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Malta's megalithic "Temples" and Cart Ruts => The Megalithic "Temples" of Malta => : electrobleme December 18, 2009, 17:48:47

: Locations, list, maps and guides to the "Temples" of Malta and Gozo
: electrobleme December 18, 2009, 17:48:47

Locations, list, maps and guides to the "Temples" of Malta and Gozo

This is a good site with photographs and the standard information  Odyssey - adventures in archaeology (http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/malta_temples/maltemples_settlement.htm#Contents)
: Malta and Gozo Temples location - "tanks", terraformed hills and lines
: electrobleme December 18, 2009, 18:14:35
Malta and Gozo Temples locations

List of Temples and Domens and other ancient sites found in Malta and Gozo. The list of Maltese and Gozitan Temples with a number beside them and the first paragraph is from MaltaDiscovery.com - some of the Temple names have been changes as they did not seem correct.

1) Marfa Ridge
In the center of the Marfa Ridge on a ridge that runs to the north of the elevation of Qammieh at a height of about 45 meters between the Wied tal-Bir and Wied Musa. Distance to the sea about 1 km. The temple is not excavated.

2) Ghajn Zejtuna
Situated at the southern border of the Mellieha Bay. A bit northern to today’s mouth of the Wied Ghajn Zejtuna on a flat rock plateau. However it is rinsed by the sea and totally destroyed today.

"At Ghajn Zejtuna, near the coast, there are the remains of a megalithic temple. Today only part of this structure remains...Fortunately, in recent times, this megalithic building or more precisely what remained was found by archaeologist Ernest Vella and Nixxiegha Kulturali. Unfortunately, part of this temple was destroyed by the building, but the remainder is still preserved. These consist of number of large rocks and two apses. However, the rocks were all over-turned."
Ghajn Zejtuna - mellieha .com (http://www.mellieha.com/places_interest/archaeological/ghajnzejtun.htm)

3) Xemxija
Situated on the northern side of St. Paul’s Bay at a height of 74 meters, not far away from the coast. This structure is totally destroyed.

"Ancient Temple in Malta. The ruinous and probable remains of a neolithic temple. It has never been excavated and although now preserved against further agricultural encroachment (although not by smilax and prickly pears!) the site has been extensively cultivated and it is inevitable that a large amount of contemporary material will have been lost.
The main structure to the south seems to form a large area some 100' square enclosed by walls built of megaliths. There is a smaller structure to the north the purpose of which is unclear and may be of a later date."
Xemxija Temple - megalithic .co.uk (http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10696)

Xemxija Tombs - "Rock-cut tombs in Malta. On the eastward slope of a hill overlooking St. Paul’s Bay are to be found 6 rock-cut tombs all within 45 metres of each other.
Tombs 1 and 2 were cut separately each with 3 rough lobes but they were so close together that the wall separating them has broken through linking the tombs underground. Tombs 3 and 4 are separate with simple kidney-shaped chambers. Tomb 5 is the largest this being achieved by chipping out 5 lobes, a technique which avoids leaving too large an unsupported span. This is highly suggestive of temple plans and it is thought there may be a formative connection. Tomb 6 is double chambered with one chamber having a collapsed roof."
Xemxija Tombs - megalithic .co.uk (http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10427)
Xemxija Silo/Tank - megalithic .co.uk (http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10697)

4) Bugibba
Situated on the southern side of St. Paul’s Bay at a height of 117 meters, not far away from the coast. The hotel New Dolmen was built around the temple site.

"Bugibba Temple was excavated in 1928 under the direction of Sir Themistocles Zammit and the supervision of L.J. Upton Way. Two carved stones with what seem to be fish graffiti, were found. The temple has been encircled by a modern hotel and now lies in the garden between the two swimming pools of this hotel. The huge capstone was re-erected in recent times."
Bugibba - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/bugibba/bugibba.html)

5) Ta´- Qadi (Tal-Qadi)
Situated on the southwest inclination at the height of Bumarrad, in about 15 meters. Distance to Salina Bay about 1.5 km.
 Bumarrad - ramblersmalta .com (http://www.ramblersmalta.jointcomms.com/20070526.htm) 35.937100N 14.420500E

"The small site of Tal-Qadi was excavated by Sir Themistocles Zammit and L. Upton Way, in 1927. The deposit was very shallow and the site was very disturbed. The site could already have been in use as early as 4,000 BCE, but the temple itself is dated 3,300-3,000 BCE."
Tal-Qadi - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/qadi/qadi.html)

"Temple in Malta. Overlooking the plain of Burmarrad this site is the only known example of a Maltese temple which is not orientated south-east/south since this would have opened on to a steep slope.
The Temple has a 4-apse plan and would appear to show an axis facing to the north-east."
Tal-Qadi - megalithic .co.uk (http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10416)

6) Qaliet Marku
Situated on the flat southeastern foothills of the heights of Il Ghaliis at about 25 meters on a plateau. Distance to Qala Sanku Bay about 1 km northeast. The temple lies in ruins and was not further excavated.

