Electric Universe forum - Everything Is Electric

Everything and anything => Electrical Universe DIScussion => : electrobleme September 17, 2009, 02:47:50

: If it is an Electric Universe there has to be circuits between everything
: electrobleme September 17, 2009, 02:47:50
Electric Universe = circuits and "wiring" between everything

If the Universe is Electric then there has to be powerlines and circuits between everything. If there is no connections, "wiring" or exchanges then there is no Electric Universe. It is that simple.

If there are electrical connections between everything then it is an Electric Universe Fact not Theory.

The Universe

** Filaments of Galaxies (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg1697#msg1697) - gravity?
** interacting galaxies Arp 273 (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg1656#msg1656) - a telltale sign of interaction
** Electric circuit between Saturn and Enceladus, Jupiter and its moons (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg1652#msg1652)
** Hot Jupiters and electric resistance/circuits (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg1490#msg1490) - "Electric Resistance May Make Hot Jupiters Puffy"
** Tropical Cyclones Tomas and Ului (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg949#msg949) - Electric Universe = scalability
** Giant "magnetic" loop connects the pair of stars in the double-star system Algol (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg638#msg638) - a constant circuit flows between 2 (electric) Stars, "tidal locked" and less than 6 million miles apart
** BLACK Hole (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg593#msg593) - feeding or something being powered in the EU in a circuit?
** Pair of Quasars (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg855#msg855) - circuit or Galactic collision?
** galactic circuits and galaxies connecting in an Electric Universe or Gravity? (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg259#msg259)
** The filaments extend for millions of light-years in an enormous cosmic web, providing a framework for the universe’s large-scale structure (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg362#msg362)
** possibly from a binary star system where helium flows from one white dwarf onto another (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg363#msg363)
** Star Belts and Gould's Belt (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg382#msg382)
** Space tornadoes are rotating plasmas of hot, ionized gas flowing at speeds of more than a million miles per hour (connecting the Electric Sun with the Earth) (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg383#msg383)
** the hot Wolf-Rayet is dumping vast quantities of gas into its companion's accretion disk (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg397#msg397)
** ...an apparently unrelated galaxy in the quasar's immediate neighbourhood is producing stars at a frantic rate (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg403#msg403)

Arp's Catalog/Atlas Of Peculiar Galaxies
** Arp's Catalog Of Peculiar Galaxies (http://arpgalaxy.com/) ** Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies (Wiki) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlas_of_Peculiar_Galaxies) ** The Arp Peculiar Galaxies (http://www.338arps.com/)
** (Halton Arp's Book) Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science (http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0968368905?ie=UTF8&tag=everiselec-20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0968368905)

Our Solar System

** weathEU - Earths electric weather circuit (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=57.0)
** Flux Transfer Events (FTE's) (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg417#msg417) - magnetic portals (2 types) connect between the Earth and the Sun every 8 minutes
** The Northern Lights Show or circuits? (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg542#msg542) - are these "knots" of auroras or twisting Birkeland Currents?

Saturn and its moons
** Enceladus (http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/091104-enceladus-plumes.html) - fountains
** Aegaeon moon (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg699#msg699) -  Saturns G ring dwarf parent moon?

Humans, animals and plants

Is ESP actually Electrical Sensensory Perception? Even Doyle Brunson, Poker legend and Godfather believes in ESP
ESP - it's a Jellyroll
I believe some good Poker players actually employ a degree of Extra Sensensory Perception (ESP)... Everybody has had the experience of riding with someone else in an automobile and thinking of a song, then being surprised to hear his companion start singing that very song.

...Is it really too unreasonable to suspect that such a highly sophisticated device as the human brain, during the intesity of concentrating in a big pot, could broadcast a simple message like a "Pair of Jacks" a mere eight feet?
Doyle Brunson's Super System - page 23 - ESP

** ever had a "brainwave" or a bolt from the blue thought or surprising idea? (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=182.0) - The Akashic Records concept and the Electromagnetic Field Theory of Consciousness
** Where are our thoughts written? (http://www.hydrogen2oxygen.net/where-are-our-thoughts-written/) - Our brain is a interface, not a computer?
** Thunderbolts of the Gods Pt.5 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lMJs2W6IJc) and Thunderbolts of the Gods Pt.6 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xYe9ZVcP5kg) - radio interview about the book/video - Wal Thornhill and David Talbott discuss human connections with the Electric Universe
** Biophotonics experiment (http://www.everythingiselectric.com/biophotonics-humans-auras-acupuncture.html) - human auras?
** Dowsing and the lattice (http://thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=327)


** XEarth Board (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?board=37.0) - the exchanging Earth in an Electrical Universe **

: galactic circuits and galaxies connecting in an Electric Universe or Gravity?
: electrobleme September 17, 2009, 16:59:13

If it is an Electric Universe then everything should be connected,
no matter what the scale. Jets or "wiring" should be seen. Things should work together.

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/arp194-cepheus-blue-fountain-stars-electrical-plasma-connection-banner.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hs-2009-18-a-full_jpg.jpg)
Arp 194 (Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies) in the Cepheus constellation

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/radio-galaxy-centaurus-a-synchrotron-radiation-radio-lobes.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaurus_A)
Centaura A - radio galaxy with lobes connected by jets

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/arp87-atlas-of-peculiar-galaxies-spiral-galaxy-pair-ngc3808A-ngc3808B-banner.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlas_of_Peculiar_Galaxies)
spiral galaxy pair NGC 3808A and NGC 3808B (Arp 87 in the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies)

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/radio-structure-FRII-radio-galaxy-3C98-lobes-jets-plumes-hotspots-banner.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_galaxy)
radio structure of FRII radio galaxy 3C98 with hotspots at the end of the lobes/plumes connected by a jet

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/mice-galaxies-ngc4676-arp242-gravity-tidal-bridge-atlas-of-peculiar-galaxies-banner.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NGC4676.jpg)
The Mice Galaxies (NGC 4676 and Arp 242 in the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies)

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/galaxy-m87-plasma-jet-electric-universe-connections-forum.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:M87_jet.jpg)
galaxy M87 and its jet

Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies
The "Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies" was written by Halton Arp (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halton_Arp) and shows unusual Galaxies. Halton Arp is also the author of the book "Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science" (http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0968368905?ie=UTF8&tag=everiselec-20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0968368905) which is an investigation into the idea that Red Shift, a basic principal of the Big Bang, is not correct.
Halton Arp also has his own website (http://www.haltonarp.com/articles) where you can read other articles by him

: filaments extend for millions of light-years in an enormous cosmic web
: electrobleme November 06, 2009, 03:29:51

The filaments extend for millions of light-years in an enormous cosmic web, providing a framework for the universe’s large-scale structure

Giant galaxy graveyard grows

The largest known galactic congregation is bigger than astronomers thought—and its inhabitants are all dead or dying

A gigantic galactic graveyard lurks in the distant universe, and the death toll is growing.

New observations establish a supercluster centered on the cluster CL0016+16 as the largest galactic congregation ever found, astronomers report in Astronomy & Astrophysics. The supercluster extends even farther than previously thought, and it’s drawing in more and more galaxies.

CL0016+16 lies about 6.7 billion light-years away from Earth. That cluster was first observed in 1981, and later observations hinted that it might be just one of a cluster of clusters. Observations by David Koo of the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1996 pointed to a large structure extending from the main cluster.

“There are many predictions for large-scale structure in the universe, but nobody has really confirmed that this large-scale cluster exists in the distant universe,” says Masayuki Tanaka from the European Southern Observatory, a coauthor of the new report. “We actually see this massive structure in the distant universe. Not theory, not prediction — this is the real universe.”

Tanaka and his colleagues made several observations of the region between August 2007 and December 2008 using the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii and the Very Large Telescope in Chile. They found that the supercluster extends at least 60 million light-years in one direction beyond the 100 million light-years already known, and it could reach even farther.

“It must be gigantic,” Koo says. “This thing is not only big, it’s big in the opposite direction from what we saw. It’s probably twice as big as we thought.”

Galaxies that group together tend to switch off each others’ star formation, “bringing a flourishing galaxy into a dead one,” says study coauthor Alexis Finoguenov of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany.

Astronomers think that grouped galaxies speed up, stripping away their neighbors’ hot gas, the raw material for forming stars. When galaxies cluster, “there is always a threshold when groups go from an encouraging environment to a suffocating environment,” Finoguenov says.

