Electric Currents in Geospace and Beyond book review

Electrical geospace and Universe

Electric Currents in Geospace and Beyond is a book published by the American Geophysical Union and states:

electric currents also occur in nature by themselves and run the show in outer space… It is now understood that outer space is fundamentally electrical in nature.

Electrical Earth, solar system and universe

Electric Currents in Geospace and Beyond Electric Universe theory peer reviewed books

Electric currents are fundamental to the structure and dynamics of space plasmas, including our own near-Earth space environment, or geospace.

First volume on electric currents in space in over a decade that provides authoritative up-to-date insight on the current status of research. Reviews recent advances in observations, simulation, and theory of electric currents.

Provides comparative overviews of electric currents in the space environments of different astronomical bodies.

Electric Currents in Geospace and Beyond serves as an excellent reference volume for a broad community of space scientists, astronomers, and astrophysicists who are studying space plasmas in the solar system.
American Geophysical Union

Summary of book chapters for Electric Currents in Geospace and Beyond

Electric Currents in Geospace and Beyond

Due to the price of the Geophysical Monograph Series book these chapter summaries might be as close as most get to reading the contents of this unintentional Bible for plasma based theories and cosmologies including Plasma Universe, comparative plasma mythology and Electric Universe.

The full written summaries for Part I: Introduction found near bottom of article.

Part I: Introduction

Pioneers of Electric Currents in Geospace – Chapter 1
Current Systems in Planetary Magnetospheres – Chapter 2
Electric Currents in the Solar Atmosphere – Chapter 3
Multipoint Analysis of Electric Currents in Geospace Using the Curlometer Technique – Chapter 4
Inferring Currents from the Zeeman Effect at the Solar Surface – Chapter 5

Part II: Ring Currents

ENA Imaging of Planetary Ring Currents – Chapter 6
Terrestrial Ring Current – Chapter 7
The Nature of Jupiter’s Magnetodisk Current System – Chapter 8
The Ring Current of Saturn – Chapter 9

Part III: Current Sheets

Review on the Characteristics of the Current Sheet in the Earth’s Magnetotail – Chapter 10
Recent Advances Regarding the Mars Magnetotail Current Sheet – Chapter 11
Current Sheets at the Giant Planets – Chapter 12
Planetary Magnetopause and Heliopause Current Sheets – Chapter 13
MHS Models of Current Layers in the Solar Atmosphere – Chapter 14
Large‐Scale Current Sheets in Flares and CMEs – Chapter 15

Part IV: Field‐Aligned Currents

A Review of Birkeland Current Research Using AMPERE – Chapter 16
Birkeland Currents at Mercury: Review and Comparison With Earth – Chapter 17
Recent Advances in the Study of Upward Field‐aligned Currents Generated Near the Earth’s Magnetopause Boundary – Chapter 18
The Current System of Dipolarizing Flux Bundles and Their Role as Wedgelets in the Substorm Current Wedge – Chapter 19
Cusp Current System: An Energy Source View – Chapter 20
Magnetospheric and Atmospheric Controls of Giant Planet Auroral Currents – Chapter 21
The Ambivalent Role of Field‐Aligned Electric Currents in the Solar Atmosphere – Chapter 22
Solar Active Region Electric Currents Before and During Eruptive Flares – Chapter 23

Part V: Ionospheric Currents

Review of Data Analysis Techniques for Estimating Ionospheric Currents Based on MIRACLE and Satellite Observations – Chapter 24
Earth’s Ionosphere: Theory and Phenomenology of Cowling Channels – Chapter 25
Ionospheric Currents at Mars and Their Electrodynamic Effects – Chapter 26
Ionospheric Currents due to Ionosphere‐Magnetosphere Coupling at Jupiter and Saturn – Chapter 27

Part VI: Other Current Systems

The Bow Shock Current System – Chapter 28
Current Systems of Inert Moons – Chapter 29
Currents in Cometary Comae – Chapter 30

Part I: Introduction to the history of and Electric Currents in Geospace and Beyond

Pioneers of Electric Currents in Geospace – Chapter 1
This review shows that the progress of our understanding of the electric currents in geospace has gone through a progressive development from the time of the Enlightenment in the early eighteenth century to the Space Age in the 1970s. When it was found that magnetic field variations were caused by electric currents in the upper atmosphere, important steps were made in the late part of the nineteenth century. The aurora borealis was believed to be an electric phenomenon by several authors as early as the 1750s. The current system linking the creation of the aurora became a main field of interest in the beginning of the twentieth century and has remained so until our time. At present, we have a large variety of instruments and methods such as satellite and ground‐based experiments of different kinds and capacities as well as dedicated computer models to study these current systems further. What appears to be lacking, however, is a more detailed knowledge of the variation of the ionospheric conductivities in space and time.