7) Kordin I
Situated on the western side of the Corradino height at about 30 meters over the Marsa creek/Grand Harbour.

"Kordin I formed one of three sites on the high plateau overlooking the Grand Harbour. Kordin I was excavated in part by A.A. Caruana, to be continued by Sir Themistocles Zammit in 1908 and finished by T. Ashby and T.E. Peet in 1909. The building was poorly preserved and consisted of small and irregular rooms. Kordin I was left open to the elements and air attacks during the Second World War, and the building of an industrial estate on the site, have obliterated all remains."
Kordin I - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/destroy/kordina.html)

8 ) Kordin II
Situated on the edge of the flat hills of the Corradino height at about 30 meters over the steep coast of Ras Hanzir/Grand Harbour.

"Kordin II was first investigated by C. Vassallo in 1840. A.A. Caruana started to excavate the site properly in 1892. The excavation was continued by Albert Mayer in 1901 and finished by Ashby and Peet in their campaign of 1908-9. The chronology was difficult to figure out, and whether all of the building could be dated to the temple period is debatable. The site must have been used during all of the temple period since a small amount of pottery from all this period's phases were found during the excavations. Kordin II was damaged by the air bombardments of the Second World War and the new buildings that were constructed since."
Kordin II - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/destroy/kordinb.html)

9) Kordin III
Situated on the southern edge at about 38 meters over the Marsa Creek and French Creek/Grand Harbour.35.877100N  14.509100E

"Kordin III was excavated in 1909 by T.E. Peet and T. Ashby. Part of the temple was damaged during the Second World War when bombs fell right beside it. The site is dated to about 3,600-3,000 BCE, although excavations in the 'rooms' behind the temple, have shown that the site was already in use before the existing structures, were built."
Kordin III - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/krdiniii/kordinc.html)

...It is the only temple whose forecourt, in front of the concave facade, is stone paved as is the entrance passage leading to the central court. Behind the temple and contemporary with it are small rooms possibly used for storerooms or the like, or even an irregular lobed minor temple. The most notable feature on the site is the 2.75 metre long 'trough' lying across the entrance to the left apse. It has seven deep transverse grooves produced by grinding. It is made of hard limestone brought from over 2 kilometres away so it is highly probable that it is for for grinding corn (a multiple quern) and contemporary with the temple rather than for grinding 'deffun', the traditional Maltese roofing material, which would make it considerably more recent.The site is in a walled enclosure next to the Church and is kept locked.
Kordin III - megalithic .co.uk (http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10417)

10) Tarxien
Situated on the southern side of the Tarxien height at about 63 meters. Distance to the French-Marsa – creek/Grand Harbour about 1.5 km. This temple was rebuilt and used as a cult place after the resettling of Malta in the cretic/minoic epoch. http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10442

"The most elaborated site of the Temples of Malta. Tarxien must have been an important site for the Temple builders. It really consists of three temple structures attached together and which were excavated by Sir Themistocles Zammit between 1915-1919. The main entrance is a modern reconstruction, done in 1956, when the whole site was restored, and in some areas reconstructed. In the same year many of the decorated slabs found in-situ were taken indoors for protection, at the museum of Archaeology in Valletta. The first temple dates to around 3,100 BCE and is the most elaborately decorated of the Maltese Temples. The middle temple dates to about 3,000 BCE, and is unique. Unlike the rest of the Maltese Temples, it has three pairs of apses instead of the usual two. The east temple is dated (like the first temple) at around 3,100 BCE. The remains of another (older (3,250 BCE) and smaller) temple is visible towards the east."
Tarxien - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/tarxien/tarxien.html)

11) Marsaskala (Wied il-Ghajn)
Situated on the northern side of the Marsaskala heights at about 30 meters above Marsaskala Bay / Secca Zonqor.

Wied il-Ghajn means Valley of the Spring in Maltese.

12) Hal-Ginwi
Situated on the western edge of the Tas-Silg height at about 30 meters between Zejtun and the half island Delimara with a view to Marsaxlock Bay.