Galaxies are known to clump together along dark matter filaments, which grew from slight variations in the concentration of matter after the Big Bang. The filaments extend for millions of light-years in an enormous cosmic web, providing a framework for the universe’s large-scale structure.

Tanaka’s team identified tens of clumps of galaxies surrounding CL0016+16, some of which are up to a thousand times more massive than the Milky Way.

And most of those galaxies are either dead or dying, meaning they’re not making new stars. The tremendous gravitational pull of the central cluster  is drawing in other galaxies, which will eventually cease star formation in the growing galactic graveyard.

On the bright side, “this will be an ideal data set to study when, where and how galaxies die,” Tanaka says.

Galaxies near the Milky Way, at least, are at a safe distance from the graveyard. “We will probably never turn into such an environment anyway,” Finoguenov says. “We will keep living.”
Giant galaxy graveyard grows - sciencenews .org (http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/49131/title/Giant_galaxy_graveyard_grows)
: a binary star system where helium flows from one white dwarf onto another
: electrobleme November 06, 2009, 18:24:35
..possibly from a binary star system where helium flows from one white dwarf onto another

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/AM-CVn-star-system-exploding-TypeIa-point-one-A-supernova-forum.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/index.php?level=picture&id=1505)

Rapid supernova could be new class of exploding star

By Robert Sanders, Media Relations | 05 November 2009

BERKELEY — An unusual supernova rediscovered in seven-year-old data may be the first example of a new type of exploding star, possibly from a binary star system where helium flows from one white dwarf onto another and detonates in a thermonuclear explosion.

In a paper first published online Nov. 5 in the journal Science Express, University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) astronomer Dovi Poznanski and his colleagues describe the outburst, dubbed SN 2002bj, and why they believe it is a new type of explosion.

"This is the fastest evolving supernova we have ever seen," said Poznanski, a UC Berkeley post-doctoral fellow who recently joined LBNL's Computational Cosmology Center. "It was three to four times faster than a standard supernova, basically disappearing within 20 days. Its brightness just dropped like a rock."

This rapid drop, coupled with the supernova's faintness, the strong signature of helium in the spectrum of the explosion, the absence of hydrogen, and the possible presence of vanadium – an element never previously identified in supernova spectra – points toward helium detonation on a white dwarf, the astronomers said.

"We think this may well be a new physical explosion mechanism, not just a minor variation of ones already known," said co-author Alex Filippenko, UC Berkeley professor of astronomy. "This supernova is qualitatively different from the complete disruption of a white dwarf, known as a Type Ia supernova, or the collapse of an iron core and rebound of the surrounding material, so-called 'core-collapse supernovae.'"

Co-author Joshua Bloom, UC Berkeley associate professor of astronomy, also views SN 2002bj as a "new beast" quite different from the two well-known classes of supernovae.

"We have seen great diversity in those two main supernova mechanisms, but even within that diversity, observationally, there is a limited range of variation spectrally and in how events evolve in time," he said. "This object (SN 2002bj) falls outside that range."

The supernova was detected in 2002 in the galaxy NGC 1821, in the constellation Lepus, by Filippenko's Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory near San Jose as well as by amateur astronomers. Due to an unfortunate alignment of circumstances, the supernova was erroneously classified by the astronomical community as a common Type II supernova and filed away.

(http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/thumbs/lrg-1506-sn-2002bj-galaxyngc1821-exploding-star-supernovae-pointonea.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/index.php?level=picture&id=1506)

In June, Poznanski happened upon the spectrum while searching for Type II supernovae he hopes to use as distance indicators to confirm the accelerating expansion of the universe. When he carefully examined a high-quality spectrum of SN 2002bj, he realized that the supernova was not a Type II at all, but an unusual kind of supernova more akin to a Type Ia.

The spectrum had been obtained seven days after its discovery by Filippenko and Douglas Leonard, at the time a UC Berkeley graduate student, now an assistant professor of astronomy at San Diego State University, using the Keck I telescope.

"Its classification was a mistake, which is understandable given the conditions of the data. But, of course, a redress of old data with fresh eyes is not usually this fruitful," Leonard said.

Pulling out follow-up images made by KAIT, Poznanski and UC Berkeley graduate student Mohan Ganeshalingam found that the brightness of SN 2002bj dropped off so rapidly that the supernova disappeared 20 days after its discovery. An image of that area of the sky taken seven days prior to its discovery showed no supernova, so it had brightened and dimmed into obscurity in less than 27 days, whereas most supernovae brighten and dim over three to four months.

Searching through thousands of supernovae spectra, Poznanski and graduate student Ryan Chornock – now a post-doctoral fellow at Harvard University – could find none that had such an awkward composition, but they did come across a theory of fast but faint supernovae that seemed to fit.

Proposed by Lars Bildsten and colleagues – Bildsten is a professor of physics at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at UC Santa Barbara – the theory involves AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) binary systems, which are composed of two white dwarfs, one of which is primarily made of helium that is being slowly pulled by gravity onto its companion. White dwarfs are the remnants of stars that burned their hydrogen down to carbon and oxygen or, in some particular cases, to helium.

In a 2007 Astrophysical Journal Letters paper, Bildsten and colleagues proposed that in AM CVn systems, when enough helium has been accumulated on the surface of the primary white dwarf, an explosion will occur that can "power a faint … and rapidly rising (few days) thermonuclear supernova."

Christopher Stubbs, chair of the Department of Physics at Harvard University, jokingly dubbed it a ''.Ia'' (point one A) supernova, because it is one-tenth as bright for one-tenth the time as a Type Ia supernova, and the name stuck.

Filippenko noted that this explosion is nothing like a regular Type Ia explosion because the white dwarf survives the detonation of the helium shell. In fact, it has similarities to both a nova and a supernova. Novas occur when matter – primarily hydrogen – falls onto a star and accumulates in a shell that can flare up as brief thermonuclear explosions. SN 2002bj is a "super" nova, generating about 1,000 times the energy of a standard nova, he said.

The explosion would have created heavy elements such as chromium, which decays to vanadium and thence to titanium. Thus, absorption lines of vanadium could be expected, Poznanski said.

Filippenko noted that the past few years have "yielded a bonanza of weird supernovae."

"A lot of us who have studied supernovae for several decades are amazed at the quality and quantity of data coming in recently, showing interesting new subclasses or even strange new physical classes of supernovae," he said. "It whets my appetite for what else we might find out there with these large, wide-sky surveys like the Palomar Transient Factory, Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. KAIT has discovered about 800 supernovae, but these new surveys will find thousands or hundreds of thousands of supernovae."

Poznanski, too, is expecting the current Palomar Transient Factory, which uses a wide-field camera to search the sky daily for new objects, to find more supernovae like SN 2002bj. The factory is a project led by Shri Kulkarni, professor of astronomy at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and involves many of the co-authors on the Science Express paper, including Peter Nugent, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center at LBNL, who runs the search for transients.

"The Palomar survey will be able to find many rare objects, like SN 2002bj, by scanning huge parts of the sky and not limit itself to the big, bright and nearby galaxies," Poznanski said.

Coauthors with Poznanski, Filippenko, Nugent, Ganeshalingam, Leonard, Chornock and Bloom are Rollin C. Thomas, a member of the Computational Cosmology Center, and Weidong Li of UC Berkeley's Department of Astronomy.

The research was funded by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, the Sylvia and Jim Katzman Foundation and the TABASGO Foundation, with observational assistance from the University of California Lick Observatory and the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii.
Rapid supernova could be new class of exploding star - berkeley.edu (http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2009/11/05_rapid_supernova.shtml)

: Star Belts and Gould's Belt
: electrobleme November 24, 2009, 15:57:04

Gould's Belt - Dark explanation or power band across the sky?

In the middle of the 19th century, the English astronomer John Herschel noticed that we are surrounded by a ring of bright stars. But it was Boston-born Benjamin Gould who brought this to wider attention in 1874. Gould's belt, as it is now known, supplies bright stars for many famous constellations including Orion, Scorpius and Crux, the Southern Cross, which appears on the official flags of five countries and several territories. Perseus and Canis Major in the north, along with Vela and Centaurus in the south, also contain stars in Gould's belt.

It is a sizeable structure, some 3000 light years across, and can be traced as a bright band of stars tilted at about 20 degrees to the Milky Way. Within it are several thousand high-mass stars as well as up to a million low-mass ones. Most importantly, these stars appear to have formed separately from the rest of the stars in the galaxy - and that's what makes them so interesting.

