Comets formation theory is totally based on the idea that comets are the leftovers or survivors of the creation of the universe. But all evidence seems to suggest that comet theory is very wrong. They are rocky objects, not dirty snowballs.
Now oxygen molecules have been detected. But oxygen reacts with most things so how has it survived in a comet since the formation of the universe? This can possibly be explained through Electric Universe theory about comet electric/plasma water.
Our observations indicate that the O2/H2O ratio is isotropic in the coma and does not change systematically with heliocentric distance. This suggests that primordial O2 was incorporated into the nucleus during the comet’s formation, which is unexpected given the low upper limits from remote sensing observations. Current Solar System formation models do not predict conditions that would allow this to occur.
Abundant molecular oxygen in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko | Nature
ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft has made the first in situ detection of oxygen molecules outgassing from a comet, a surprising observation that suggests they were incorporated into the comet during its formation.
Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the Universe, but the simplest molecular version of the gas, O2, has proven surprisingly hard to track down, even in star-forming clouds, because it is highly reactive and readily breaks apart to bind with other atoms and molecules. For example, oxygen atoms can combine with hydrogen atoms on cold dust grains to form water, or a free oxygen split from O2 by ultraviolet radiation can recombine with an O2 molecule to form ozone (O3).
Despite its detection on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, O2 had been missing in the inventory of volatile species associated with comets until now.
“We weren’t really expecting to detect O2 at the comet – and in such high abundance – because it is so chemically reactive, so it was quite a surprise,” says Kathrin Altwegg of the University of Bern, and principal investigator of the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis instrument, ROSINA. “It’s also unanticipated because there aren’t very many examples of the detection of interstellar O2. And thus, even though it must have been incorporated into the comet during its formation, this is not so easily explained by current Solar System formation models.”
… “The instantaneous generation of O2 also seems unlikely, as that should lead to variable O2 ratios under different illumination conditions. Instead, it seems more likely that primordial O2 was somehow incorporated into the comet’s ices during its formation, and is being released with the water vapour today.”
… “Regardless of how it was made, the O2 was also somehow protected during the accretion stage of the comet: this must have happened gently to avoid the O2 being destroyed by further chemical reactions,” adds Kathrin.
“This is an intriguing result for studies both within and beyond the comet community, with possible implications for our models of Solar System evolution,” says Matt Taylor, ESA’s Rosetta project scientist.
First detection of molecular oxygen at a comet | European Space Agency
The factors shaping cometary nuclei are still largely unknown, but could be the result of concurrent effects of evolutionary1, 2 and primordial processes. The peculiar bilobed shape of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko may be the result of the fusion of two objects that were once separate or the result of a localized excavation by outgassing at the interface between the two lobes. Here we report that the comet’s major lobe is enveloped by a nearly continuous set of strata, up to 650 metres thick, which are independent of an analogous stratified envelope on the minor lobe. Gravity vectors computed for the two lobes separately are closer to perpendicular to the strata than those calculated for the entire nucleus and adjacent to the neck separating the two lobes.
Therefore comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is an accreted body of two distinct objects with ‘onion-like’ stratification, which formed before they merged. We conclude that gentle, low-velocity collisions occurred between two fully formed kilometre-sized cometesimals in the early stages of the Solar System. The notable structural similarities between the two lobes of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko indicate that the early-forming cometesimals experienced similar primordial stratified accretion, even though they formed independently.
Two independent and primitive envelopes of the bilobate nucleus of comet 67P | Nature
They found that free oxygen was the fourth most common gas around the comet, after water vapour, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the scientists involved, Professor Kathrin Altwegg of Bern University said that the scientists involved in the study thought the result was a mistake when they first saw the data. “When we first saw it, we went a little bit into denial because it is not what you would expect to find on a comet,” she said.
That is because oxygen reacts very easily with other elements to form compounds, rather than stay in its unique form. The researchers suggest that oxygen must have been frozen very quickly and became trapped in clumps of material early on in the formation of the Solar System. “It was the most surprising discovery we have made so far (about the comet),” said Prof Altwegg. “The big question was how it got there”.
Many current theories of how the planets and comets formed around the Sun suggest a violent process that would have heated up the frozen oxygen – which would then have reacted with other elements. The suggestion is that the Solar System formation must have been an altogether quieter affair. “If we have O2 at the beginning of the formation of the comet, how did it survive so long?” said the study’s author Andre Bieler, from the University of Michigan.
“All the models say it shouldn’t survive for so long, which tells us something about the building of our Solar System – it has to be very gentle to build these ice grains, it seems it is a pretty pristine material still. Now we have evidence that this significant part of this comet has in fact survived the formation of our Solar System.”
Surprise discovery suggests ‘gentle’ start for Solar System | BBC
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