Electric Universe forum - Everything Is Electric

Everything and anything => weathEU and XEarth => : electrobleme November 22, 2009, 21:18:28

: plasma fountains - space fountains
: electrobleme November 22, 2009, 21:18:28
plasma fountains (space fountains) in our Solar System

Different planets have their own version of space fountains, some form of charged gas or material being ejected into space. They seem to be associated with heavily electrical planets, those with a strong magnetic field. The earth has its space plasma fountain and Saturn's moon Enceladus has its stunning "water space fountains".

Earths space plasma fountain and its part in the Earths exchange with the Electrical Universe (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=57.0)

In the gravity universe Enceladus space fountains are due to sublimation of ice below the surface. In and Electrical Universe they are likely due to an exchange mechanism between Enceladus and Saturn, some form of electrical discharge machining.  What do you see?

The images are from the Cassini satellites flyby known as E8.



Cassini satellites E8 flyby (http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/photos/raw/?start=6&storedQ=2158452) - raw images
: earths equatorial plasma fountain
: electrobleme June 05, 2010, 15:26:19
earths equatorial plasma fountain

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/xearth/plasma-fouintains-equatorial-ring-current-image.jpg) (http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/xearth/plasma-fouintains-equatorial-ring-current.jpg)
earths equatorial plasma fountain and the ring current circuit

the plasma fountain above the arctic is not the only plasma fountain on earth, there is also the equatorial plasma fountain which is part of the the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) system, the Equatorial electrojet but is obviously linked to the rest of the Earths global electric circuit

its location and timing is due to the earths nightside and dayside which have different charges and the whole dark circuit (magnetotail, spacequakes etc)

The equatorial plasma fountain and equatorial anomaly in the ionospheres over Jicamarca (77°W), Trivandrum (77°E), and Fortaleza (38°W) are presented using the Sheffield University plasmasphere-ionosphere model under magnetically quiet equinoctial conditions at high solar activity. The daytime plasma fountain and its effects in the regions outside the fountain lead to the formation of an additional layer, the F 3 layer, at latitudes within about plus or minus 10° of the magnetic equator in each ionosphere. The maximum plasma concentration of the F 3  layer, which occurs at about 550 km altitude, becomes greater than that of the F 2 layer for a short period of time before noon when the vertical E × B drift is large. Within the F 3 layer the plasma temperature decreases by as much as 100 K. The ionograms recorded at Fortaleza on January 15, 1995, provide observational evidence for the development and decay of an F 3 layer before noon. The neutral wind, which causes large north–south asymmetries in the plasma fountain in each ionosphere during both daytime and nighttime, becomes least effective during the prereversal strengthening of the upward drift. During this time the plasma fountain is symmetrical with respect to the magnetic equator and rises to over 1200 km altitude at the equator, with accompanying plasma density depletions in the bottomside of the underlying F region. The north–south asymmetries of the equatorial plasma fountain and equatorial anomaly are more strongly dependent upon the displacement of the geomagnetic and geographic equators (Jicamarca and Trivandrum) than on the magnetic declination angle (Fortaleza).
Equatorial plasma fountain and its effects over three locations: Evidence for an additional layer, the F 3 layer | agu.org (http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1997/95JA02639.shtml)

Relative importance of diffusion, electric field, and neutral wind on equatorial plasma fountain and equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) during a strong daytime eastward prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) event are evaluated using the Sheffield University Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model and the recorded PPEF during the super geomagnetic storm of 9 November 2004. The fountain rapidly develops into a super fountain during the PPEF event. The super fountain becomes strong with less poleward turning of the velocity vectors in the presence of an equatorward wind that reduces (or stops) the downward velocity component due to diffusion and raises the ionosphere to high altitudes of reduced chemical loss. The EIA crests in peak electron density and total electron content shift rapidly to higher than normal latitudes during the PPEF event. However, the crests become stronger than normal only in the presence of an equatorward wind. The results suggest that the presence of an equatorward neutral wind is required to produce a strong positive ionospheric storm during a daytime eastward PPEF event. The equatorward neutral wind need not be a storm time wind though stronger wind can lead to stronger ionospheric storms.
Super plasma fountain and equatorial ionization anomaly during penetration electric field | agu.org (http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2009/2008JA013768.shtml)


The ionospheric irregularities are generated after sunset over the magnetic equator due to plasma instabilities and the most important parameter for their development is the equatorial evening vertical plasma drift (E×B/B2) (Fejer et al., 1999) known as prereversal enhancement in vertical drift, when the eastward electric field is intensified due to the action of the F-region dynamo. During magnetic storms strong eastward (westward) electricfield from the magnetosphere (disturbance dynamo) can penetrate to equatorial region intensifying (weakening) the upward plasma drift and consequently triggering (inhibiting) the ionospheric irregularities. This subject has been studied by many authors (Basu et al., 2001a, b; de Paula et al., 2004) since ionospheric irregularities cause scintillation in the GPS signal amplitude and phase and can affect telecommunication systems, and magnetically quiet time scintillation pattern can be modified during storms. The storms also can affect drastically the CET (Lin et al., 2005). As there is a strong interplay between the magnetospheric, ionospheric and atmospheric processes, which are substantially modified during magnetic storms (Abdu, 1997; Abdu et al., 1991, 2003; Batista et al., 1991, 2006; Tsurutani et al., 2004) we present in the next sections a short description of their quiet and disturbed behavior.