Stars do not form randomly in the Milky Way. Instead they are confined to the arms that spiral around its nucleus.
Orion's dark secret: Violence shaped the night sky  (http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20427350.900-orions-dark-secret-violence-shaped-the-night-sky.html?full=true)

What can cause a bright band of stars, out of place, in a galaxy? Not just in Gould's Belt but other places?

Dark stuff and Dark Collisions (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=172.msg381#msg381) is the astronomers answer of course. But could it simply be a power band connecting across the galaxy?

The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) sits just 186,000 light years away, and at first sight it appears to be a mess of stars with no obvious structure. Closer inspection, however, has revealed a bar-like structure of older stars buried near its heart. This could have happened if the LMC was once a "barred spiral galaxy" - one in which looping spiral arms are joined to the central nucleus by a bar of stars. What has so far defied explanation, however, is why the bar of stars is significantly off-centre inside the galaxy.

One suggestion was that the Milky Way's gravity has gradually been pulling the LMC out of shape, but this has come to nothing as simulations were unable to show how this gentle distortion could have displaced the bar....

Evidence for similar collisions is starting to turn up even further afield. Bekki is casting a critical eye at dwarf galaxy NGC 6822, which has a noticeable hole about 5000 light years across. "It looks like a collision to me," he says.

Meanwhile, Comerón has also found something that he believes to be a Gould's belt in another galaxy. Down in the south-east quadrant of the magnificent spiral galaxy M83 is a bright burst of stars, sitting in an otherwise dark lane between spiral arms. It is about 1500 light years across. "The complex stands out clearly from the spiral pattern of the galaxy, and its size and age make it look like a Gould's belt," he says.
Orion's dark secret: Violence shaped the night sky  (http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20427350.900-orions-dark-secret-violence-shaped-the-night-sky.html?full=true)

: Space Tornados between Sun and the Earth
: electrobleme November 27, 2009, 15:44:00
Space tornados are rotating plasmas of hot, ionized gas flowing at speeds of more than a million miles per hour

Twisting electrical currents, connecting between the Sun and the Earth every 3 hours, 1 million miles an hour, 100, 000 amps. Is it a Nuclear Sun and the Gravity Universe or does electricity have something to do with our Sun and the Universe?

(http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/thumbs/lrg-1559-space-tornados-earth-sun-auroras-birkeland-currents.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/index.php?level=picture&id=1559)

If you think tornadoes on Earth are scary, newly found "space tornadoes" sound downright horrifying. But they are likely the power source behind the beautiful Northern and Southern Lights. A new finding by a cluster of five space probes – the THEMIS, or Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms show that electrical funnels which span a volume as large as Earth produce electrical currents exceeding 100,000 amperes. THEMIS recorded the extent and power of these electrical funnels as the probes passed through them during their orbit of Earth. Ground measurements showed that the space tornadoes channel the electrical current into the ionosphere to spark bright and colorful auroras on Earth.

Space tornadoes are rotating plasmas of hot, ionized gas flowing at speeds of more than a million miles per hour, far faster than the 200 m.p.h. winds of terrestrial tornadoes, according to Andreas Keiling, a research space physicist at the University of California, Berkeley’s Space Sciences Laboratory.

Keiling works on THEMIS, which was built and is now operated by UC Berkeley. The five space probes were launched by NASA in February 2007 to solve a decades-long mystery about the origin of magnetic storms that power the Northern and Southern Lights.

(http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/thumbs/lrg-1560-electric-currents-in-the-funnels-power-auroras-space-tornadoes.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/thumbs/lrg-1560-electric-currents-in-the-funnels-power-auroras-space-tornadoes.jpg)

Both terrestrial and space tornadoes consist of funnel-shaped structures. Space tornadoes, however, generate huge amounts of electrical currents inside the funnel. These currents flow along twisted magnetic field lines from space into the ionosphere where they power several processes, most notably bright auroras such as the Northern Lights, Keiling said.

While these intense currents do not cause any direct harm to humans, on the ground they can damage man-made structures, such as power transformers.

The THEMIS spacecraft observed these tornadoes, or “flow vortices,” at a distance of about 40,000 miles from Earth. Simultaneous measurements by THEMIS ground observatories confirmed the tornadoes’ connection to the ionosphere.

Keiling’s colleagues include Karl-Heinz Glassmeier of the Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics (IGEP, TU) in Braunschweig, Germany, and Olaf Amm of the Finnish Meteorological Institute.
New Finding Shows Super-Huge Space Tornados Power the Auroras (http://www.universetoday.com/2009/04/23/new-finding-shows-super-huge-space-tornados-power-the-auroras/)

These  look and sound like Birkeland currents, infact what else can you call them? Oh yes Space Tornadoes or "substorm current wedges". Why not what they actually are?

the vast size and speed of these rotating plasmas of ionized gas

Giant "Space Tornadoes" Spark Auroras on Earth

Whirling at more than a million miles per hour, these invisible, funnel-shaped solar windstorms carry electrical currents of more than a hundred thousand amps—roughly ten times that of an average lightning strike—scientists announced Thursday.

Led by the University of California astrophysicist Andreas Keiling, scientists have made the most detailed measurements yet of the space tornadoes, also known as substorm current wedges.

Their results shed light on how space tornadoes help spark auroras, also known as the southern or northern lights—the glowing colors that light up the night in polar regions.

Spinning Up Auroras

As well as revealing the vast size and speed of these rotating plasmas of ionized gas, the team has pinpointed how space tornadoes kick-start the auroras we see on Earth.

"The tornado appears to ignite the aurora," said study leader Keiling, who presented the findings at a European Geosciences Union meeting in Vienna, Austria.

Barrages of the wind's charged particles hit the dayside of Earth, then flow around the planet, stretching our magnetic field into a tail—or magnetotail—extending away from the sun.

A magnetotail is "like a rubber band being stretched and snapped back again. This creates lots of turbulence and forms the tornado," Keiling said.

Space Tornadoes: Fast, Furious—And Frequent

The new measurements show that a space tornado forms roughly every three hours and takes just one minute to reach Earth's ionosphere—our outermost atmospheric layer, between 62 and 250 miles (100 and 400 kilometers) above the ground.
Giant "Space Tornadoes" Spark Auroras on Earth (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/04/090424-space-tornadoes-auroras.html)

The Universe a Vast Electric Organism By George Woodard Warder (1903 Book) - Chapter one, page 25

...By reason of this law, all suns and planets, revolve on their electric centers at their poles. The great electric currents from the sun eight thousand miles in diameter and ninety three million miles in length, like a mighty, inexhaustible river of force and power, cause the earth to turn over, as a water-wheel is turned by the swift current of a river. This vast stream or current of invisible power, when it starts from the photosphere of the sun, is 865,000 miles in diameter and is narrowed to a focus of 8,000 miles at the earth's surface, thus increasing its force and power a thousand-fold. The largest river on the earth is 180 miles wide at its mouth and about 3,000 miles long, but what an insignificant rivulet it is in contrast with this vast,invisible,omnipotent stream of electric life-giving power, constantly passing to and fro from sun to earth and from earth to sun.
Think of its marvelous speed! While the swiftest current of a river or the speed of a railroad train is scarcely fifty miles an hour, this mighty electric tide comes with the speed of light 186,00 miles a second, or almost 12,000,000 of miles an hour; and it turns the earth over at the rate of a thousand miles an hour but its lines of magnetic force, just as the swift tide of a river turns the water-wheel of a mill.
The Universe a Vast Electric Organism By George Woodard Warder - Chapter one, page 25  (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=184.0)
: The Beating Gamma-ray Heart of a Microquasar
: electrobleme November 30, 2009, 17:50:55

the hot Wolf-Rayet is dumping vast quantities of gas into its companion's accretion disk

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/microquasar-cygnus-x-3-gamma-ray-radiation-wolf-rayet-thunderbolts.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/index.php?level=picture&id=1574)

A microquasar is composed of a massive star and a massive compact object, like a black hole. As the pair orbit one another, the powerful gravitational field of the black hole pulls matter from its stellar companion. In doing so, an accretion disk forms around the black hole and powerful jets of matter are ejected from the poles, generating a distinct radio signal.

In these new observations from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, gamma-rays have been observed coming from the microquasar Cygnus X-3, 37,000 light-years from Earth (in the constellation of Cygnus). Although Cygnus X-3 is known to generate powerful radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum, this is the first time gamma-ray radiation has been observed coming from a confirmed microquasar.

