The Big Bang in theory and its missing baryons. Plasma or a warm hot intergalactic medium is the answer?
It has been known for decades that the observed number of baryons in the local Universe falls about 30–40 per cent short of the total number of baryons predicted by Big Bang nucleosynthesis, as inferred from density fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background and seen during the first 2–3 billion years of the Universe in the so-called Lyman α forest…
The O VII systems lie in regions characterized by large (four times larger than average) galaxy overdensities and their number (down to the sensitivity threshold of our data) agrees well with numerical simulation predictions for the long-sought warm–hot intergalactic medium. We conclude that the missing baryons have been found.
Observations of the missing baryons in the warm–hot intergalactic medium
Or it is an electric plasma universe?
If the gas is there, many of the atoms must be ionized
If the standard Big Bang model is correct, baryonic matter makes up between 1% and 10% of the matter needed to gradually stop the expansion of the universe. Baryonic matter is the familiar protons, neutrons, and electrons that make up the atoms of all the materials on earth and in the stars. Other types of matter, for example neutrinos, or weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS), may provide the remaining mass (dark matter) necessary to halt the expansion. Or they may not. In either case, astronomers have a problem even accounting for all the baryons. The best estimates are that all the stars, gas, and dust within galaxies constitute at most 40% of the baryons predicted by the Big Bang. Where are the rest?
The most likely place for the rest of the baryons to be hiding is in diffuse gas between the galaxies: the intergalactic medium. Astronomers can estimate the amount of gas in the intergalactic medium by essentially counting up the number of atoms that absorb the light from distant quasars. This number once again falls well short of that required by the Big Bang theory. If the gas is there, many of the atoms must be ionized, that is stripped of some of their electrons, so that they cannot absorb the radiation.
Such observations have sparked a raging debate over what could be ionizing the intergalactic medium. Some astronomers contend that the quasars themselves can ionize most of the material in the universe, while others estimate that the total amount of quasar radiation falls short, or that it does do not have the required spectrum.
The Case of the Missing Baryons | Henry C Ferguson
The universe is made almost entirely of matter
It is not yet understood why the universe has more matter than antimatter. It is generally assumed that when the universe was young and very hot it was in statistical equilibrium and contained equal numbers of baryons and antibaryons. However, observations suggest that the universe, including its most distant parts, is made almost entirely of matter. A process called baryogenesis was hypothesized to account for the asymmetry. For baryogenesis to occur, the Sakharov conditions must be satisfied. These require that baryon number is not conserved, that C-symmetry and CP-symmetry are violated and that the universe depart from thermodynamic equilibrium. All these conditions occur in the Standard Model, but the effects are not strong enough to explain the present baryon asymmetry.
Baryon asymmetry – Big Bang | wikipedia
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