Tired Light theory, forward scattering of Fritz Zwicky and Grote Reber's investigation and interpretation.
Or dead tired light? Interesting alternative redshift idea to consider and expand the mind but evidence proves it wrong?
Reber was not a believer of the big bang theory; he believed that red shift was due to repeated absorption and re-emission or interaction of light and other electromagnetic radiations by low density dark matter, over intergalactic distances, and he published an article called Endless, Boundless, Stable Universe which outlined his theory. Reber was supportive of the Tired light explanation for the redshift-distance relationship.
Final years - Grote Reber | Wikipedia
Tired Light theories have been around for nearly 100 years and provide an alternative to the Big Bang and an expanding Universe. In Tired Light, redshifts are explained in terms of photons of light interacting with the electrons in the plasma of space. The photons lose energy, their frequency decreases, their wavelength increases and they have been redshifted. The energy transferred to the recoiling electron is re-radiated as a secondary photon and these form the CMBR.
Tired Light an explanation of redshifts in a static universe
The tired light theory seeks to provide an alternative explanation for the redshift seen in distant galaxies, which is conventionally explained by the expansion of the universe. According to this theory, the energy carried by photons of light is somehow gradually dissipated as they travel through space, resulting in the wavelength increasing, so that the light is shifted toward the longer wavelength, less energetic, red end of the spectrum. The big bang theory of the universe explains this redshift as being due to the Doppler effect. The tired light hypothesis, in contrast, is compatible with steady state models of the universe. It can be argued that this explanation for redshift has not been comprehensively disproved, but the vast majority of astronomers and cosmologists favor the big bang theory, as it neatly explains a number of observations that cause serious problems for the tired light model.
The theory was first proposed by Fritz Zwicky in 1929, following the discovery that the redshifts of galaxies increased with distance. The process by which the energy of light is dissipated over large distances is, however, problematic. The most obvious process — interaction of light with particles in space — was quickly rejected by Zwicky himself, as this would result in scattering of the light, which would in turn render images of distant galaxies fuzzy or blurred. Observations of distant galaxies do not show this fuzziness. Zwicky favored an alternative explanation involving light being affected by gravity, but this idea remains essentially speculative.
What Is the Tired Light? | Wise Geek
The observed acceleration of the expansion of the universe was a big surprise to conventional cosmology and we are still working on theories which can include it! They are a little strange sounding, requiring a 'cosmological constant' or 'dark energy', which we don't understand, but the surprising thing is that given this, they predict the growth of structure in our universe and the abundances of elements, and the temperature of the microwave background radiation (among other things) extremely well. With the amount of observational evidence piling up behind them, these theories are looking in good shape.
What an acceleration of the expansion says in tired light theory I have not given much thought to until now. The observation that lead to the conclusion that the expansion was accelerating was that Supernovae appeared to be further away (and therefore dimmer) than expected if the universe was expanding with a constant rate. What I mean by this is that they have a lower redshift than predicted given their distance measured in a different way - so are further away than the redshift suggests. I think that in tired light theory this would have to be interpreted as being due to a non-constant loss of energy by the photons on their way to us. Since there is no know mechanism for photons to lose energy without interacting with other particles (and therefore changing in other observable ways) in a non-expanding universe even in a constant way, how you would find a variable mechanism is anyone's guess!
Can 'tired light theory' explain the observed redshifts of galaxies? | Astronomy Department Cornell University
All things being equal, light should travel forever. However, things usually aren't all equal! The Universe is not empty, but instead is filled with dust, gas, stars and other inconvenient obstacles so that light sometimes has a hard time poking its way through. Worse, we believe the Universe itself is expanding. This means light from very far away has to struggle to overcome that expansion to get to us, which means the light loses energy (like you have to use energy to pedal a bicycle up a hill). When light loses energy its color shifts to the red, which is what we mean by redshift. As you get farther away, the light has to use up more energy to get to us, and so eventually it loses so much energy we can no longer detect it. It's still there, it has simply lost so much energy that it has become too feeble to detect.
There are some people that think that light does "leak" energy after a while. This theory is usually called tired light, and is used to explain the redshift of light without needing a Big Bang scenario. Most proponents of tired light don't like the Big Bang theory for their own reasons, but of course tired light has many problems of its own.
Does light travel till infinity? | Bad Astronomy
Tired Light theories have previously been rejected since certain tests were said to discredit it but now these objections have been overcome and Tired Light is now at the forefront of cosmological theories. Furthermore, discoveries in 2015 confirm predictions that New Tired Light made nearly 20 years ago! New Tired Light was published in a peer reviewed scientific journal in August 2016 and the book follows this development.