Cygnus X-3 is a binary system composed of a massive Wolf-Rayet (an old O-class star in the final, violent stages of its life) orbiting a black hole or a neutron star. The pair have an orbital period of 4.8 hours and the hot Wolf-Rayet is dumping vast quantities of gas into its companion's accretion disk (in 100,000 years, the Wolf-Rayet will lose approximately the mass of our sun).

It is thought the gamma-ray radiation in Cygnus X-3 is being generated through interactions between the Wolf-Rayet's intense ultraviolet light and the accelerated electrons in the partner's accretion disk.

Microquasars are named after their larger cousins, quasars, as they share many of the same characteristics. However, quasars are composed of supermassive black holes in the center of active galaxies that consume vast amounts of material (very active quasars can consume the mass of 600 Earths per minute), so microquasars are tiny in comparison.
The Beating Gamma-ray Heart of a Microquasar - news.discovery .com (http://news.discovery.com/space/fermi-gamma-ray-microquasar.html)
: The naked Quasar and "Black Holes" connected?
: electrobleme December 01, 2009, 20:14:21

...an apparently unrelated galaxy in the quasar's immediate neighbourhood is producing stars at a frantic rate

New Discovery: Supermassive Black Holes Create Galaxies

The answer may have been found to the question of whether a galaxy or its black hole comes first -one of the most debated subjects in astrophysics today. A startling new study suggests that supermassive black holes can trigger the formation of stars, thus 'building' their own host galaxies. This finding could also explain why galaxies hosting larger black holes have more stars. To reach such an extraordinary conclusion, the team of astronomers conducted extensive observations of a peculiar object, the quasar HE0450-2958, also called the "naked quasar" and the "quasar without a home," because it the only one for which a host galaxy has not yet been detected.

Until now, it was speculated that the quasar's host galaxy was hidden behind large amounts of dust, and so the astronomers used a mid-infrared instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope for the observations [2]. At such wavelengths, dust clouds shine very brightly, and are readily detected. "Observing at these wavelengths would allow us to trace dust that might hide the host galaxy," says Knud Jahnke, who led the observations performed at the VLT. "However, we did not find any. Instead we discovered that an apparently unrelated galaxy in the quasar's immediate neighbourhood is producing stars at a frantic rate."

These observations have provided a surprising new take on the system. While no trace of stars is revealed around the black hole, its companion galaxy is extremely rich in bright and very young stars. It is forming stars at a rate equivalent to about 350 Suns per year, one hundred times more than rates for typical galaxies in the local Universe.

Earlier observations had shown that the companion galaxy is, in fact, under fire: the quasar is spewing a jet of highly energetic particles towards its companion, accompanied by a stream of fast-moving gas. The injection of matter and energy into the galaxy indicates that the quasar itself might be inducing the formation of stars and thereby creating its own host galaxy; in such a scenario, galaxies would have evolved from clouds of gas hit by the energetic jets emerging from quasars.

...Hence, the team have identified black hole jets as a possible driver of galaxy formation, which may also represent the long-sought missing link to understanding why the mass of black holes is larger in galaxies that contain more stars
New Discovery: Supermassive Black Holes Create Galaxies (http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2009/12/new-discovery-supermassive-black-holes-create-their-own-galaxies.html)

Although Black Holes dont exist (something is there but not a Black Hole) the thing is linked to its surrounding area. The reason there are larger objects where there are more stars is due to them being components in a circuit. The more power you have the more stuff you can power and the larger or stronger the current supplying them needs to be.

The idea that larger "Black Holes" are found near galaxies with more stars yet the nearby this quasar there is an amazing amount of stars should show that there is a link, a circuit. Especially as there is a "jet" being spewed into the galaxy. The word "spewed" should be looked at in a circuit idea. The quasar is powering the galaxy but especially the stars. 350 stars per year! Isn't gravity amazing.
: Magnetic Portals (2 types!) connect the Sun and the Earth every 8 minutes
: electrobleme December 03, 2009, 06:27:50
Power line between the Earth and the Sun

Magnetic Portals Connect Sun and Earth

Oct. 30, 2008: During the time it takes you to read this article, something will happen high overhead that until recently many scientists didn't believe in. A magnetic portal will open, linking Earth to the sun 93 million miles away. Tons of high-energy particles may flow through the opening before it closes again, around the time you reach the end of the page.

"It's called a flux transfer event or 'FTE,'" says space physicist David Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight Center. "Ten years ago I was pretty sure they didn't exist, but now the evidence is incontrovertible."

Indeed, today Sibeck is telling an international assembly of space physicists at the 2008 Plasma Workshop in Huntsville, Alabama, that FTEs are not just common, but possibly twice as common as anyone had ever imagined.

Researchers have long known that the Earth and sun must be connected. Earth's magnetosphere (the magnetic bubble that surrounds our planet) is filled with particles from the sun that arrive via the solar wind and penetrate the planet's magnetic defenses. They enter by following magnetic field lines that can be traced from terra firma all the way back to the sun's atmosphere.

"We used to think the connection was permanent and that solar wind could trickle into the near-Earth environment anytime the wind was active," says Sibeck. "We were wrong. The connections are not steady at all. They are often brief, bursty and very dynamic."

Several speakers at the Workshop have outlined how FTEs form: On the dayside of Earth (the side closest to the sun), Earth's magnetic field presses against the sun's magnetic field. Approximately every eight minutes, the two fields briefly merge or "reconnect," forming a portal through which particles can flow. The portal takes the form of a magnetic cylinder about as wide as Earth. The European Space Agency's fleet of four Cluster spacecraft and NASA's five THEMIS probes have flown through and surrounded these cylinders, measuring their dimensions and sensing the particles that shoot through. "They're real," says Sibeck.

Now that Cluster and THEMIS have directly sampled FTEs, theorists can use those measurements to simulate FTEs in their computers and predict how they might behave. Space physicist Jimmy Raeder of the University of New Hampshire presented one such simulation at the Workshop. He told his colleagues that the cylindrical portals tend to form above Earth's equator and then roll over Earth's winter pole. In December, FTEs roll over the north pole; in July they roll over the south pole.

Sibeck believes this is happening twice as often as previously thought. "I think there are two varieties of FTEs: active and passive." Active FTEs are magnetic cylinders that allow particles to flow through rather easily; they are important conduits of energy for Earth's magnetosphere. Passive FTEs are magnetic cylinders that offer more resistance; their internal structure does not admit such an easy flow of particles and fields. (For experts: Active FTEs form at equatorial latitudes when the IMF tips south; passive FTEs form at higher latitudes when the IMF tips north.) Sibeck has calculated the properties of passive FTEs and he is encouraging his colleagues to hunt for signs of them in data from THEMIS and Cluster. "Passive FTEs may not be very important, but until we know more about them we can't be sure."

There are many unanswered questions: Why do the portals form every 8 minutes? How do magnetic fields inside the cylinder twist and coil? "We're doing some heavy thinking about this at the Workshop," says Sibeck.

Meanwhile, high above your head, a new portal is opening, connecting your planet to the sun.
Magnetic Portals Connect Sun and Earth - nasa .gov (http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2008/30oct_ftes.htm)

Flux Tranfer Events move between the pole and the equator, there are TWO types of FTE's... what in the a Gravity Universe would create or even need a FTE let alone 2 types of them?

The answer to the question "How do magnetic fields inside the cylinder twist and coil? "We're doing some heavy thinking about this at the Workshop," is easily answered and no need for that Workshop. They are Birkeland Currents (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=138.msg272#msg272) but astronomers do not like to say the B or the E words.

Were Flux Tranfer Events (FTE's) and/or Space Tornadoes predicted in 1903 by George Woodard Warder in his book The Universe a Vast Electric Organism (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=184.msg416#msg416) ?
: The Northern Lights Show - colliding auroras or circuits?
: electrobleme December 29, 2009, 19:46:56

Colliding Northern Lights or Circuits?

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/colliding-auroras-knots-fast-curtains-birkeland-currents-northern-lights-1.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/index.php?level=picture&id=1703)

This is the starting composite image of the auroras (Northern Lights) before they start "colliding" and "producing light". Or are they variations of Birkeland Currents connecting in a circuit/exchange?

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/colliding-auroras-knots-fast-curtains-birkeland-currents-northern-lights-2.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/index.php?level=picture&id=1703)

Here the "knots" of auroras (there are lots of knots, twisty stringy things in space that are very similar to Birkeland Currents) connect and do what any circuit does. Also in the top right hand corner there is a bright light of another circuit.