"The site of Hal-Ginwi was excavated by Dr A. V. Laferla in 1917. The remains were found very close to the surface of the fields. The walls had been mostly demolished and the high megaliths shortened to the level of the field in which they lay. After the excavation the fields were tilled over once again and the only remains are some large blocks still visible in a terrace wall."
Hal-Ginwi - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/destroy/ginwi.html)

13) Tas Silg
Situated on a plateau of the Tas Silg heights, at about 46 meters with a southeastern view to Marsaxlokk Bay

"]The site of Tas-Silg was depicted in an engraving by Jean Houel at the end of the 18th Century, when many more classical remains were visible. When the site was excavated by the Italian Archaeological Mission between 1963 and 1972 successive layers of occupation were uncovered...
...This megalithic temple, was reused during the time of the Phoenicians and integrated into a Phoenician sanctuary. Much later, the baptistery of the Byzantine church was set in the main apse of the prehistoric temple structure.
The area of "Tas-Silg" takes it's name from a nearby Christian church dedicated to Our Lady (Mary) of the Snow (since it does not snow in Malta, the Maltese word "silg" means ice and it stands for snow, frost and hail). The prehistoric remains at 'Tas-Silg' are limited, but the site is very interesting.
If the main deity worshiped at this temple was a 'mother goddess', then the site has had a sanctuary dedicated to a female 'deity' from prehistory: the 'mother goddess', followed by Astarte, Hera, and Mary, the mother of Jesus."
Tas-Silg - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/silg/silg.html)

14) Xrobb il Ghagin
Situated on the eastern edge of the promontory of Xrobb il Ghagin at about 30 meters on a plateau directly on the reef.

"Xrobb l-Ghagin was built very close to a cliff edge which has eroded in the last 5,000 years so that nearly nothing of the construction survives today. Also the site is dangerous because the cliff is undercut, and is still collapsing. A clay bowl, slingstones and a decorated slab were taken for safekeeping and are now exhibited at the museum. The site had been used from about 4,000 BCE but the structure dates from about 3,600 -3,000 BCE."
Xrobb l-Ghagin - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/destroy/xrobb.html)[/quote]

15) Borg in-Nadur
Situated on a hill between the Wied Dalam in the north and the Wied Has Saptan in the south, at a height of 16 meters with a view to the southeast to Marsaxlock Bay. 35.831220N  14.529100E

"The megalithic site, close to the sea at Birzebbuga, was excavated by Dr Margaret Murray in 1922-7. The depth of the deposits was very shallow and the Temple Period remains were covered by material from the Bronze Age village which lay over the same area. The temple was built during the last phase of the temple period, around 2500 BCE and was occupied by the Bronze Age people. Most probably its rooms became part of the Bronze Age village. The megaliths forming the walls of the temple are now only about 50 cm (1.6 feet) high and a four apse plan can be seen at the centre. Another small megalithic structure lies East-South of the main building."
Borg in-Nadur - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/nadur/nadur.html)
Borg in-Nadur - .megalithic .co.uk (http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10430)

16) Hal Far
Situated on the most southern point of Malta on the edge of the most southern plateau at a height of 65 meters between Zurieq and Birzebugga

17) Hagar Qim
Situated on the southwestern coast at a height of 125 meters on the edge of the plateau with a view to the islet, Filfla. 35.827710N 14.442420E

"Hagar Qim lies on top of a hill overlooking the sea. The highest megaliths are visible from Mnajdra Temple closer to the coast below. Abela already mentions the site in 1647. J.G. Vance cleared the site in 1851. In 1885 A.A. Caruana continued the excavations, and more excavations were done by Sir Themistocles Zammit and T.E. Peet in 1909. Between 1947-50 the Director of the Museum, Dr Baldacchino made a programme of conservation and restoration, where some megaliths were capped and cemented. The facade was partly reconstructed and four headless statuettes were discovered. The Hagar Qim complex consists of four separate buildings (although one has no identifialbe shape). The plan of the main building is unique to the Maltese Temples. The centre apses have been extended towards the South-West, opening into other 'rooms' and spaces. The site was used during the whole epoch of the Temple Period, with many additions and modifications between 3,600 - 2,500 BCE.
Hagar Qim - malta mega temples (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/hagar/qim.html)

18) Mnajdra
Situated on the southwestern cliffs at a height of 87 meters meters on the edge of the plateau above the Hamrija Banks. 35.826760N 14.436410E

The Mnajdra Temple is below Hagar Qim and is built of coralline limestone (different material to Hagar Qim). Some of its chambers surfaces are pitted with small holes, much like todays recording studios. Slabs of rock forming shelves can be seen. The Misra Tanks are close by.
Good description of the Temple complex can be found at maltavoyager .com (http://www.maltavoyager.com/placesofinterest_mnajdra.html)

Misqa Tanks

19) Fawwara(?)
Situated on the southwestern cliffs at a height of about 76 meters on the edge of the Dingli Cliffs.