Current Systems in Planetary Magnetospheres – Chapter 2
Magnetospheric fields and plasmas are confined and guided by various forces such as thermal pressure, magnetic pressure, plasma inertia, and centrifugal forces. Any imbalance between these forces results in a magnetic Lorentz force expressed through the deformation of the ambient field or equivalently the generation of electric currents. A knowledge of large‐scale currents therefore provides valuable clues about the physical processes operating in that magnetosphere. In addition, field‐aligned currents (FACs) mediate linear and angular momentum over long distances between the ionospheres to the magnetosphere. An understanding of these currents aids in characterizing the magnetosphere‐ionosphere coupling processes. In this chapter, we compare and contrast various current systems observed in planetary magnetospheres with those observed at Earth. We show that in the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, the centrifugal force contributes significantly to the generation of the azimuthal ring current (ARC). Further in these magnetospheres, the corotation enforcement currents (CEC), which flow in the radial direction in the current sheet, rival the strengths of their ARCs. We also review our knowledge of the FACs in these magnetospheres. We pay special attention to local time asymmetries in the distributions and strengths of the major current systems and relate them to internal and external convection drivers.

Electric Currents in the Solar Atmosphere – Chapter 3
We review historical and modern studies pertinent to the measurements, modeling, and role of electric current in the solar atmosphere. We describe how the electric current density is computed from the vector magnetic field measurement at photospheric and chromospheric levels and how it is modeled, using Nonlinear Force‐Free Field (NLFFF) extrapolations, in the solar corona. Next, the roles of electric currents in plasma dynamics and heating, energy release, and acceleration and transport of nonthermal particles are discussed. We then consider some interesting properties of electron and ion components forming electric current in a multicomponent plasma, the effect of the electric current on the Alfvén wave properties, current neutralization, and redistribution during solar flares. We discuss present theories about the origin of electric currents from subphotospheric and photospheric motions. We conclude that evaluation of electric currents in the solar atmosphere has reached a high level of maturity and that accounting for the electric current is highly important for solar physics.

Multipoint Analysis of Electric Currents in Geospace Using the Curlometer Technique – Chapter 4
Four‐point magnetic field measurements in space allow estimates of the electric current density through the curlometer technique, which estimates electric current density from Ampère’s law, and is relevant to the magnetosphere and surrounding regions, which contain high conductivity plasma. Knowledge of spacecraft separations, magnetic field measurement accuracy, and the form of the current structures sampled (e.g., relative scale size) limits the accuracy of the method. Despite these conditions of application, in many regions of the magnetosphere it has been shown to be robust and reliable. A number of studies have applied the method successfully such as: the ring current; the magnetotail current sheet; the magnetopause currents, and field aligned currents, as well as to other current structures (e.g., flux tubes). Where time stationarity and other special assumptions can be made, or where the spacecraft configuration is highly irregular or less than four spacecraft are available, the method can still be applied to obtain partial components of the current. We discuss the application of the curlometer technique to the four‐point observations from the Cluster mission in terms of its adaptability and performance (including the lessons learned) and illustrate its use with recent data from the MMS mission, which covers a much smaller spatial regime.

Inferring Currents from the Zeeman Effect at the Solar Surface – Chapter 5
The brightness and morphology of coronal structures and the sharply bound morphology of photospheric magnetic structures indicate that electric currents permeate the solar atmosphere. Quantifying the strength of these currents is, however, difficult. In this introduction to measuring electric currents in the atmosphere of the Sun, we present an overview of the present methods for estimating them near the solar surface, including a brief overview of the steps required to infer a photospheric current density from remotely sensed observations of polarized light. We focus on results from the Zeeman effect at the photosphere, and highlight the limitations of spatial resolution and the challenges of sampling the solar atmosphere at multiple heights, both of particular interest for understanding the true nature of the solar electric currents.