Polar hot spots are caused by Birkeland currents

The now accepted theory of sun-Earth Birkeland currents, what astro-physicists call magnetic ropes or flux ropes,[1] provides a mechanism to explain polar hot spots on planets throughout the solar system. CHANDRA x-ray data of Jupiter from 2000,[2] the Cassini image of Titan in infrared from 2009,[3] and Keck Observatory’s temperature data from Saturn in 2004,[4] …

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