20) Tal-Kuncizzjoni (Qortin l-Mdawwar)
Situated on the northwestern point of the Bingemma Plateau at a height of about 160 meters above Fomm ir Rih Bay.

"The site of Qortin l-Mdawwar (known also as 'Tal-Kuncizzjoni' Temple) was first investigated was in 1938 by the Department of Museums. The remaining megaliths were few but the amount of pottery material, animal bones and sea shells was very abundant. Most of the sherds date the site to about 3,000-2,500 BCE. Little is left to be seen today and the site is difficult to find, and is located on private land."
Tal-Kuncizzjoni (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/qortin/qortin.html)

21) Ras il-Pellegrin
Situated in the west on a rock step of the plateau of il Pellgrin, at a height of about 100 meters between Fomm ir Rih and Gnejna  Bay

"We followed the concrete path up the promontory of Ras il-Pellegrin, to the prehistoric temple remains there. The cliff edge was then followed in full sight of the wild rugged coast hugged by the calm dark blue depths with the white cliffs of Ta’ Cenc yonder under a celestial body interspersed with white cloud."
Ras il-Pellegrin - ramblersassociation .blogspot.com (http://ramblersassociation.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.html)

22) Ta´ Lippija
Situated in the saddle northern of the Torri Lippija at a height of about 60 meters, directly on the edge of the reef above Gneijna Bay

"Soon we were on the Xaghra ta Lippija where one of the Knight's coastal watch towers still stands guard. Close by the tower to the north scattered remains of a Neolithic temple are still in evidence despite the site suffering from some heavy subsiding of the land."
Xaghra ta Lippija - ramblersmalta .jointcomms.com (http://www.ramblersmalta.jointcomms.com/mgarr2306.htm)

23) Ta´ Hagrat
Situated directly on the northern edge of the Bingemma depression at a height of about 86 meters, south west of Mgarr. 35.918600N 14.368600E

Sir Themistocles Zammit excavated the ruins of Ta' Hagrat in 1923, and again in1925-26, under the supervision of G.G. Sinclair. In 1937 some restoration was done to the whole site. The larger temple is dated 3,600-3,000 BCE and the smaller 3,300-3,000 BCE. The temples were built on an older site dating from 4,100-3,800 BCE.
Ta' Hagrat - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/hagrat/hagrat.html)

24) Skorba
Situated on the southeastern inclination of Bidnija Ridge at a height of about 118 meters, in a distance of 1 km east to Ta ´Hagrat 35.920873N 14.377693E

The Skorba site was systematically excavated by Dr D.H. Trump from 1961 to 1963. At the East end of this site, are the remains of two huts which predate the temples. In the excavation of the northern hut a group of figurines was found, dating from 4,100 BCE (see an example) Before the temples were built, a village lay on the same site. A wall to the west of the main temple entrance produced charcoal, dating to 4850 BCE. The main temple dates to 3600-3000 BCE, and the temple to its side, 3,000-2,500 BCE. The whole site was also used during the first stage of the Maltese Bronze Age – 2,500-1,500 BCE.
Skorba - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/skorba/skorba.html)

25)  Gebel Gol Bahar
This temple is situated underwater, two kilometers off the northeastern coast of St. Georges Shours.
It is on the highest elevation of a submarine ridge at a bright of about 900 to 500 meters. The highest point, the plateau has a diameter of about 450 meters and is exactly 19 meters below sea level (my discovery of 1999).

Quotes from The Megalithic Temples of Malta (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/indxfram.html) site


Ta' Marziena
Ta' Marziena is a site that has never been excavated, and very little is visible since most of the megaliths are covered with carob trees. (Ta' Marziena - Destroyed Megalithic Sites) 36.033419N  14.239839E

On the southern tip of the Victoria plateau, looking across towards Ta’ Sannat, the ruins of a temple lurk under carob trees. The scanty surviving walls suggest an original plan of five apses within an enclosing wall. The approach is by a path opposite the windmill tower.
Directions: The site is situated on the South lip of the higher ground around Victoria. On the Victoria-Sannat road, just after the end of the buildings, turn right. Alternatively, on the Victoria-Munxar Road, just after Manresa Retreat House, turn left into Windmill Street. A footpath going South just opposite the windmill tower brings you to Ta' Mar?iena.
Ta' Marziena - gozo .gov.mt (http://www.gozo.gov.mt/pages.aspx?page=21)