During magnetic storms supersonic solar plasma emissions distort the magnetosphere (see Fig. 1), that is a cavity formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetic field. The magnetosphere has a long tail, that extends in the opposite direction to the Sun (Davies, 1990). According to Gonzalez et al. (1994), a magnetic storm occurs when a long-lasting interplanetary convection electric field leads, through a substantial energization in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, to an intensified ring current sufficiently strong to exceed some key threshold ofthe quantifying storm time Dst index. Energy from the solar wind is transferred to the ionosphere-thermosphere-magnetosphere system, intensifying convection electric fields in the magnetosphere and producing an enhancement of particles precipitation, and currents in the high latitude ionosphere. During magnetically disturbed periods the magnetospheric shielding layer is not effective to shield magnetospheric electric fields which therefore penetrate directly to low latitudes The structure and dynamics of the thermosphere and ionosphere is globally affected due to the increase of ionospheric conductivity, the Joule heating and the ion drag in the upper atmosphere of high latitudes and the disturbance dynamo gives origin to westward electric field that penetrates to equatorial region that could last up to 30 hours after the end of the storm main phase. The disturbed thermospheric circulation changes and the thermospheric meridional wind movesthe plasma along magnetic field lines modifying the the neutral composition distribution and consequently the recombination rates of ionized species (Fedrizzi, 2003; Fuller-Rowell et al., 2002).

earths magnetic field and magnetosphere diagram

The disturbed magnetospheric electric fields that penetrate to equatorial ionospheric region affect drastically the prereversal peak that is an intensification of the vertical plasma drift around 18-21 LT (21 LT corresponds to 24 UT for the Brazilian region under investigation in this work). The prereversal peak is explained through the action of uniform neutral wind in the F region (see Fig. 2). According to Farley et al. (1986) the electric field Ez  generated by the F region dynamo ( -U × B) is mapped to theconjugated E-region along magnetic field lines as an electric field Eq directed to the equator. This electric field generates a low latitude Hall current, Jqf, directed to west. A peculiar situation occurs at regions close to the day-night terminator. Due to the much larger dayside conductivity (as compared to the nightside), no current flows in the nocturnal E-region and consequently negative charge accumulates in the terminator and gives origin to an Ef field and to a current Jff that tries to cancel Jqf (shown in Fig. 2). Ef is then mapped back to the F region and it causes, firstly, an upward E  × B drift of the plasma to higher altitudes and soon after, a downward drift around 21 LT.

Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) or Appleton Anomaly - pre reversal peak

At low latitudes the ionosphere presents the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) or Appleton Anomaly, that consists of an ionospheric region with high electronic density peaks, observed around 15 degrees north and south of the magnetic equator.This electronic density increase in low latitudes has its origin in the upward vertical E × B plasma drift of the equatorial F layer.As previously shown, the zonal electric field that exists in the equatorial ionosphere is directed to the east during day, creating an upward E × B/B2 vertical drift velocity. Soon after the sunset, this eastward electric field is intensified (prereversal peak) by the F region dynamo and the plasma from F region is uplifted to high altitudes. Meanwhile, the plasma from low altitudes quickly decline due decreasing of the intensity of incident solar radiation (Kelley, 1989). After lifting to high altitudes in the equatorial region, the plasma starts a descent movement along magnetic field lines. This movement happens due to the action of gravity (g) and pressure gradient (Ñp) forces. This phenomenon (the plasma elevation and the subsequent descent along magnetic field lines to low latitudes) is known as the fountain effect (see the scheme in Fig. 3), giving origin to the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly.

Equatorial plasma fountain or Appleton Anomaly

The upward vertical plasma drift in the equator after sunset that gives origin to the prereversal peak, is the main factor responsible for the plasma irregularity generation (Fejer et al., 1999). The irregularities in the electronic density causes a GPS signal to scintillate and the corresponding amplitude pattern which is elongated in the north-south direction on the grounds drift from west to east during magnetically quiet period (Kintner et al., 2001).The ionospheric scintillation can be defined as fluctuations in the amplitude or phase of a radio wave. As the ionospheric scintillations are highly dependent of the upward vertical plasma drift in the equator driven by east-west electric fields, the penetration to equator of eastward (westward) electric field from magnetospheric (disturbance dynamo) origin during storms can trigger (inhibit) them. The scintillation amplitude is dependent also from the background ionization (TEC).
Study of ionospheric irregularities during intense magnetic storms (pdf) (http://www.theplasmaverse.com/pdfs/xearth/ionospheric-irregularities-during-intense-magnetic-storms.pdf)
website http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-261X2007000600017


Equatorial anomaly

earths equatorial plasma fountain current anomaly

Within approximately ± 20 degrees of the magnetic equator, is the equatorial  anomaly. It is the occurrence of a trough of concentrated ionization in the F2 layer. The Earth's magnetic field lines are horizontal at the magnetic equator. Solar heating and tidal oscillations in the lower ionosphere move plasma up and across the magnetic field lines. This sets up a sheet of electric current in the E region which, with the horizontal magnetic field, forces ionization up into the F layer, concentrating at ± 20 degrees from the magnetic equator. This phenomenon is known as the equatorial fountain.

Equatorial electrojet

The worldwide solar-driven wind results in the so-called Sq (solar quiet) current system in the E region of the Earth's ionosphere (100–130 km altitude). Resulting from this current is an electrostatic field directed E-W (dawn-dusk) in the equatorial day side of the ionosphere. At the magnetic dip equator, where the geomagnetic field is horizontal, this electric field results in an enhanced eastward current flow within ± 3 degrees of the magnetic equator, known as the equatorial electrojet.
Equatorial anomaly | wiki (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionosphere#Equatorial_anomaly)