Previously, our understanding of Venus' polar atmosphere was based on observations gathered by NASA's Pioneer Venus probe in the late 1970s. These were of other parts of Venus' atmosphere, near the equator, but extrapolated to the poles to form a complete atmospheric reference model ...
These new measurements, taken as part of the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE) from 24 June to 11 July 2014, have now directly tested this model – and reveal several surprises
For one, the polar atmosphere is up to 70 degrees colder than expected, with an average temperature of -157°C (114 K) ... The polar atmosphere is also not as dense as expected; at 130 and 140 km in altitude, it is 22% and 40% less dense than predicted, respectively. When extrapolated upward in the atmosphere, these differences are consistent with those measured previously by VExADE at 180 km, where densities were found to be lower by almost a factor of two.
Venus Express' swansong experiment sheds light on Venus' polar atmosphere | European Space Agency | European Space Agency
Greenhouse Venus Polar Atmosphere Model
Wasn't Earth's greenhouse gas ideas, global warming models, climate change theories based on the very surprising discovery, predicted by Immanuel Velikovsky, that Venus atmosphere was amazingly hot?
'This is in-line with our temperature findings, and shows that the existing model paints an overly simplistic picture of Venus' upper atmosphere' added Müller-Wodarg
Venus Express' swansong experiment sheds light on Venus' polar atmosphere | European Space Agency | ESA
Or are Greenhouse Venus models not related to its polar atmospheric models or do not change Earth's global warming theories?
A change to global warming models?