The bottom section describes the exchange/circuit as seen with mainstream eyes, oh and by the way...

"It took some creative thinking to come up with an answer, but I believe this team has done it," says THEMIS project scientist Dave Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight Center..."By putting together data from ground-based cameras, ground-based radar, and the THEMIS spacecraft themselves, we now have a nearly complete picture of what causes explosive auroral substorms," says Sibeck."

No more surprises then, even though they never predicted this and amazed it happens its all sorted now. The model used to not predict these things is just updated and will not predict the next surprise or circuit but will then be updated again and be the standard model and then...


A network of cameras deployed around the Arctic in support of NASA's THEMIS mission has made a startling discovery about the Northern Lights. Sometimes, vast curtains of aurora borealis collide, producing spectacular outbursts of light. Movies of the phenomenon were unveiled at the Fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union today in San Francisco.

"Our jaws dropped when we saw the movies for the first time," says space scientist Larry Lyons of UCLA, a leading member of the team that made the discovery. "These outbursts are telling us something very fundamental about the nature of auroras."

The collisions occur on such a vast scale, isolated observers on Earth with limited fields of view had never noticed them before. It took a network of sensitive cameras spread across thousands of miles to get the big picture.

NASA and the Canadian Space Agency created such a network for THEMIS, short for "Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms." THEMIS consists of five spacecraft launched in 2006 to solve a long-standing mystery: Why do auroras occasionally erupt in an explosion of light called a substorm? Twenty all-sky imagers (ASIs) were deployed across the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic to photograph auroras from below while the spacecraft sampled charged particles and electromagnetic fields from above. Together, the cameras and spacecraft would see the action from both sides and be able to piece together cause and effect—or so researchers hoped.

It seems to have worked.

The breakthrough came earlier this year when UCLA researcher Toshi Nishimura completed the Herculean task of assembling continent-wide movies from the individual ASI cameras.

"It can be a little tricky," Nishimura says. "Each camera has its own local weather and lighting conditions, and the auroras are different distances from each camera. I've got to account for these factors for six or more cameras simultaneously to make a coherent, large-scale movie."

The first movie he showed Lyons was a pair of auroras crashing together in Dec. 2007.

"It was like nothing I had seen before," Lyons recalls. "Over the next several days, we surveyed even more events. Our excitement mounted as we became convinced that the collisions were happening over and over."

The explosions of light, they believe, are a sign of something dramatic happening in the space around Earth—specifically, in Earth's "plasma tail." Millions of kilometers long and pointed away from the sun, the plasma tail is made of charged particles captured mainly from the solar wind. Sometimes called the "plasma sheet," the tail is held together by Earth's magnetic field.

The same magnetic field that holds the tail together also connects it to Earth's polar regions. Because of this connection, watching the dance of Northern Lights can reveal much about what's happening in the plasma tail.

By examining many collisions, Lyons and Nishimura have identified a common sequence of events. It begins with two elements: (1) a broad curtain of slow-moving auroras and (2) a smaller knot of fast-moving auroras, initially far apart. The slow curtain is quietly glowing over the Arctic when the speedy knot rushes in from the north. The two auroras collide and an eruption of light ensues.

How does this sequence connect to events in the plasma tail?

"It took some creative thinking to come up with an answer, but I believe this team has done it," says THEMIS project scientist Dave Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight Center.

Lyons believes that the fast-moving knot is associated with a stream of relatively lightweight plasma jetting through the plasma tail. The stream gets started in the outer regions of the plasma tail and moves rapidly inward toward Earth. The fast knot of auroras moves in synch with this stream.

Meanwhile, the broad curtain of auroras is quietly hanging over the Arctic, gently glowing, more or less minding its own business. This curtain is connected to the stationary inner boundary of the plasma tail and is fueled by plasma instabilities there.

When the lightweight stream reaches the inner boundary of the plasma tail—bang!--there is an eruption of plasma waves and instabilities. This collision of plasma is mirrored by a collision of auroras over the poles.

National Science Foundation radars located in Alaska and Greenland confirm this basic picture. They have detected echoes from streams of material rushing through Earth's upper atmosphere just before the auroras collide and erupt.

The five THEMIS spacecraft also agree. They have been able to fly through the plasma tail and confirm the existence of lightweight material rushing toward Earth. (For reference, these are the "plasma bullets" reported in a 2008 [email protected] story "Plasma Bullets Spark Northern Lights.")

"By putting together data from ground-based cameras, ground-based radar, and the THEMIS spacecraft themselves, we now have a nearly complete picture of what causes explosive auroral substorms," says Sibeck.
Colliding Auroras Produce Explosions of Light - science.nasa .gov (http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2009/17dec_whenaurorascollide.htm)

: Re: If it is an Electric Universe there has to be circuits between everything
: Mo December 30, 2009, 07:08:58
That movie of the Birkeland currents jumping from one level to another, just makes one wonder about the past when such events were probably multiple times brighter and more distinct. Pity the arcticle does not say 'Birkeland current'.
: Re: If it is an Electric Universe there has to be circuits between everything
: electrobleme December 31, 2009, 02:37:39

yep, words they are not allowed to say as seen in this thread "Don't use the E or B word - anything other than electric or birkeland currents (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=138.msg543#msg543)"

I am going to take a few screenshots from the movie as i used the standard ones. These will hopefully show more of the Birkeland Currents/Connections than mainstream images have shown.
: Black Hole feeding or something being powered in the EU in a circuit?
: electrobleme January 10, 2010, 06:20:03

Black Hole feeding or something being powered in the EU in a circuit?

stellar mass black hole feeding on the globular star cluster in galaxy NGC4472 (M49) in the virgo cluster. or is it something else that is not feeding but being powered by the local surrroundings?

Black Hole Boldly Goes Where No Black Hole Has Gone Before
Astronomers have found a black hole where few thought they could ever exist, inside a globular star cluster. The finding has broad implications for the dynamics of stars clusters and also for the existence of a still-speculative new class of black holes called 'intermediate-mass' black holes...

Black holes are, by definition, invisible. But the region around them can flare up periodically when the black hole feeds. As gas falls into a black hole, it will heat to high temperatures and radiate brightly, particularly in X-rays. Maccarone's team found one such stellar-mass black hole by chance feeding in a globular cluster in a galaxy named NGC 4472, about fifty million light-years away in the Virgo Cluster.

Details in the X-ray light detected by XMM-Newton leave little doubt that this is a black hole - the object is too bright, and varies by too much to be anything else. In fact, the source is 'extra bright', - an Ultraluminous X-ray object, or ULX.
(full article) Black Hole Boldly Goes Where No Black Hole Has Gone Before (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/01/070104125618.htm)
: Giant "magnetic" loop connects the pair of stars in the double-star system Algol
: electrobleme January 14, 2010, 06:54:29
A constant circuit flows between 2 (electric) Stars

EU Theory states that you can not have magnetism in space without the flow of electrical current. Scientists will not use the E word (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=138.0) and always have to use the M word instead.

Why in a Gravity Universe would you have a "magnetic loop" which means 2 current lines between two stars? Will one line be different to the other, either in the amount of power/current or in its actual phsyscial/chemical properties? If this is discovered then how would it be explained in the gravityVerse? Would this prove it is an Electric Universe?

Why does the "magnetic connection" come from the poles of the sun to connect to its companion? How has the companion survived as it is less than 6 million miles from its larger partner and how come it does not spin? Shouldn't gravity have something to say about that? How are 2 stars tidal locked? Or is gravity an electromagnetic effect (http://www.holoscience.com/news.php?article=89xdcmfs)?

Giant Magnetic Loop Sweeps Through Space Between Stellar Pair

Astronomers have found a giant magnetic loop stretched outward from one of the stars making up the famous double-star system Algol. The scientists used an international collection of radio telescopes to discover the feature, which may help explain details of previous observations of the stellar system.

"This is the first time we've seen a feature like this in the magnetic field of any star other than the Sun," said William Peterson, of the University of Iowa.

The pair, 93 light-years from Earth, includes a star about 3 times more massive than the Sun and a less-massive companion, orbiting it at a distance of 5.8 million miles, only about six percent of the distance between Earth and the Sun. The newly-discovered magnetic loop emerges from the poles of the less-massive star and stretches outward in the direction of the primary star. As the secondary star orbits its companion, one side -- the side with the magnetic loop -- constantly faces the more-massive star, just as the same side of our Moon always faces the Earth.