Borg l-Mramma
The fragmentary remains of Borg l-Mramma temple are situated on the high plateau of Gozo, known as Ta' Cenc (Tah Chench). The site has never been properly excavated, but in 1897-8, Albert Mayer tried to estimate the dimensions of the building from the modern field walls and produced a plan. Only the lowest course of the building is preserved. The only high megalith visible today has been incorporated in a bird-hunter's hide. No finds were ever reported from Borg l-Mramma and no date has been given to the temple
Borg l-Mramma - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/mramma/mramma.html)

Ggantija (the Giantess Tower) - "Ggantija, (the Giantess Tower) is the most impressive of the Maltese Temples. The ruins had been noted since 1772 and the remains were 'cleared' (not excavated) in 1827 under Colonel Otto Bayer. A large amount of debris had accumulated in and around the megaliths. Pottery and other finds were not preserved except for a small number of objects. The complex consists of two temples; the bigger southern temple is the older of the two. Its facade stands unrestored to a height of 6 meters (19.6 feet)" 36.046669N 14.269439E
Ggantija - The Megalithic Temples of Malta (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/ggant/ggant.html)

L'Ghar ta' Gejzu (http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10441), L’Ghar Tramuntana (http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10376) and Ggantija Standing Stones (http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10704)

Xaghra Stone Circle (Brochdorff Circle) -  The Xaghra Circle (also known as the Brochdorff Circle) was depicted in a water-colour by Charles de Brochdorff in 1824, when Col. Otto Bayer was 'excavating' (digging would be a better word) the site. The pit created by Bayer was filled in and the site disappeared...In an Anglo-Maltese campaign between 1987-1994 directed by Prof. Anthony Bonanno, Dr Tancred Gouder (succeeded by Mr. Anthony Pace), Dr Caroline Malone, Dr Simon Stodart and Dr David Trump, the site was excavated scientifically. Many interesting finds were made in this campaign and the excavation has showed that the site of the Stone Circle had been used since 4,100-3,800 BCE, although the main part was a hypogeum used at the time of the Ggantija Temples. There are still parts of the site that await excavation in the future.
Xaghra Stone Circle -  - The Megalithic Temples of Malta (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/xaghrasc/xaghrasc.html)

Others or different names for the above?

Little survives at the Santa Verna site. Excavated in 1908 by T.E. Peet, and in 1911 by T. Ashby and R.N. Bradley, (see excavation photographs) a trefoil plan of a temple floor, was uncovered. A surprising discovery was the finding of two complete skeletons and portions of others including that of a child. The Santa Verna site is interesting in that it had been used during the whole of the Maltese prehistoric period, starting from 5000 BCE.
Santa Verna - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/verna/verna.html)  36.047000N  14.260000E

Debdieba (an echoing place) was excavated by Dr Thomas Ashby at the suggestion of Sir Themistocles Zammit in 1914. Little sense could be made from the remains which were situated between a road and private owned tilled fields. The finds yielded some pottery that suggest a dating of about 3000-2500 BCE. The uncovered megaliths and the whole site were destroyed in the 1960's in the construction of an extension of the runway of Luqa Airport.
Debdieba - Destroyed Megalithic Sites (http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/destroy/debdi.html)


Ta' Hammud B - megalithic .co.uk (http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10419)
Dolmen at Ta'Hammud, Naxxar - maltavista .net (http://www.maltavista.net/en/list/photo/1509.html)

Il-Bidni - "Burial Chamber (Dolmen) in Mainland. This dolmen is one of several probable dolmens (some destroyed) west of Marsaskala. It lies on private land in fields south of the calvary and the chapel Tad-Dawl at Bidni. The capstone is about 8' x 6' and about 1' thick and has been pierced by a 5" diameter hole which has caused it to split although it has not fallen. It is supported on 3 sides by stone blocks.
This site noted at a map. We asked the people living next to this place and they showed us the way. Unfortunately the site is surrounded with a very tall wall, so that access is impossible." 35.867730N 14.554750E
Il-Bidni - megalithic .co.uk (http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10866)

: Re: Locations, list, maps and guides to the "Temples" of Malta and Gozo
: kevin July 17, 2010, 02:05:00
Have You seen or know of this?
: Re: Locations, list, maps and guides to the "Temples" of Malta and Gozo
: electrobleme July 18, 2010, 17:03:52
thanks for that, will have a chat with them :)