It could be Jupiter's moons and surprising tidal gravity heating effects.
Or scientists can seemingly ignore everything they have actually measured in their surprising observable solar system. Was every single discovery of the Io Jupiter plasmoids circuit a surprise and not initially predicted?
Jupiter's moons are hot. Well, hotter than they should be, for being so far from the sun. In a process called tidal heating, gravitational tugs from Jupiter's moons and the planet itself stretch and squish the moons enough to warm them. As a result, some of the icy moons contain interiors warm enough to host oceans of liquid water, and in the case of the rocky moon Io, tidal heating melts rock into magma.
Researchers previously believed that the gas giant Jupiter was responsible for most of the tidal heating associated with the liquid interiors of the moons, but a new study published in Geophysical Research Letters found that moon-moon interactions may be more responsible for the heating than Jupiter alone.
It's surprising because the moons are so much smaller than Jupiter. You wouldn't expect them to be able to create such a large tidal response, said the paper's lead author Hamish Hay, a postdoctoral fellow at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California
Jupiter's moons could be warming each other | Phys.org
It is all models and which construct you go with. The accepted modified models have gone for an internal oceanic water, with the Io moon and Jupiter then having to be about the same age around 4.5 billion years old.
Because of the volcanic activity, Io's atmosphere contains mostly sulphur dioxide. Io's orbit cuts across Jupiter's powerful magnetic lines of force, turning Io into an electric generator. As Jupiter rotates, the magnetic forces strip away about a ton of Io's material every second. The material becomes ionized and forms a doughnut-shaped cloud of radiation called a plasma torus.
Some of the ions are pulled into Jupiter's upper atmosphere and create auroras. An example of this activity was spotted by the Hubble Space Telescope, which revealed the influences of Io and another Jovian moon, Ganymede, in Jupiter's auroras in 2018.
Characteristics of Io - Io: Facts about Jupiter’s Volcanic Moon | Space.com
Yet not reflected in any geological mechanism? And double up on all the Unconformity's of Uniformitarianism that helped shape all the failed predictions of extraterrestrial moons, planets, rocky asteroids and electrochemically active rocky asteroids (comets).
Io acts like an electrical generator as it travels through Jupiter’s plasmasphere, inducing over 400,000 volts across its diameter at more than three million amperes. That tremendous current flows across its magnetic field into the electric environment of Jupiter.
The plumes seen erupting from Io, rather than volcanic eruptions, are the result of cathodic arcs, electrically etching the surface and blasting sulfur dioxide “snow” up to 600 kilometers into space.
As predicted, the most active regions of electric discharge were found to be along the edges of so-called “lava lakes,” while the remainder of the dark umbras surrounding them are extremely cold. The Io Plasma Torus | Thunderbolts
Io's environment has come under intense scrutiny in recent years as scientists try to explain why the moon has the most active volcanoes in the solar system. The recent findings involve both observations of the moon and modeling of the interior, which can only be inferred.
A 2015 study explained why Io's most prolific volcanoes appear to be offset from where scientists expected they would be. While previous models suggested that the zones with the most intense heating would have more active volcanoes, the actual Io had its most active ones farther east.
The study suggests that if there was an ocean mixed with molten and solid rock underneath the moon, the rock portions would rub against each other and create the offset zones scientists observed.
However, the existence of a molten ocean came into doubt with a 2017 study, which showed that some auroras we can see in Io's atmosphere would have been damped out by an underground ocean. In other words, we can only see the auroras because the moon likely has no molten ocean, the study concluded.
Explosive mysteries - Io: Facts about Jupiter’s Volcanic Moon | Space.com
What is observable seems to be Electric Universe processes. There are natural electrical transformers and transmutation of electrochemical elements. There is your energy. Perhaps Io's elongated orbit makes it even more potentially different to those other Galilean moons?
No volcanic vents were found. Instead, the plumes move across Io, as illustrated by the Prometheus hot spot that moved more than 80 kilometers since it was first seen by Voyager 2. The volcanic plumes also emit ultraviolet light, characteristic of electric arcs.
Electric discharges can accelerate material to high velocity, producing uniform trajectories that then “fall out” at a uniform distance. This explains why there are rings around the various caldera.
Cathode erosion of Io also provides a reason why the plumes seen highlighted against the black of space possess a filamentary structure, reminiscent of Birkeland currents, discussed many times in these pages.
The Io Plasma Torus | Thunderbolts
Even just surface electric discharge effects and Io's internal spaces are not heated in the way they predict?
In the visible spectrum, Jupiter is a bright, star-like point in the night sky. Viewing it with the naked eye, it would be easy to confuse it with a star except for the fact that it doesn't twinkle. At radio frequencies Jupiter appears very different. It doesn't have a simple round shape, for example, and it is extraordinarily bright. So bright that it can outshine the Sun at some radio frequencies.
Much of this radio power is driven by Jupiter's moon, Io. Tidal forces on Io due to Jupiter's gravitational field cause the moon to be extraordinarily active geologically. Volcanic activity on Io throws material away from the moon, which tends to spread around Jupiter in a region known as the Io torus. This forms a plasma ring around the planet, through which Io orbits.
As Io moves through the plasma torus, it generates a strong electric current between Io and Jupiter. This current is twisted by the rotation of Jupiter, causing a spike in radio intensity about every 10 hours. The radio brightness of Jupiter isn't a perfect cycle, though, and can vary due to other factors such as solar activity.
Looking at Jupiter's radio frequencies | Phys.org
The Doctrine Uniform of Itarianism
Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity or the Uniformitarian Principle, is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in our present-day scientific observations have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe.
It refers to invariance in the metaphysical principles underpinning science, such as the constancy of cause and effect throughout space-time, but has also been used to describe spatiotemporal invariance of physical laws.
Though an unprovable postulate that cannot be verified using the scientific method, some consider that uniformitarianism should be a required first principle in scientific research.
Other scientists disagree and consider that nature is not absolutely uniform, even though it does exhibit certain regularities.
Uniformitarianism | Wikipedia
Magnetosphere of Ganymede based on model of Xianzhe Jia, with location of auroral emissions (in blue).
Magnetospheres of the outer planets Group | University of Colorado Boulder
Ignoring when nature proudly displays its awesome plasma torus, magnetospheres, plasmaspheres of Jupiter, Callisto Io, Europa, Ganymede.