The scientists detected the magnetic loop by making extremely detailed images of the system using an intercontinental set of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array, Very Large Array, and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, along with the Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany. These radio telescopes were used as a single observing system that offered both great detail, or resolving power, and high sensitivity to detect very faint radio waves. When working together, these telescopes are known as the High Sensitivity Array.

Algol, in the constellation Perseus, is visible to the naked eye and well-known to amateur astronomers. As seen from Earth, the two stars regularly pass in front of each other, causing a notable change in brightness. The pair completes a cycle of such eclipses in less than three days, making it a popular object for amateur observers. The variability in brightness was discovered by an Italian astronomer in 1667, and the eclipsing-binary explanation was confirmed in 1889.

The newly-discovered magnetic loop helps explain phenomena seen in earlier observations of the Algol system at X-ray and radio wavelengths, the scientists said. In addition, they now believe there may be similar magnetic features in other double-star systems.
Giant Magnetic Loop Sweeps Through Space Between Stellar Pair (http://www.physorg.com/news182605534.html)

I predict they will find a lot more "magnetic" features connecting not just double-star systems but other objects. If it is an Electric Universe that is.

: Aegaeon moon - Saturns G ring dwarf parent moon?
: electrobleme January 29, 2010, 06:08:29

Tiny Aegaeon - hit by meteorites or EDM?

Cassini Aegaeon and Prometheus awesomeness

There were many, many treats waiting on the Cassini raw images website this morning. Yesterday, Cassini traversed the G ring, taking photos all the way. While doing so the spacecraft passed within 13,000 kilometers of Aegaeon, the tiny, recently discovered moon that is now believed to be the parent body of the G ring. (Small meteorite impacts onto Aegaeon would toss up dust particles that would escape the little moon's almost nonexistent gravity and go into their own orbits around Saturn; various sorts of drag extend the dust from Aegaeon's neighborhood all the way around the planet, but it's densest near the moon.) That distance is relatively close -- close enough for Cassini to get a very respectable 80 meters per pixel or so on the moon -- but since the moon's only roughly 500 meters across, you're only looking at 5 or 10 pixels.
Cassini Aegaeon and Prometheus awesomeness | planetary.org (http://www.planetary.org/blog/article/00002321/)
: BLACK hole?
: electrobleme January 29, 2010, 13:48:10
BLACK hole?


BLACK hole? nothing can escape? companion star has 32 hour orbit period? nothing can escape a BLACK hole apart from light and x-rays etc (of course not created in the BLACK hole just happen to be created in its theoretical disk).

link to video clip of a BLACK hole (http://www.eso.org/public/videos/eso1004a) Do you see a BLACK hole. Do you see a circuit powering something alive and bright? Notice the immense jet that come out of BLACK holes. How? The Theory that predicted BLACK holes predicted none of this. Yet the ideas/models we have now are still based on the original failed theory, they have modified a failed theory.



Astronomers have spied a star-sized black hole much further away than any such object previously known.

It has a mass 20 times that of our Sun and is sited six million light-years away in the galaxy NGC 300.

The discovery was made using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) facility on Mount Paranal in Chile.

The scientists' data indicates the object has a huge companion star that will, most probably, end its days as a black hole, too.

"In the time it's taken for the light to reach us from this galaxy, the companion star will have blown up in a supernova to produce its own black hole," said Professor Paul Crowther, from Sheffield University, UK, and the lead author of the scientific paper reporting the discovery.

"If you could instantly teleport yourself to that system right now, you'd presumable find a pair of black holes spiralling around each other," he told BBC News.

You can see a video of what this system looks like by going to the website of the European Southern Observatory organisation.

Black holes tend to come in two sizes. The super-massive variety is colossal and weighs a million to a billion times the mass of our Sun.

There is also the stellar-sized type, which may be 10 or so times the mass of our Sun, and result when really big stars exhaust their nuclear fuel at the end of their lives and collapse.

The new target falls into the latter category. It has a mass of about 20 times that of the Sun.

Astronomers have now found three black holes with masses more than 15 times that of the Sun, all of which are in galaxies outside our own.

The existence of the new one was first suspected through X-ray observations with the US space agency's Swift telescope and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton observatory.

"We recorded periodic, extremely intense X-ray emission, a clue that a black hole might be lurking in the area," explains team member Stefania Carpano from Esa.

Black holes are expected to pulse X-rays as they pull gas into themselves and tear it apart.

This was all confirmed when astronomers then followed up the Swift-XMM data with observations using the FORS2 instrument mounted on the 8.2m Antu unit of the VLT.

The instrument can pick apart fine details in light at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

"We took spectra of the companion star regularly, every night over the course of a couple of weeks, and we saw a feature in the companion star that basically 'wobbles'," said Professor Crowther.

"We get a blue shift and a red shift in the light as the star goes around the black hole."

The pair sweep about each other with a period of just 32 hours. If sited in our Solar System, this action would take place inside what is the orbit of Mercury.

The companion is something astronomers call a Wolf-Rayet star - a giant, hot, highly-evolved star that is billowing gas into space.

A lot of this material is presumably being pulled onto the black hole.

Only one other binary comprising a black hole and a Wolf-Rayet star has previously been seen.

Assuming the Wolf-Rayet arrives at the denouement expected for a star of its size, the system will then become a binary comprising two coalescing black holes.

In time, these holes would merge, emitting copious amounts of energy in the form of gravitational waves.

These ripples in the fabric of space-time are an inevitable consequence of the theory of general relativity, and their first detection is being sought by intricate laser experiments set up in science labs across the world.

Merging black holes are considered one of the most promising targets for these experiments.

"What's not really known is the statistics of binary black holes - we don't know how many there are. This gives us a hint there might be a certain number because this system is a progenitor to binary black holes."

Professor Crowther and colleagues will publish their findings in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
'Farthest' star-mass black hole | news.bbc.co.uk (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8483983.stm)

This artist’s impression depicts the newly discovered stellar-mass black hole in the spiral galaxy NGC 300. The black hole has a mass about twenty times the mass of the Sun and is associated with a Wolf–Rayet star; a star that will become a black hole itself. Thanks to the observations performed with the FORS2 instrument mounted on ESO’s Very Large Telescope, astronomers have confirmed an earlier hunch that the black hole and the Wolf–Rayet star dance around each other in a diabolic waltz, with a period of about 32 hours. The astronomers also found that the black hole is stripping matter away from the star as they orbit each other. How such a tightly bound system has survived the tumultuous phases that preceded the formation of the black hole is still a mystery.
video of the BLACK hole | eso.org (http://www.eso.org/public/videos/eso1004a/)
: Pair of Quasars - circuit or Galactic collision?
: electrobleme February 13, 2010, 02:29:29
Pair of Quasars - circuit or Galactic collision?

SDSS J1254+0846: Quasar Pair Captured in Galaxy Collision

Galactic Collision or circuit power what ever Quasars are?

Quasars: Massive or Charged?

 Consensus theories of the cosmos presume that mass is the fundamental quality with which to explain phenomena. For example, quasars are considered to be massive accretions of matter into supermassive black holes at a galaxy’s nucleus.
Because mass attracts mass, astronomers easily imagine that galaxies attract galaxies and that collisions, mergers, and tidal disruptions are common. Merging galaxies should massively increase the matter accreting into their nuclear black holes, and so astronomers expected to see many binary quasars among the collisions. Until recently, they have been disappointed.

However, a new series of images (http://www.chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2010/sdss/) has found two close quasars in the midst of two close galaxies with distorted tails (image above). The tails could be nothing other than tidal disruptions from the merging of the galaxies, and the quasars are therefore indisputable confirmation of consensus theory. Should anyone have any doubts, a computer simulation of merging galaxies (http://www.chandra.harvard.edu/press/10_releases/press_020310.html) has “corroborated this conclusion.” “The model verifies the merger origin for this binary quasar system,” averred the model-maker.
Consensus, of course, being a massive merger of opinion, seldom takes notice of wisps of dissent. But those who read marginalia will spot a few disagreements. ‘To corroborate’ appears to mean ‘to program a computer with the same assumptions used to interpret observations and to generate features similar to the observations.’ (But what else can you do with an object that’s so far away you can’t stick your thumb in the pie to test it as Jack Horner did?) “The model verifies the merger” is one of those wheels of logic that provides exercise for astrophysical gerbils.

