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gEUlogy - the geology of the earth in an Electric Universe => gEUlogy => : electrobleme December 30, 2009, 00:14:11

: The largest natural Pitch Lake - millions of years old or alive and kicking?
: electrobleme December 30, 2009, 00:14:11
La Brea - the largest tar lake in the world - part of the XEarth?

(http://www.geulogy.com/images/natural_pitch_tar_bitumen/natural-wonders-of-the-world-pitch-tar-lake-la-brea-trinidad-geulogy.jpg) (http://www.geulogy.com/pitch_lake_asphaltlake_la_brea_trinidad_tobago_natural_tar_bitumen.html) (http://www.geulogy.com/images/natural_pitch_tar_bitumen/white-mother-of-the-lake-soft-substance-la-brea-trinidad-and-tobago-geulogy.jpg) (http://www.geulogy.com/pitch_lake_asphaltlake_la_brea_trinidad_tobago_natural_tar_bitumen.html)
La Brea (Pitch Lake) Trinidad - natural tar lake ** Mother of the Lake - strange white substance at La Brea

The Pitch Lake (La Brea) in Trinidad is a strange large lake mad of natural pitch/tar/asphalt/bitumen. It iis the largest Pitch Lake in the world and there are not many of them. La Brea is meant to be millions of years old but could it La Brea alive and producing now?

Is La Brea part of the Earths circuit and exchange mechanism in an Electric Universe? Is La Brea a variation of Serpentinization (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=76.0)? What is the white mother of the lake? How can vegetation be gulped down by it but come back up years later (perhaps 1000s of years) and not be rotted or dissolved? Does this show that the standard theories of oil formation are doubtful?

For the main website article with more info and photographs of the Pitch Lake (La Brea), on the island of Trinidad, click here (http://www.geulogy.com/pitch_lake_asphaltlake_la_brea_trinidad_tobago_natural_tar_bitumen.html)

Are they taking the Pitch? Why and how can the Pitch Lake keep refilling itself (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=198.msg560#msg560) and even though millions of tonnes have been removed it still has not dropped its level very low?

Asphalt War and Guanoco Lake (Largo La Brea), Venezuela

Another Pitch Lake and located relatively close to the Pitch Lake in Trinidad. With similar traits. Amazing amount of natural pitch, not sure how it was formed or got there, always refilling but never overflowing, very pure and does not change its chemical composition, supports life and has water associated with it.

More details of Guanoco Lake (Bermudez Lake) and the "Asphalt Wars" (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=198.msg561#msg561)


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: are they taking the Pitch?
: electrobleme January 03, 2010, 20:28:37
Excerpts taken from "Trinidad and Bermudez Asphalts article (Popular Science Jul 1912)" which can be viewed here (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=5yQDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA19&lpg=PA19&dq=pitch+lake+trinidad+removal+of+pitch&source=bl&ots=eqAa4MDWvi&sig=OeVytfRuqZHqX882g773PJkjYBc&hl=en&ei=naI_S_jKFNSN_AaywoiHCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CBMQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=&f=false).

"The Island of Trinidad while not directly connected with the chain of islands of volcanic origin known as the Windward or Caribbean Islands, is directly on the great line of volcanic disturbances running from these to the continent of South America and its volcanic regions. Many of the Windward Islands are still possessed of active vents, so that Trinidad may be looked upon, with its thermal springs and pitch deposits, as being situated at the lowest point between the mountainous volcanic chains of the West Indies and those of South America. More than two thirds of the surface is Tertiary or recent origin, including the entire southern portion, where the pitch deposits are located. The formations consist of clay, loose sand, shales, limestones, calcareous sandstones, indurated clays, porcelainites of brilliant colors, with pitch deposits here and there. The beds have been considerably disturbed and have a at times a large dip. In a series of sands, clays and shales lies the pitch lake.
While there are deposits of pitch scattered all over the island, the only ones of commercial importance are those situated on La Brea Point..."

Trinidad is different in composition to the chain of the other West Indies islands. Note the series of different materials where Pitch Lake is found. A series of natural resistors/conductors in a natural electric circuit?


