particles in the magnetosphere and the electrical currents flowing therein. The region of least energetic plasma is the plasmasphere in the innermost region of the magnetosphere which is the high altitude extension of the ionosphere. This cold, dense plasma is caused by the ionization of the neutral atmosphere by solar ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet radiation. The tenuous plasma mantle at high altitudes is formed by the entry of solar wind along the boundary of the magnetosphere. These charged particles reach the center of the tail where processes can accelerate them to even higher energies. The dashed lines illustrate the flow of the average low energy particles outside and inside the magnetosphere. The flow on the outside is away from the Sun and on the inside toward the Sun. The electric fields associated with these flows can accelerate the charged particles to very high energies and help populate the radiation belts, also known as the Van Allen belts, both inside and outside the plasmasphere.

The thick, dark lines in Figure 1 show the major electrical current systems. The magnetopause current is that which flows due to the pressure gradient in the shocked solar wind plasma when it reaches the magnetic field of the Earth. The tail current is the part of this current which connects to the current flowing across the center of the tail, dividing it into two lobes with oppositely directed magnetic fields. This current is often called the neutral sheet current. The current associated with the energetic particles in the radiation belts which encircle the planet is called the ring current. Finally, there are currents that move along magnetic field lines rather than across them. These field-aligned currents transmit stresses from the outer magnetosphere to the ionosphere. Thus, if one were to push on the plasmas in the outer reaches of the magnetosphere, a current would flow along the magnetic field to the ionosphere. As the current flowed across magnetic fields in the ionosphere, it would exert a force on the ionosphere. Thus, the force on the outer magnetosphere ultimately is transmitted to the ionosphere and thence to the atmosphere.
Magnetosphere | ssc.igpp.ucla.edu (http://www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu/personnel/russell/papers/earth_mag/)

: electrobleme August 04, 2010, 19:09:08


An electrical discharge is the passage of electrical current through a material which normally does not conduct electricity. Consider, for example, a simple experiment which we have all experienced. If we hold two wires a few millimeters apart, and connect each to one pole of a battery, no perceptible electrical current flows through the air, because the air is insulating. However if these wire were connected to a high voltage source of several thousand volts, sparks will fly. The normally insulating air was transformed into a conductor, a process called electrical breakdown, and the sparks which we would see are a form of an electrical discharge. Normally air consists of neutral molecules of nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases, in which electrons are tightly bound to atomic nuclei. During the breakdown process, some of the negatively charged electrons are separated from their host atoms, leaving them with a positive charge. The negatively charged electrons, and the positively charged atoms (known as positive ions) are then free to move separately under the influence of the applied voltage. Their movement constitutes an electrical current. The collection of ions and electrons is known as a plasma, and one of its more important properties is that a plasma can conduct electrical current.

There are several types of electrical discharges:

The Corona: is a 'partial' discharge occurring when a highly inhomogeneous electric field is imposed. Typically, there is a very high electric field adjacent to a sharp electrode, and a net production of new electron-ion pairs occurs in this vicinity. The Corona typically has a very low current, and very high voltage.

The Glow Discharge typically has a voltage of several hundred volts, and currents up to 1 A. A small electron current is emitted from the cathode by collisions of ions, excited atoms, and photons, and then multiplied by successive electron impact ionization collisions in the cathode fall region.

The Arc is a high current, low voltage discharge, where electron emission from the cathode is from thermionic and/or field emission. Electrical discharges can also by excited by RF, microwave, or laser radiation, with or without electrodes.
ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES AND PLASMAS - WHAT ARE THEY? | eng.tau.ac.il (http://www.eng.tau.ac.il/research/laboratories/edp_lab/main_files/main.htm)
: Large Hadron Collider (LHC) generates a 'mini-Big Bang' = plasma
: electrobleme November 08, 2010, 22:48:31

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) generates a 'mini-Big Bang'  =  plasma

But for the next four weeks, scientists at the LHC will concentrate on analysing the data obtained from the lead ion collisions.

This way, they hope to learn more about the plasma the Universe was made of a millionth of a second after the Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago.

'Strong force'

"This process took place in a safe, controlled environment, generating incredibly hot and dense sub-atomic fireballs with temperatures of over ten trillion degrees, a million times hotter than the centre of the Sun.

"At these temperatures even protons and neutrons, which make up the nuclei of atoms, melt resulting in a hot dense soup of quarks and gluons known as a quark-gluon plasma."

Quarks and gluons are sub-atomic particles - some of the building blocks of matter. In the state known as quark-gluon plasma, they are freed of their attraction to one another. This plasma is believed to have existed just after the Big Bang.

He explained that by studying the plasma, physicists hoped to learn more about the so-called strong force - the force that binds the nuclei of atoms together and that is responsible for 98% of their mass
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) generates a 'mini-Big Bang' | bbc.co.uk (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-11711228)