Another comment questions the certainty that “tails…are a sure sign…of an ongoing galaxy merger.” One can be sure of any belief merely by pumping up one’s fervency. But a scientific theory should be instead reliable (http://www.tc.umn.edu/~allch001/papers/epist%27of.pdf), which requires alternative theories to be sought out and tested as well: What else could the phenomenon be under other assumptions? The consensus theories appear to produce excuses instead of tests. Readers of this site will likely think of several alternatives that could provide tests for reliability of the “sure signs.”
The Electric Universe is one of several alternative plasma theories that presume charge is the fundamental quality with which to explain phenomena. It takes a hint provided at the end of the press release (first link above) that “the galaxy disks both appear to be nearly face-on to Earth” and “the X-rays from Chandra show no signs of absorption by intervening gas or dust.”

In the Electric Universe, quasars are plasmoids ejected, usually along the spin axis, from a plasma focus mechanism in a galaxy’s nucleus. A face-on disk means that we are looking ‘down the barrel.’ An ejected quasar would appear projected against the galaxy’s core. It would be interesting to obtain a spectrum of the tails apart from the central quasars to see if they have a lower redshift. If they do, this would be another instance of a higher-redshift quasar in front of a lower-redshift galaxy (http://www.thunderbolts.info/tpod/2005/arch05/050610arptest.htm).

Of course, the two quasars may instead be part of a fragmented ejection (from an active galaxy outside the field of view) and are starting to evolve into companion galaxies. After all, they lie on the eastern edge of the Virgo Cluster, where much ejection activity is occurring.
Quasars: Massive or Charged? | thunderbolts.info/tpod (http://www.thunderbolts.info/tpod/2010/arch10/100212massive.htm)
: Tropical Cyclones Tomas and Ului. Electric Universe = scalability
: electrobleme March 27, 2010, 22:01:15

Tropical Cyclones Tomas and Ului.  Electric Universe = scalability

One of the main mantras of the Electric Universe Theory is that things are scalable, from Tropical Storms (Hurricanes) to spiral galaxies

Tropical Cyclones Tomas and Ului

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/arp87-atlas-of-peculiar-galaxies-spiral-galaxy-pair-ngc3808A-ngc3808B-banner.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlas_of_Peculiar_Galaxies)
spiral galaxy pair NGC 3808A and NGC 3808B (Arp 87 in the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies)
: Hot Jupiters and electric resistance/circuits
: electrobleme September 22, 2010, 09:43:26

Hot Jupiters and electric resistance/circuits

Electric Resistance May Make Hot Jupiters Puffy

One of the surprises coming from the discoveries of the class of exoplanets known as “Hot Jupiters” is that they are puffed up beyond what would be expected from their temperature  alone. The interpretation of these inflated radii is that extra energy must be being deposited in the regions of the atmosphere with large amounts of circulation. This extra energy would be deposited as heat, causing the atmosphere to expand. But from where was this extra energy coming? New research is suggesting that ionized winds passing through magnetic fields may create this process.

Magnetic fields on Jovian type planets is no new news. Our own Jupiter has the strongest in the solar system with a strength 14 times greater than Earth‘s. The large magnetosphere created by this extends as far as 7 million kilometers towards the Sun and is stretched nearly the distance to Saturn‘s orbit. The interaction of charged solar particles with such an immense field creates gigantic aurora, similar to those on Earth.

Hints of magnetic fields on extra solar planets have been discovered as well. In 2004, a team lead by Evgenya Shkolnik, of the University of British Columbia reported detection of the effects of a planet’s magnetic field on its parent star by observing the extra energy this magnetic field returned to its parent star. The interaction excited transitions in the familiar Calcium H & K lines that were locked in phase with the planet‘s orbit. Follow-up observations including other Hot Jupiters confirmed the presence of planetary magnetic fields acting on their parent stars although none have yet suggested just how strong these fields might be.

The new research, linking magnetic fields with planetary radius, was first started in February of 2010 by a team led by Rosalba Perna of the University of Colorado in Boulder. In it, they demonstrated that the interaction of winds in the atmospheres of these planets could experience significant drag as they passed through the magnetic field lines due to their partially ionized nature. In May, Batygin & Stevenson of the California Institute of Technology suggested that this friction may induce heating sufficient to puff the planet up. Perna’s team picked up from the hypothetical basis and put Batygin’s & Stevenson’s idea to the test of a simulation. The simulation used a range of field strengths but found that for Hot Jupiters with strengths greater than 10 Gauss, were sufficient to explain the increased size.

But is this field strength truly plausible? Many astronomers seem to think so and the literature is filled with expectations of large magnetic fields for these planets although nothing seems to suggest that field strength has ever been measured on any planets outside our solar system to support this. Jupiter’s magnetic field strength ranges from 4.2 – 14 Gauss, putting the value of 10 Gauss in the possible range. However, work by Sanchez-Lavega of the University of the Basque Country in Spain, has suggested that as planets become tidally locked their magnetic field strengths decrease. For Hot Jupiters, he suggests that older planets of this type may have their magnetic fields reduced to a measly 1 Gauss. This may suggest an explanation for why experiments designed to search for fields on extrasolar planets through their radio emissions have failed.

Regardless, future simulations will undoubtedly take place and additional observations may help constrain the plausibility of this electromagnetic swelling.
Electric Resistance May Make Hot Jupiters Puffy | universetoday.com (http://www.universetoday.com/74086/electric-resistance-may-make-hot-jupiters-puffy/)

: Electric circuit between Saturn and Enceladus, Jupiter and its moons
: electrobleme April 25, 2011, 03:16:50

Electric circuit between Saturn and Enceladus, Jupiter and its moons

There is a flow of electrons between Saturn and its moon Enceladus, similar to Jupiter and its moons. What in a gravity universe could cause that? Unless it is an Electric Universe. For it to be an Electric Universe there must be a circuit or connection between everything.

This BBC report even uses the phrase electrical circuit!

Saturn enjoys a flickering "Northern Lights" phenomenon thanks to a flow of electrons to and from its moon Enceladus, researchers say.

A report in Nature suggests these aurora would be faint, and in the ultraviolet part of the light spectrum.

The find by the Cassini spacecraft is similar to the electrical "circuit" between Jupiter and three of its moons.

Electrons flow to and from Enceladus' poles in a vast loop, and aurora result where they hit Saturn's magnetic field.

The aurora creation process is similar to that which happens at high latitudes on Earth; here, the paths of fast-moving charged particles from the solar wind are curved by the Earth's magnetic field and emit the displays we know as the Northern and Southern lights.

In contrast, the fields created by Jupiter and Saturn envelop the planets' moons, and what is known as electrodynamic coupling brings particles directly from the moons, completing what is actually an electrical circuit.

The mechanism behind Jupiter's aurora is presumed to be sulphur from its moon Io's volcanic activity, split by sunlight into electrons and ions.

On Saturn's moon Enceladus, however, the suspected source of electrons is "cryovolcanism" - volcanic activity that shoots up liquids or, in Enceladus' case, salty ice.

'Rare opportunity'

Saturn and its rings Last year, the Cassini mission was extended to 2017

The Cassini spacecraft has been studying Saturn and its moons since it arrived in 2004, having made 12 close passes of Enceladus.

On the close encounter that occurred on 11 August 2008, scientists detected a great stream of ions (molecules with electrons removed) coming from the moon.

Lead author of the study Abigail Rymer of Johns Hopkins University confirmed that the ions were associated with the vast electron loops.

"I immediately pulled up the electron data and, sure enough, there was a very strong electron beam propagating away from Saturn toward Enceladus," Dr Rymer said.

"It was actually a fairly rare opportunity to capture that, since when Cassini flies close to a moon we are generally looking at the moon -- not away from it."

The team was able to collect images of the point where the loops re-enter Saturn's magnetic field, interacting with it to form aurora.

"I think it's a very exciting, very interesting discovery," said Andrew Coates, a co-author of the paper from University College London.

"Five or six years ago we didn't know that Enceladus was putting any material into the Solar System - now we get exciting effects like these magnetic and electric current links into the ionosphere of Saturn, producing this (aurora) spot," he told BBC News.

The team says that the aurora are about a tenth the intensity of those seen on Jupiter, and that they vary widely in intensity - by as much as a factor of three.

That, they assume, is down to variations in the output of the geysers that are feeding the process - a process that Professor Coates says seems likely to be happening elsewhere.