"The main deposit is a body of pitch known as the pitch lake, situated at the highest part of the point. Between this and the sea, and more especially towards La Brea, are other deposits, covered more or less and mixed with soil. The pitch from these sources is classified as "lake pitch" and "land pitch".
By far the largest amount of pitch is found apparently in the pitch lake, a neaby circular area of 114.67 acres, 138-feet above sea level. From the lake the ground falls away on all sides, except, perhaps, for a slight ridge to the east and southeast, in fact, it seems plain that this deposit lies in the crater of a large mud volcano which has been filled up with pitch.
In past times the pitch very probably continued to collect until it overflowed the rim of the crater, particularly toward the north, and thus perhaps became the source of some or all of the land pitch deposits now found between the lake and the sea."

Pitch Lake is found on the highest part of the land in its area. Why does the pitch not naturally find a lower point to come out of, why does it not spurt out much lower down. Is the height and the area spefic for the creation of the pitch and bringing it to the surface. Why it is constantly moving and submerged objects re appear years later.

Notice that the idea of the pitch still be produced or pushed upwards for some reason is mentioned in the fact that it might overflow.

"In the center of the so-called lake is a point where there is a continued influx of soft material, accompanied by a stronger evolution of gas, which gradually hardens and becomes like the remainder of the deposit. The point of evolution of the soft material moves about from place to place along lines of least resistance. As that evolved at one point hardens the fresh material breaks out elsewhere. It is peculiar in that it is associated with so much free water which rises with it, that it can be handled freely and made into a ball without adhering to the hands. It is in an active state of changes, since if it is sealed in a tin can the gas evolved will, in a few weeks, burst the containing vessel."

Is the mother pitch, the soft material, being transformed at the surface, where these is a difference in potential energy between it and the atmosphere and all the chemical reactions(transformations/exchanges) that can occur? Once it has started it does not stop as it is now part of the natural energy cycle in an electric universe.

The water is part of the process and is it being created as part of the exchange?

"The water is probably of thermal origin, as it contains borates and iodides. Chlorides and sulphates of sodium are the predominating salts, sulphate of ammonia in marked amount, while chloride of potassium, lime and magnesium and ferrous iron are present. It is impossible to seperate the water from the bitumen without change, but in the old methods of refining pools it would collect on the surface of the asphalt"

Not sea water which is close by but "fresh" water.


"As to the depth of the lake, borings made in 1894 at the center, were carried to a depth of 135 feet, by means of a wash drill, the entire distance being through asphalt of the same character as that at the surface. This result shows the great depth of the crater, and the uniformity of the material which it contains.

The material forming this deposit is an emulsion of water, gas, bitumen and mineral matter, the latter consisting largely of fine sand and a lesser amount of clay. It is in constant motion, owing to the surface, whether deep or shallow, it rapidly fills up, and the surface resumes its orginal level after a short time."

The pitch seems to be constant throughout the depths of the lake, no contamination, no changes to its composition although it is supposedly millions of years old. Somehow the pitch has remained the same.

The fine sand and clay is part of the creation process of the pitch, not a contaminate.

The pitch is constantly being created, that is why it refills holes dug, why so much has been removed without a massive difference to its level.


For many years Trinidad asphalt was supposed to contain a considerable amount of organic matter not of a bituminous nature, but an investigation conducted by me in 1908 showed that this really consistsof the water hydration of the clay forming part of the mineral matter, which was lost on ignition after the removal of the bitumen by solvents, and that, as a matter of fact, there is practically nothing of the nature of organic matter not bitumen which has hererofore been attributed to Trinidad asphalt.
In direct contract to this acid water is that which rises with the soft pitch in the center of the lake, which is alkaline in reaction...

It is noticeable that this bitument is characterized by the large percentage of sulphur which it contains, by the presencee of nitrogen, and by the absence of oxygen.


There has recently been developed on the Island of Trinidad, in the neighborhood of the pitch lake, a new source of binding or cementing material...It has been called a liquid asphalt, and must have been the source of the asphalt found in the main deposit, and of the material which now forms the soft spot in the  soft spot in the middle of the lake. it was recognized in the earliest days of the Trinidad asphalt industry that the millions of tons of asphalt existing in the old crater must be associated with some mother source of bitument. Long before the asphalt was used on any industrial scale, attempts to reach this and obtain petroleum were made. A comparatively shallow well was sunk not far from the lake, and a heavy liquid asphalt was discovered....Success has now crowned the efforts to obtain this liquid asphalt in commercial quantities, and it is now available for road construction...This petroleum is truly asphaltic and carries no solid or heavey paraffine hydrocarbons. It is distinquished by the fact that it yields a high percecntage of light distillites or "tops" for an oil of such low gravity...while the residue is truly asphaltic resembling that found in the lake deposit, but of course free from mineral matter and water...The oil is further distinquished by the fact that it carries a very considerable percentage of sulphur, in the neighborhood of 3 per cent.and it is evident that the sulphur found in the Trinidad crude asphalt is derived, at least in part, from this source."

