not black not holes

Not black, not holes

Shock. Not black, not holes. Unfalsifiable black holes. New image by the Earth-to-Space Interferometer RadioAstron of a supposed BH and its incredible 3 light years long plasma jets (or Birkeland plasma filaments?).

blackholes Relativistic jets photoSome of these massive black holes eject spectacular jets composed of plasma flows at close to the speed of light, and which can extend far beyond the confines of their host galaxy. How these jets form in the first place is a longstanding mystery…

They were able to resolve the jet structure 10 times closer to the black hole in NGC 1275 than previously possible using ground-based instruments.

“The result was surprising. It turned out that the observed width of the jet was significantly wider than what was expected in the currently favoured models where the jet is launched from the black hole’s ergosphere – an area of space right next to a spinning black hole where space itself is dragged to a circling motion around the hole,” explains Professor Gabriele Giovannini from the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics

“This may imply that at least the outer part of the jet is launched from the accretion disk surrounding the black hole. Our result does not yet falsify the current models where the jets are launched from the ergosphere…” adds Dr. Tuomas Savolainen from Aalto University in Finland
Telescope larger than the Earth produces image of black hole jet formation in the core of a radio galaxy |

No (dark) matter what is observed the interpretation can always be that physical phenomena such as astrophysical jets are effects not the cause or primary process powering these amazing plasma circuits.

supermassive black holesAnother result from the study is that the jet structure in NGC 1275 significantly differs from the jet in the nearby galaxy Messier 87, which is the only other jet whose structure has been imaged equally close to the black hole. Researchers think that this is due to the difference in the age of these two jets.

“The jet in NGC 1275 re-started just over a decade ago, and is currently still forming, which provides a unique opportunity to follow the very early growth of a black hole jet. Continuing these observations will be very important,” says Professor Masanori Nakamura from Academia Sinica in Taiwan.
Telescope larger than the Earth produces image of black hole jet formation in the core of a radio galaxy |

Caused by the invisible unobservable blackholes and not electromagnetic plasma mechanisms in NASA’s Magnetic Universe?

The previously found, almost cylindrical jet profile on scales larger than a few thousand rg is seen to continue at least down to a few hundred rg from the black hole, and we find a broad jet with a transverse radius of ≳250 rg at only 350 rg from the core.

This implies that either the bright outer jet layer goes through a very rapid lateral expansion on scales ≲102 rg or it is launched from the accretion disk.
A wide and collimated radio jet in 3C84 on the scale of a few hundred gravitational radii

Ever since the first observations of these powerful jets, which are among the brightest objects seen in the universe, astronomers have wondered what causes the particles to accelerate to such great speeds.
Powerful Black Hole Jet Explained | Space

Actual images of black holes show?

Actual images of supermassive black holes from various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum such as x-rays, not artistic or scientists impressions, seem to show that black holes and the whole surrounding area and galaxies are bright centres with jets and plasma power lines flowing into the black hole.

“These jets arise as infalling matter approaches the black hole, but we don’t yet know the details of how they form and maintain themselves,”
Radio Telescopes Capture Best-Ever Snapshot of Black Hole Jets | NASA

What will the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) project, the first attempt to create an actual image of a black hole, actually observe? Or will be interpreted as being observed?

The researchers hope to photograph Sgr A*’s event horizon — the “point of no return” beyond which nothing, not even light, can escape. (The interior of a black hole can never be imaged, because light cannot make it out.)

“These are the observations that will help us to sort through all the wild theories about black holes — and there are many wild theories,” Gopal Narayanan, an astronomy research professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, said in a statement. “With data from this project, we will understand things about black holes that we have never understood before.”
Photographing a black hole: Historic campaign is underway | CBS news

Jets are shown radiating from the poles of the spinning black hole. Like many black holes, 4U1630-47 emits powerful jets of highly charged particles from each of its poles, possibly composed of electrons and protons, but also the nuclei of heavy elements such as iron and nickel.
Stellar-mass black hole 4U1630-47 | CBS

Why are black holes so bright?

It will be argued that the area around the black hole is bright, not the black hole itself which can not be observed as no light escapes it.

Like a pair of whirling skaters, the black hole duo generates tremendous amounts of energy that makes the core of the host galaxy outshine the glow of the galaxy’s population of billions of stars.
Markarian 231 binary black holes – Envisioning black holes | CBS news

It has been assumed that AGN [Active Galactic Nuclei] are powered by Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH). This is because the most efficient conversion of mass to energy (from Einsteins E=mc2) occurs during the accretion of matter by a black hole. The process converts almost 10% of the mass to light. Einstein also showed that photons carry momentum and so can exert a pressure. This means that they can prevent the in-fall of matter towards the black hole if it is bright enough, this maximum luminosity is related to the mass of the black hole and is called the Eddington Limits.

The luminosity observed from the AGN means that if it is powered by accretion onto a SMBH, it has to be 100 million (108) times the mass of our Sun.

… In the centre of the nearby galaxy of M84 we can see the effect of the accretion disc as some of the light is blue shifted and some is red shifted around the centre. Astronomers know that M87 has an AGN because it produces a jet of material and there is very strong radio emission associated with the galaxy

… a distinctive shape which results from the relativistic effects which are expected to occur close to the black hole. The extent of the line to low energies, the “red-wing”, depends on from how close to the black hole there is emission from the accretion disc. If there is a “blue-wing” then the disc is more edge-on … In the case of the galaxy MCG-6-30-15, the spectrum can be modelled as two components, one coming directly from the X-ray source, and one which has been reflected off the accretion disc. These two components vary with respect to each other, and this has been interpreted as there being a bright source above the accretion disc which varies its height. We have already seen that massive objects can bend light, and close to the black hole this is very much the case. The closer to the disc the bright source is, the more of its light is “pulled” towards the disc and is reflected back to us, whereas when it is further away, the amount which is reflected to us is similar, but more reaches us directly.
AGN & Super Massive Black Holes | Institute of Astronomy X-Ray Group, Cambridge University

“This is significant progress. The origin of the monstrous black holes has been a long-standing mystery and now we have a solution to it,” said author and Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (Kavli IPMU) principal investigator Naoki Yoshida.

Recent discoveries of these super-massive black holes located 13 billion light years away, corresponding to when the universe was just five per cent of its present age, pose a serious challenge to the theory of black hole formation and evolution. The physical mechanisms that form black holes and drive their growth are poorly understood.

… Theoretical studies have suggested these black holes formed from remnants of the first generation of stars, or from a direct gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud. However, these theories either have difficulty in forming super-massive black holes fast enough, or require very particular conditions.
Supersonic gas streams left over from the Big Bang drive massive black hole formation |