"It's probably a universal process; it could be something that's happening in other places like [Neptune's moon] Triton, or extrasolar planets where there are 'hot Jupiters'."
Aurora from Saturn moon 'circuit' | bbc.co.uk (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13131537)

: interacting galaxies Arp 273 - a telltale sign of interaction
: electrobleme April 29, 2011, 23:45:23

interacting galaxies Arp 273 - a telltale sign of interaction

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/xearth/interacting-galaxies-arp-273-hubble-images.jpg) (http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/xearth/interacting-galaxies-arp-273-hubble.jpg)
interacting galaxies Arp 273

A Galactic Rose Highlights Hubble's 21st Anniversary

In celebration of the 21st anniversary of the Hubble Space Telescope's deployment into space, astronomers pointed Hubble at an especially photogenic group of interacting galaxies called Arp 273.

This image, taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, shows a group of interacting galaxies called Arp 273. The larger of the spiral galaxies, known as UGC 1810, has a disc that is tidally distorted into a rose-like shape by the gravitational pull of the companion galaxy below it, known as UGC 1813. The swathe of blue jewels across the top is the combined light from clusters of intensely bright and hot young blue stars. These massive stars glow fiercely in ultraviolet light.

The smaller, nearly edge-on companion shows distinct signs of intense star formation at its nucleus, perhaps triggered by the encounter with the companion galaxy.

A series of uncommon spiral patterns in the large galaxy are a telltale sign of interaction. The large, outer arm appears partially as a ring, a feature that is seen when interacting galaxies actually pass through one another. This suggests that the smaller companion actually dived deeply, but off-centre, through UGC 1810. The inner set of spiral arms is highly warped out of the plane, with one of the arms going behind the bulge and coming back out the other side. How these two spiral patterns connect is still not precisely known.

A possible mini-spiral may be visible in the spiral arms of UGC 1810 to the upper right. It is noticeable how the outermost spiral arm changes character as it passes this third galaxy, from smooth with lots of old stars (reddish in colour) on one side, to clumpy and extremely blue on the other. The fairly regular spacing of the blue star-forming knots fits with what is seen in the spiral arms of other galaxies and can be predicted from the known instabilities in the gas contained within the arm.

The larger galaxy in the UGC 1810-UGC 1813 pair has a mass that is about five times that of the smaller galaxy. In unequal pairs such as this, the relatively rapid passage of a companion galaxy produces the lopsided or asymmetric structure in the main spiral. Also in such encounters, the starburst activity typically begins earlier in the minor galaxy than in the major galaxy. These effects could be due to the fact that the smaller galaxies have consumed less of the gas present in their nucleus, from which new stars are born.

Arp 273 lies in the constellation Andromeda and is roughly 300 million light-years away from Earth. The image shows a tenuous tidal bridge of material between the two galaxies that are separated by tens of thousands of light-years from each other.
A Galactic Rose Highlights Hubble's 21st Anniversary | sciencedaily.com (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110420111336.htm)
: Re: If it is an Electric Universe there has to be circuits between everything
: cigarshaped April 30, 2011, 16:24:30
The evidence displayed here is fantastic and my only comment is that a common question asked is "Where is the power source?". For me it is fairly obvious that plasma in space provides such a good conductor of electricity that we haved a lossless sytem, continuously circulating current through invisible Birkeland current filaments, tubes, etc. An initial 'spark' was all that is needed to provide energy which cannot be destroyed.

Each galactic system concentrates and distributes its energy supply through component parts, with no losses.

Does anyone disagree?
: Filaments of Galaxies
: electrobleme May 27, 2011, 22:25:03

Filaments of Galaxies


If it is an Electric Universe then you would expect the Universe to reflect this. If it is a Gravity Universe then you would expect the Universe to reflect that.

The actual story here is interesting in that it mentions Filaments of Galaxies, perhaps the largest structures in the Electric Universe. They span mind blowing distances. How is that possible due to gravity?

SYDNEY (AFP) – A 22-year-old Australian university student has solved a problem which has puzzled astrophysicists for decades, discovering part of the so-called "missing mass" of the universe during her summer break.

Undergraduate Amelia Fraser-McKelvie made the breakthrough during a holiday internship with a team at Monash University's School of Physics, locating the mystery material within vast structures called "filaments of galaxies".

Monash astrophysicist Dr Kevin Pimbblet explained that scientists had previously detected matter that was present in the early history of the universe but that could not now be located.

"There is missing mass, ordinary mass not dark mass ... It's missing to the present day," Pimbblet told AFP.

"We don't know where it went. Now we do know where it went because that's what Amelia found."

Fraser-McKelvie, an aerospace engineering and science student, was able to confirm after a targeted X-ray search for the mystery mass that it had moved to the "filaments of galaxies", which stretch across enormous expanses of space.

Pimbblet's earlier work had suggested the filaments as a possible location for the "missing" matter, thought to be low in density but high in temperature.

Pimbblet said astrophysicists had known about the "missing" mass for the past two decades, but the technology needed to pinpoint its location had only become available in recent years.

He said the discovery could drive the construction of new telescopes designed to specifically study the mass.

Pimbblet admitted the discovery was primarily academic, but he said previous physics research had led to the development of diverse other technologies.

"Whenever I speak to people who have influence, politicians and so on, they sometimes ask me 'Why should I invest in physics pure research?'. And I sometimes say to them: 'Do you use a mobile phone? Some of that technology came about by black hole research'.

"The pure research has knock-on effects to the whole society which are sometimes difficult to anticipate."

Aussie student finds universe's 'missing mass' | news.yahoo.com (http://)
: bacteria electric cables and circuits - Desulfobulbaceae
: electrobleme October 25, 2012, 07:57:04
bacteria electric cables and circuits - Desulfobulbaceae

Scientists have found that living bacteria in the mud in the deep ocean floors connects up to make living bacteria electric cables and circuits! The Desulfobulbaceae bacteria connect up to make chains that conduct electricity along bio electric cables over a centimeter long.


They appear to consist of single cells and provide energy by linking the oxygen reservoir at the surface of the mud with hydrogen sulphide deep below.

These cables can stretch to around a centimetre in length, connecting the deepest bacteria living in low oxygen conditions with those in high oxygen areas.

A cubic centimetre of sediment can contain up to a kilometre of compacted cable with the bacterial colony monopolising sulphide oxidation in the soil, preventing other microbes from using the resource.

She said the report adds to a growing body of evidence highlighting the crucial role microbial electron transfer has in global geochemical processes and in the functioning of ecosystems.
Bacteria living in sediment on the ocean floor survive by becoming 'living power cables', new study claims | dailymail.co.uk (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2222535/Bacteria-living-sediment-ocean-floor-survive-living-power-cables-new-study-claims.html)

Will the circuits and wiring also be another layer in the earth as a step up or step down transformer? (http://www.xearththeory.com/earth-electromagnetic-coil-transformer/)


Desulfobulbaceae - electrical designed bacteria

The article called Bacteria unite to form living electric cables that stretch for centimetres (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/notrocketscience/2012/10/24/bacteria-living-electric-cables-centimetres/) in the discover magazine has a fantastic description of the electrical bacteria known as Desulfobulbaceae

The bacteria are members of a family called Desulfobulbaceae, but their genes are less than 92 percent identical to any of the group’s known members. “They’re so different that they should probably be considered a new genus,” says Nielsen. They’re only found in oxygen-starved mud, but where they exist, there’s a lot of them. On average, Pfeffer found 40 million cells in a cubic centimetre of sediment, enough to make around 117 metres of living cable.

Under an electron microscope, the team saw that the cable bacteria have a set of 15 or 17 ridges running along their length. In cross-section, they look like gears. The bacteria also seem to share an outer membrane, which extends over the entire filament, like skin draped over sausage links. Nielsen thinks that the ridges are channels for sending electrons from one cell to another, and the shared membrane acts as an insulating sheath. “They compare very well with our electric cables,” he says.

But that’s just a guess. It’s not clear what the ridges are made of, but Nielsen is trying hard to find out how exactly the bacteria are channelling their electrons. That’s just one of many unanswered questions. How do the bacteria organise themselves in a neat vertical line? Do they get parasitised by other species that steal their electrons? What do the cells in the middle of the chain get out of their arrangement? How do the cells divide so that the filaments don’t break?

And how common are they? “They seem to be the optimal organism in any place where you become short of oxygen,” says Nielsen. “Why are they not everywhere? Or are they everywhere?”

Bacteria unite to form living electric cables that stretch for centimetres | discovermagazine.com (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/notrocketscience/2012/10/24/bacteria-living-electric-cables-centimetres/)