Trinidad Petroleum or Liquid Asphalt - does this show that Pitch Lake itself changes/transforms the natural bitumen in the area or that the rest of the land in Trinidad converts it to something different?
Notice that although supposed to be the source for Pitch Lake it does not contain mineral matter or water?


Taking the Pitch?

Many locals will tell you the lake is self-replenishing but that is not true. The level is dropping steadily as the asphalt is shipped around the world for road construction projects. One estimate says that at the removal of 300 tons per day, the current level, will deplete the lake within a half century.
Pitch Lake - guidetocaribbeanvacations .com (http://www.guidetocaribbeanvacations.com/trinidad/PitchLake.htm)

The deposit is worked with picks to a depth of a foot or two, and the excavations soon become filled up by the plastic material flowing in from below and hardening.
La Brea - Encyclopedia Britannica (http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Asphalt)

Very large quantities are exported for paving and other purposes, the annual shipments amounting to about 130,000 tons from the lake and about 30,000 tons from other properties. The amount of asphalt in the lake has been estimated at 158,400 tons for each foot of depth, and if the average depth be taken at 20 ft. this would give a total of 3,168,000 tons; but in 1908, though 1,885,000 tons had been removed in the previous thirty-five years, there was but little evidence of reduction in the quantity.
La Brea - Encyclopedia Britannica (http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Asphalt)

Roy said that a forty foot by forty foot hole completely fills itself in within 3 days.
richard-seaman .com (http://www.richard-seaman.com/Travel/TrinidadAndTobago/Trinidad/PitchLake/index.html)

Millions of tons have been removed from Pitch Lake in Trinidad yet it keeps "refilling". Where does all this material come from? If there is so much material why does it not continually flow upwards and outwards? Could it be created where it is found, not millions of years ago but now?

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/water-tumescent-pitchlake-labrea-tar-powergons-solids-lumps.jpg) (http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/shapes-pitchlake-tar-circular-circles.jpg)

"The Shrubs and trees occur in a few cases known as islands. These patches move from place to place with the movement of the ptich at the surface. The main mass of asphalt is a broad expanse of pitch made up of seperate areas of irregular outline, but at times quite circular, which are seperated by channels, filled with rain water, which prevents their coalescence. The boundaries are depressed and the center of the areas is always somewhat elevated above the edges, that is to say, they are mushroom-like. The origin of the seperate areas evidently lies in the constant movement of the crude material, due to the evolution of gas at the center, from which point the pitch rolls over towards the edges.... This illustrates very well the activity of the entire surface of the deposit, although it is much more active near the center of the lake."

The surface is active and this is where you find the water and other exchange material. The Liquid Asphalt does not have water in it but water is found in Pitch Lake. Is this due to Pitch Lake being alive and part of the Electric Earth in an Electric Universe?

: The Asphalt war and asphalt lakes / tar pits around the world
: electrobleme January 03, 2010, 22:34:05
Asphalt Lakes and Tar Pits around the world


Pitch Lake in Trinidad is not the only natural Pitch/Tar Lake or Tar Pit on Earth. Natural Tar seeps out of the Earth and ocean floors all over the world but it is found concentrated in a number of places. There are the famous fossils found at La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angelse, California, USA - Venezuela has its own and perhaps the strangest of tar lakes, it is known as Guanoco Lake or Bermudez Lake (Orinoco basin) and there is always the very historic Tar Pits and tar seepage of the Vale of Siddim (The Dead Sea).

The Dead Sea (Vale of Siddim)
10 And the valley of Siddim [is] full of bitumen-pits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah flee, and fall there, and those left have fled to the mountain.
Genesis 14 - Young's Literal Translation  (http://www.valeofsiddim.com/vale_of_siddim_dead_sea_youngs_literal_translation_genesis_chapter_14.html)

McKittrick Tar Pits
The McKittrick Tar Pits sit on the westside of the San Joaquin Valley where stream gravels, alluvial sands, and lacustrine clays cover older marine rocks that are rich in oil.
Geology of the McKittrick Tar Pits - Geology of the San Joaquin Valley .com (http://www.sjgs.com/tarpits_geol.html#geology)

Guanoco Lake or Bermudez Lake, Venezuela

The Guanoco Lake is the largest surface area asphalt lake in the world but is not very deep. Venezuela's version of Pitch Lake also known as Bermudez Lake covers an area of over 1000 acres and its depth only varies between 3 to 10 feet. Its tar is purer than Pitch Lake in Trinidad. Guanoco Lake (Lago de Asfalto de Guanoco - Lake Asphalt Guanoco) can be found located at 10°11'48"N 62°52'10"W.