In 2015 a fast radio burst was observed and for the first time we had the redshift of the host galaxy. This enabled the mean electron number density to be determined as 0.5 m^-3 exactly as predicted by New Tired Light nearly twenty years ago. New Tired Light provides a mechanism by which redshifts can happen and using standard Physics we can now pick any galaxy and calculate its redshift from first principles and get it right! The book chooses two galaxies used by Hubble in his earlier 1930’s paper said to show the Universe is expanding and calculates the redshift in terms of a photon – electron recoil interaction. We see that there is no need for expansion as it is simple optics.
Tired Light an explanation of redshifts in a static universe
When Edwin Hubble discovered a somewhat linear relationship between the distance to a galaxy and its redshift expressed as a velocity, Fritz Zwicky immediately pointed out that the correlation between the calculated distances of galaxies and their redshifts had a discrepancy too large to fit in the distance's error margins. He proposed that the reddening effect was not due to motions of the galaxy, but to an unknown phenomenon that caused photons to lose energy as they traveled through space.
He considered the most likely candidate process to be a drag effect in which photons transfer momentum to surrounding masses through gravitational interactions; and proposed that an attempt be made to put this effect on a sound theoretical footing with general relativity. He also considered and rejected explanations involving interactions with free electrons, or the expansion of space.
Zwicky was skeptical of the expansion of space in 1929, because the rates measured at that time seemed too large. It was not until 1956 that Walter Baade corrected the distance scale based on Cepheid variable stars, and ushered in the first accurate measures of the expansion rate. Cosmological redshift is now conventionally understood to be a consequence of the expansion of space; a feature of Big Bang cosmology.
Tired light - Fritz Zwicky | Wikipedia
Tired light is a class of hypothetical redshift mechanisms that was proposed as an alternative explanation for the redshift-distance relationship. These models have been proposed as alternatives to the models that require metric expansion of space of which the Big Bang and the Steady State cosmologies are the most famous examples. The concept was first proposed in 1929 by Fritz Zwicky, who suggested that if photons lost energy over time through collisions with other particles in a regular way, the more distant objects would appear redder than more nearby ones.
Tired light | Wikipedia
Photon-Atom Theory is a variant of the Tired Light Theory proposed by Zwicky after Hubble reported his redshift measurements in 1929. Zwicky contended that the redshift measured was caused by galaxy photons losing energy in colliding with cosmic dust particles (DPs) in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Zwicky’s contention that the interpretation of Hubble’s redshift as a Doppler shift was fatally flawed marked the beginning of cosmological death of the Big Bang.
Redshift by cosmic dust supports the death of the Big Bang Theory | PRLog
Dead Tired Light
Tired light models invoke a gradual energy loss by photons as they travel through the cosmos to produce the redshift-distance law. This has three main problems:
- There is no known interaction that can degrade a photon's energy without also changing its momentum, which leads to a blurring of distant objects which is not observed. The Compton shift in particular does not work
- The tired light model does not predict the observed time dilation of high redshift supernova light curves
- The tired light model can not produce a blackbody spectrum for the Cosmic Microwave Background without some incredible coincidences
Zwicky himself acknowledged that any sort of scattering of light would blur the images of distant objects more than what is seen. Additionally, the surface brightness of galaxies evolving with time, time dilation of cosmological sources, and a thermal spectrum of the cosmic microwave background have been observed — these effects should not be present if the cosmological redshift was due to any tired light scattering mechanism. Despite periodic re-examination of the concept, tired light has not been supported by observational tests and has lately been consigned to consideration only in the fringes of astrophysics.
... By the 1990s and on into the twenty-first century, a number of falsifying observations have shown that tired light hypotheses are not viable explanations for cosmological redshifts. For example, in a static universe with tired light mechanisms, the surface brightness of stars and galaxies should be constant, that is, the farther an object is, the less light we receive, but its apparent area diminishes as well, so the light received divided by the apparent area should be constant. In an expanding universe, the surface brightness diminishes with distance. As the observed object recedes, photons are emitted at a reduced rate because each photon has to travel a distance that is a little longer than the previous one, while its energy is reduced a little because of increasing redshift at a larger distance. On the other hand, in an expanding universe, the object appears to be larger than it really is, because it was closer to us when the photons started their travel. This causes a difference in surface brilliance of objects between a static and an expanding Universe. This is known as the Tolman surface brightness test that in those studies favors the expanding universe hypothesis and rules out static tired light models.
Redshift is directly observable and used by cosmologists as a direct measure of lookback time. They often refer to age and distance to objects in terms of redshift rather than years or light-years. In such a scale, the Big Bang corresponds to a redshift of infinity. Alternative theories of gravity that do not have an expanding universe in them need an alternative to explain the correspondence between redshift and distance that is sui generis to the expanding metrics of general relativity. Such theories are sometimes referred to as "tired-light cosmologies", though not all authors are necessarily aware of the historical antecedents.
Tired light | Wikipedia