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Malta's megalithic "Temples" and Cart Ruts => The Megalithic "Temples" of Malta => : electrobleme September 07, 2009, 17:47:13

: ancient versions of cement/torba used in building the wonders of the world
: electrobleme September 07, 2009, 17:47:13
Cements - Torba in Malta - Red Volcanic cement on Easter Island, also in china and the egyptian pyramids?

The old civilisations used versions of cement to build the great buildings of old. What did they use and why did use them?  Does ancient cement give any clues as to the purpose of these buildings and statues?

: Torba, Malta - pre historic Maltese Cement - used by the Temple Builders
: electrobleme September 07, 2009, 17:54:36
Malta's Torba cement

I am most intrigued by the material used in many of the Maltese temple floors. Torba, as it is called in Malta, has survived intact over 6,000 years in many sites around Malta. It is the earliest reference I have come across for a man made material that resembles rock. I don't know of any man made concrete or cement used today with comparable durability. Concrete typically last decades and crumbles over time. Trump 2002 P77 calls Torba a plaster-like material that '..sets hard and could be polished. The result can easily be mistaken for bedrock and in excavations it frequently is'. Plaster-like, in this context, I interpret to mean that the material was spread over a rough surface to smooth it out, just as plaster is usually applied over rough surfaces, and does not refer to its strength or durability, which is more like rock.

It seems that the archaeologists of Malta are of the opinion that Torba was formed by compacting crumbled rock and rock dust with simple tools, adding water, stomp, stomp and presto we have Torba, (Trump 2002 P77) possibly a tougher and more durable rock-like material than the best and strongest concrete used today. That may be true, but it may be more complex than that. Some knowledge of chemistry and cement also seems to be required. Certainly many Egyptian archaeologists are reluctant to believe that rock synthesis is possible. Please visit, (Joseph Davidovits) for more details of Egyptian rock synthesis. Certainly Davidovits does not have any explanation for the saw cuts and other advanced rock fabrication techniques that are evident in Egypt, but some of the finds there suggest that many rock structures there may have been cast. Davidovits calls his rock synthesis Geopolymer. A similar process may have been known by the temple builders of Malta.

In any case, there is very little doubt that the Torba rock-like material of Malta is man made. Other than Deffun, made of pottery sherds, I have no idea if other synthetic rock (~ concrete) was also made by these people. We may find that some of the limestone blocks in the temples are man made castings rather than real rock, though this is doubtful, and of course, the stone bowl found on Gozo at the Xarra Circle may be cast. The difference between natural vs artificial limestone blocks can be detected from the random orientation of shells and the greater porosity (lower compaction) of the man made material. If we can find Torba or other man made rock (~concrete) in the cart ruts.. (Temples probably got better treatment than cart ruts, so an inferior product may have been used) ..that would associate many of these interesting archaeological riddles together to a common culture and peoples. It would also greatly increase our appreciation for the capabilities and sophistication of the Maltese Temple People as we piece together their evolution of stone working technology and engineering.. ..an extraordinary skill and technology which we are only now beginning to rediscover  Simply put, the prehistoric Maltese had technological rock working skills that are very impressive. It is time we accord them the respect they are due. I wonder what other great knowledge they possessed that has since been lost?
Torba and the synthesis of artificial rock - cart ruts .com

Any temple built from the coralline limestone even if the blocks were smooth and covered on the inside with torba, a form of cement applied to the floor and the walls, would look ancient and gnarled on the outside, while the form of an external facade, if made from the globigerina limestone, would look strikingly uniform and new...
the globigerina...can also be crushed to create torba
The materiality of stone: explorations in landscape phenomenology 1 -  By Christopher Y. Tilley, Wayne Bennett (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=eGBlQ3xrJnAC&pg=PA97&lpg=PA97&dq=torba+cement+malta&source=bl&ots=QzNJI3jTDp&sig=cN92kRS_XE64CEvmOLwwzD3Uufs&hl=en&ei=2gelSsPKI4Pu-Ab6uaDRDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5#v=onepage&q=torba%20cement%20malta&f=false)

Torba is a cement-like material made from Maltese limestone by crushing, watering and pounding. It was used extensively by the prehistoric inhabitants of the Maltese archipelago in the construction of the Megalithic Temples of Malta.
Wikipedia - Torba in Malta

: Easter Island Statues - red cement hats added later to the statues heads
: electrobleme September 07, 2009, 17:59:06
Why were the red cement hats added later to the Easter Island statues?

Archaeologists have solved an ancient mystery surrounding the famous Easter Island statues.

At 2,500 miles off the coast of Chile, the island is the world's most remote place inhabited by people.

Up to 1,000 years ago, the islanders started putting giant red hats on the statues.

The research team, from the University of Manchester and University College London, think the hats were rolled down from an ancient volcano.

Dr Colin Richards and Dr Sue Hamilton are the first British archaeologists to work on the island since 1914.

They pieced together a series of clues to discover how the statues got their red hats. An axe, a road, and an ancient volcano led to their findings.

Dr Richards said: "We know the hats were rolled along the road made from a cement of compressed red scoria dust."