Bermudez Lake was such an important commercial source that "the Asphalt war" / "Venezuelan Conflict" occured because of it.

Guanoco Lake is different to other Pitch Lakes in that it is covered in vegetation and so is not a photo opportunity. It was said to be formed by the overflow of several large springs. Bloody large springs they would have to be.

The Asphalt War - 1901

Bermudez Lake (Quanoco Lake) - scene of the Venezuelan Conflict and Asphalt War in 1901

ASPHALT WAR MAY BE OVER.; Trouble at Bermudez Lake, , Minister Loomis says "Have received advices of serious trouble at Bermudez Lake thwarted."
Published: January 6, 1901 - nytimes .com (http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A07E3DD1330E132A25755C0A9679C946097D6CF)

ASPHALT TRUST WANTS AID.; Asks Government's Active Support in Venezuelan Dispute -- Action of Courts of That Country Will Be Reviewed.
February 12, 1901 - nytimes .com (http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=980DE3D7133BE733A25751C1A9649C946097D6CF)

THE VENEZUELAN CONFLICT.; Opposing Interests in the Asphalt War Present Arguments at State Department.
WASHINGTON, Jan. 5. -- Solicitor Penfield of the State Department to-day heard Gen. Franels Greene and Lawyer Bean of New York in reference to the conflicting asphalt concessions in Venezuela. These gentlemen represent the New York and Bermudez Company, which has been in possession of the asphalt concessions for the past tweleve years, and whose property is now claimed by the La Felicidad concessionaries under later title from the Venezuelan Government.
January 6, 1901 - nytimes .com (http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A07E3DD1330E132A25755C0A9679C946097D6CF)

THE ASPHALT LAKE IN VENEZUELA; Deposit of Pitch Inexhaustible and Should Last for Ages. HUGE BLACK SEA OF WEALTH Its Value Almost Incalculable -- Some Data Regarding the Locality Where the Present Trouble Prevails -- Foreigners Not Welcome There.
February 17, 1901 - nytimes .com (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9B05E3D61039E733A25754C1A9649C946097D6CF)

Highlights of the article (where the map above of Largo La Brea -Guanoco Lake comes from)

"To the people of Venezuela this great deposit of asphalt is known as Largo La Brea, or the Lake of Pitch...no attempt was ever made to develop its resources until some thirteen years ago, when the New York and Bermudez Company purchased a concession covering a part of this valuable deposit from Horation R Hamilton, an American citizen then residing in Venezuela, and by marriage related to the late President Guzman Blanco.

The lake stretches out for a distance of about five miles, and, say, three miles in width; but is divided by a narrow ridge of dry land with a few stunted trees on it.

The asphalt from the wonderful lake is the finest and purest in the world. Cargoes have been shipped to this city, which were from 96 to 98 per cent pure. The refining of this class of asphalt is simply heating it until th water is evaporated, for there is no scum, dirt, or foreign matter in it. The supply is practically inexhaustible, and should last until the end of the world or the bottom drops out of it.

It is a huge black sea of wealth, stretching out as far as the eye can reach, and dig and dig all year round, the excavations will up as rapidly as the workmen leave them. No amount of reasonable work in taking out asphalt can produce a visible diminution of the supply. It is a well of wealth that never overflows and is always filled to the brim. Never, under the broiling sun of the dry season or the teeming torrents of the rainy season, is its character or chemical properties changed or its commercial value altered.Its upcoming is wrapped in mystery, its birth time unknown

Although located in a swamp and only some four or five feet above sea level, it has proved to have been a very healthy locality. Death is practically unknown among the workmen at these mines."

MR. WARNER'S THREAT.; Losing Firm Blames the United States Government and May Bring Suit Against It.
SYRACUSE, Jan. 31. -- Charles M. Warner of this city expressed the opinion to-night that the judgment of the Venezuelan Federal Hight Court had been influenced by the presence of United States warships in Venezuelan waters. He added that his firm might decide to bring an action against the United States to recover its losses.
February 1, 1904 - nytimes .com (http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9903E3DA1E3AE733A25752C0A9649C946597D6CF)

This report gives a brief of what had occured in the past and the dramatic increase in tension and activity in January 1901 that brought about the "Asphalt War". It is of course written from the viewpoint of the NY Times and therefore the Americans. Amazing how little seems to have changed. Stimulus, response.

