What was the mother of all crocodile tears and crocodile shoes during the hyperthermal-driven P-T mass extinction events? Another partly single trackway preserved and this time awkwardly dated by scientists to just over 250 million years ago, just after their Permian-Triassic catastrophe.
The well-preserved fossilised track, made up of about 10 footprints, was found at an altitude of 2,200-metres in Altopiano della Gardetta, in the province of Cuneo in the western Alps.
The traces of front and rear claws, about 30cm in length, date back to about 250m years ago, after the area was rendered inhospitable by the mass extinction at the end of Permian geological period.
What is exceptional is the period in which the crocodile was walking in this place, because it was right after the mother of all mass extinctions.
Footprints of crocodile-like prehistoric reptile found in Italian Alps | The Guardian
Killing models during the Permian-Triassic mass extinctions
Crocodile tears and and even Jimmy Nails crocodile shoes would not have helped it scamper away, similar to all the other pathways where the animals are running all in the same direction, mostly side by side.
There is the chance that somewhere in the world the fossilised remains of one of these creatures is in rock in a slightly different strata a distance away from the footprints they made in the event that transmuted the elements of the whole area around it. Physically close but worlds apart, in different chronological periods.
Many mass extinctions of life in the sea and on land have been attributed to geologically rapid heating, and in the case of the Permian–Triassic and others.
In a recent review of mass extinctions, Bond & Grasby identify five major global extinction events and 12 other mass extinctions through the past 500 Myr. Of these 17 killing events, four are associated with coeval large craters, but only the Chicxulub is a convincing driver for the KPgME, and there are serious doubts about the validity of the others.
These authors note also that there is independent evidence of global cooling associated with three of the older events, both cooling and warming associated with four more events, neither with one, and global warming with nine events, including the Capitanian, Permian–Triassic (PTME), Smithian–Spathian, Carnian, end-Triassic (ETME) and early Toarcian extinction events, a series spanning part of the Permian and the early Mesozoic, and dated, respectively, at 260, 252, 249, 232, 201 and 183 Ma.
This Permian to early Mesozoic interval was a time of globally warm temperatures, no icecaps and the single supercontinent Pangaea. It was also a time of major upheaval in life, with the demise of the so-called Palaeozoic faunas in the oceans and on land, and the rise of modern ecosystems.
Hyperthermal-driven mass extinctions: killing models during the Permian–Triassic mass extinction | The Royal Society
The rain falls down, I’m soaking through, I’m an old man inside a young man’s suit
Alternative interpretations could include these and many more:
# Ultra rapid and mega energy input/transformation of layers such as ocean, surface layers, atmosphere etc
# Ultra rapid or generational genetic evolution
# Very rapidly or instantaneous fossilisation processes
# Tracks preserved by quick depositing of whole stratas on top
# Dating methods effected by rapid transmutation of the chemical elements
# Related localised event, part of the catastrophic episode
# Animals living at higher elevation due to deluges, mega Tsunamis, sloshing etc
# The mountain material of the Alps relatively recently transformed/deposited etc
The mountain material of the Alps pulled up, attracted up, cymantics and pressure wave geology, rapidly deposit by wind or water, electrochemically sorted and deposited and electromagnetically plated etc.
Large crystals like quartz found in mineral veins, near gold mines for example, could be transformed in situ. If its localised environment can be changed then it could be absolutely freezing enough to form them in a quicker time frame.
Even with crocodile shoes they could never have outrun their death but they did leave us many warnings. When it happens the next time, either local or around the world, it will matter where you are, but how on or in the Earth will you know where safety might be?
The most accepted killing model for the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME) postulates that massive volcanic eruption (i.e., the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province) led to geologically rapid global warming, acid rain and ocean anoxia. On land, habitable zones were drastically reduced, due to the combined effects of heating, drought and acid rains. This hyperthermal had severe effects also on the paleobiogeography of several groups of organisms.
Among those, the tetrapods, whose geographical distribution across the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) was the subject of controversy in a number of recent papers. We here describe and interpret a new Early Triassic (?Olenekian) archosauriform track assemblage from the Gardetta Plateau (Briançonnais, Western Alps, Italy) which, at the Permian-Triassic boundary, was placed at about 11° North. The tracks, both arranged in trackways and documented by single, well-preserved imprints, are assigned to Isochirotherium gardettensis ichnosp. nov., and are here interpreted as produced by a non-archosaurian archosauriform (erytrosuchid?) trackmaker.
This new discovery provides further evidence for the presence of archosauriformes at low latitudes during the Early Triassic epoch, supporting a model in which the PTME did not completely vacate low-latitude lands from tetrapods that therefore would have been able to cope with the extreme hot temperatures of Pangaea mainland.
Archosauriform footprints in the Lower Triassic of Western Alps and their role in understanding the effects of the Permian-Triassic hyperthermal | PeerJ
The rain falls down, I’m soaking through, I’m an old man inside a young man’s suit. My crocodile shoes are crying too for they know how much love I have for you. Crocodile shoes, Crocodile shoes. Crocodile shoes, Crocodile shoes.
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