Each hat, weighing several tonnes, was carved from volcanic rock. They were placed on the heads of the famous statues all around the coast of the island.

Precisely how and why the hats were attached is unknown.

Like an altar

Dr Richards told BBC News: "These hats run all the way down the side of the volcano into the valley.

"We can see they were carefully placed. The closer you get to the volcano, the greater the number.

"It's like a church; you can't just walk straight to the altar.

"The Polynesians saw the landscape as a living thing, and after they carved the rock the spirits entered the statues."

Dr Richards and Dr Hamilton are joint directors of the "Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Landscapes of Construction Project". They will be working on the island over the next five years.

Dr Richards added: "We will look to date the earliest statues. Potentially this could rewrite Polynesian history."
Giant statues give up hat mystery  - bbc .co.uk (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8236349.stm)
: Geopolymer Institute - investigating ancient use of cement
: electrobleme September 07, 2009, 18:11:26
Was cement widely used to create blocks, floors and walls of ancient structures?

The Geopolymer Institute (http://www.geopolymer.org/archaeology) (Prof. Joseph Davidovits) investigates and promotes the idea that old cultures used versions of cement in their construction. Including the Pyramids of Giza.

It makes for interesting reading and would solve some puzzles. The question is why would they only use cement to join blocks together to build the wonders of the world?  If you can build the amazing "Temples" around the world then creating blocks, statues, floors etc out of cement would be a natural step.

: cement - used in 5000 year old buildings in China
: electrobleme September 07, 2009, 18:17:02

Ancient Chinese cement used for buildings floor

Abstract;There is a concrete floor on the ruins of ancient dwelling about 5000 years ago in China. A kind of hydraulic cement was supposed to use in the concrete floor. There is a lime stone containing quartz, clay, mica and feldspar near the ruins, which was supposed to use the raw materials of the hydraulic cement. Chemical composition, texture and changes during the heating process of the stone, and hydraulic property of the fired powders are reported in this paper. There are miner changes of the chemical composition and micro texture in the each stone, but the average chemical composition is almost the same compared to the todays portland cement. Calcite is the main mineral and crystal size of it is very small, and crystal sizes of quartz and the other minerals in the stone are also small. Calcite, quartz and other minerals are mixed together in the texture. .BETA.-Ca2SiO4 is observed in the sample fired at 900.DEG.C.. Relatively large amount of .BETA.-Ca2SiO4 is obtained by firing at 1000.DEG.C., these good burnability is resulted from the micro texture in the stone. And the .BETA.-Ca2SiO4 is very small and has good hydraulic reactivity. The powder which is obtained to be fired at 1000.DEG.C. and grounded have a hydraulic property. C-S-H and portlandite are observed in the hydrated samples. (author abst.)
Ancient cement in 5000 years ago - Cement Manufacturing Technology Symposium (http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/199915/000019991599A0451308.php)
: Machined granite and stone blocks at the Egyptian Pyramids of Giza
: electrobleme September 07, 2009, 19:58:46
Evidence of machinery cut and shaped pyramid stones?


Chris Dunns's site giza power .com (http://www.gizapower.com/pma/index.htm) has very interesting photographic evidence of machined cut and shaped blocks and rocks found around the Egyptian pyramids at Giza.

Combine this with the idea of Torba and ancient cement and you can create a lot of amazing shapes without the help of ETs, 100,000s of slaves etc.

It may also help to explain how some of the stuff is found inside the pyramids, tombs and temples.

The ancient wisdom .co.uk (http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/constructiontechniques.htm) site has a good page on ancient construction techniques with lots of photographs of walls, blocks and buildings. Places include  Machu Pichu, Cuzco, Sacsayhuaman, Easter Island, Karnak, Denderra, Castleruddery, Malta (Mnajdra+Ggantija+Tarxien) and lots more

: Evidence of Torba on Malta - are these natural or man made lines?
: electrobleme September 24, 2009, 14:02:24

Torba on Malta? Are some or all of these lines ancient man made from Torba?

(http://www.everythingiselectric.com/images/iwan/adverteasement-iwan1.JPG) (http://www.geulogy.com/introdis-iwan.html) (http://www.geulogy.com//images/snakeplissken/world-puzzling-mysterious-natural-photograph-geology-advert3.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/index.php?level=picture&id=867)

Although there are arguments for these to be natural are some or all of these lines man made by the old civiisation on Malta? Are they evidence of the use of Torba? If not what are they?

(http://www.geulogy.com//images/snakeplissken/snake-plissken-snakerock-advert.jpg) (http://www.geulogy.com/introdis-snakeplissken.html) (http://www.geulogy.com/images/douglas/erosiongonewalkabouts-advert.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/index.php?level=album&id=111)

Article and photographs on the line called Iwan (http://www.geulogy.com/introdis-iwan.html) - Torba line or natural?
Article and photographs SnakePlissken (http://www.geulogy.com/introdis-snakeplissken.html) line - natural or man made using Torba?
Article and photos on Douglas (http://www.geulogy.com/introdis-powerlines-douglas.html) - natural Electrical Treeing, natural, or Torba on Malta?