"It was at this point that the aspect of the contest changed from that of a legal battle to that of warfare. The New York and Bermudez Asphalt Company armed its employes and fortified the asphalt lakes.
On Jan 15 the property of the company was threatened by an armed force of Venesuelans, who demanded the surrender of the property and that the private army of the trust lay down arms.

The Venezuelan Government allowed it to be understood that the threatened attack was the work of revolutionists, but it was establised beyond doubt that it really was by the regular troops of the Republic. only the arrival of the United ship Scorpian, with orders to fight if necessary, averted serious trouble.
It was about this time the Venezuelan Government seized the two shops belonging to the Orinoco Shipping and Trading company and provoked a whole lot of trouble."


Guanoco Lake (Bermudez Lake or Largo La Brea - the Lake of Pitch), Venezuela (http://www.geulogy.com/guanoco_lake_bermudezlake_pitchlake_largo_la_brea_venezuela.html)

Article on the History of Venezuela's Oil and Rentier Economy (http://www.semp.us/publications/biot_reader.php?BiotID=476)

And here is a very very short and slightly strange story about Lake Guanoco (http://www.pindeldyboz.com/ptmguanoco.htm)

: Bermudez Pitch Lake, Venezuela
: electrobleme January 05, 2010, 05:03:12
The mouth of the Orinoco River on the northeastern coast of Venezuela, faces Trinidad and the Trinidad pitch lake. If one follows the Orinoco River inland from its mouth for some 65 miles, one comes to a village called Guariquen. The so-called Bermudez Lake lies between the edge of a swamp and the foothills near Guariquen in what might be termed a savanna, says Richardson. The “lake”, wrote Richardson, has “an irregular-shaped surface with a width of about a mile and a half form north to south and about a mile east and west. Its area is a little more than 900 acres, and it is covered with sparse vegetation, grass, and shrubs, and occasional groves of large palms, called morichales. One sees no dark expanse of pitch on approaching it as at the Trinidad pitch lake, and except at certain points where the soft pitch is welling up, nothing of the kind can be found. The level of the surface of the deposit does not vary more than two feet and is largely the same as that of the surrounding swamps. In the rainy season it is mostly flooded and at all times very wet, so that any excavation will fill up with water. These conditions make it difficult to get about upon it and to excavate pitch.”

Photograph of Guanoco Lake or Bermudez Lake (Asphalt Lake), Venezuela - the lighter spots are surface water

Richardson continues: “It is readily seen that this deposit is a very different one from the pitch lake of Trinidad. It seems to be, in fact, an over-flow of soft pitch from several springs, over this large expanse of savanna, and one which has not the depth of that at Trinidad. At different points there is a depth of 7 feet of material, while the deepest part of the deposit is only 9 feet and the average of pitch below the soil and coke only 4 feet.” The “consistency of the soft pitch at the center of the Bermudez lake is thinner than that of the Trinidad lake. It does not evolve gas in the same rapid way or harden as quickly after collection. It, therefore, does not retain the gas which is generated in it, nor does the deposit as a whole do so at the same extent as the Trinidad pitch.”

Richardson concluded that “the Bermudez deposit owes its existence to the exudation of a large quantity of soft maltha [soft mineral pitch], which is still going on and which has spread over a great area; that this has hardened spontaneously in the sun, and has also, by the action of the fires, been converted over almost the entire surface into a crust of some depth, beneath which the best material lies, and that here and there are scattered masses of glance pitch produced in a similar way form the less violent action of heat”. The amount of water the Bermudez asphalt contains varies between 11 and 46%. Bermudez asphalt is completely different in composition from that found in the Trinidad pitch lake, by the absence of emulsified water and mineral matter. It is a purer and softer bitumen and quite devoid of the colloidal clay found in Trinidad asphalt.”

Richardson attributed the presence of colloidal clay in Trinidad asphalt, and to the large amounts of sulphur derivatives in Trinidad petroleum and asphalt and Bermudez asphalt, to the desirability of these bitumens in highway construction.
Pitch (Asphalt) Lakes of Trinidad, Venezuela, and California - Bermudez Pitch Lake, Venezuela - semp .us (http://www.semp.us/publications/biot_reader.php?BiotID=485)