A matter of change

Halton Arp's evidence and theories, when investigating the possibility that redshift may be wrong, also suggest the possibility that 'new' matter can change as it gets older.

Halton suggests when new matter is ejected from quasars they have extremely low mass (perhaps virtually no mass?), the initial mass of new quasar ejected protons and electrons changes/transforms with time, as this new quasar matter evolves their redshift or blueshift naturally (intrinsic redshift) has to change.

The younger the electron making the orbital jump, the less massiave it will be, and the weaker (more redshifted) will be the emitted photon.

Moreover as the particles age, they become more massive; therefore, the ensemble becomes more luminous... As its luminosity grows, its redshift drops, evolving into what we consider 'normal' galaxies, i.e. like our own.

Also as the assemblage ages, its growing mass slows its initial high ejection velovicy in order to conserve momentum. The galaxies finish with very slow relative velocities as observed.

This is the kind of theory we are looking for - simple, capable of being visualized - one that can connect together the puzzling observational facts that presently confound our understanding.
Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science | Halton Arp

Good theories can explain similar phenomena, one alternative interpretation or evidence? Astronomers detect X-ray emitting clumps ejected from the binary PSR B1259–63/LS 2883.

This is a great 5 minute introduction video and brief explanation by the Thunderbolts Project of what Halton Arp's intrinsic redshift is and implies.


During the 1950s bright radio sources, now known as quasars, had been discovered that did not appear to have an optical counterpart. In 1960 one of these sources, 3C 48, was found to be associated with what appeared to be a small blue star. When the spectrum of the star was measured, it contained unidentifiable spectral lines that defied all attempts at explanation; John Gatenby Bolton's suggestion that these were highly redshifted sources was not widely accepted. In 1963 Maarten Schmidt found a visible companion to the quasar 3C 273. Using the Hale telescope, Schmidt found the same odd spectra, but was able to demonstrate that it could be explained as the spectrum of hydrogen, shifted by a very large 15.8% If this was due to the physical motion of the "star", it would represent a speed of 47,000 km/s, far beyond the speed of any known star and defying an obvious explanation.

Schmidt noted that redshift is also associated with the expansion of the universe, as codified in Hubble's law. If the measured redshift was due to expansion, then the object in question would have to be very far away, and therefore have an extraordinarily high luminosity, equally beyond any object seen to date. This extreme luminosity would also explain the large radio signal. Schmidt concluded quasars are very distant, very luminous objects. Schmidt's explanation for the high redshift was not universally accepted at the time.
Quasars and redshifts - Halton Arp | Wikipedia

The previous article on Arp's redshift controversy introduced some of his ideas from the fantastic video of Halton explaining his ideas on the old BBC TV programme the Sky at Night, famously hosted by the much missed Patrick Moore for all those years. You can see that video further down the page.

James Sorensen also did a talk at Electric Universe 2013 conference explaining the conflicting theories (red shift explanation starts around 10 minutes).


Arp's Redshift Controversy explained on Sky at Night

Below are hand typed notes of part of the video.

What about the quasars? The quasars are, according to conventional theory, super luminos, perhaps as luminous as a 1000 whole galaxies put together, and is more than 10,000 light years away and is receding at more than 90% of the velocity of light.

... If a light source is to red that means its spectral lines are shift over to the red end of the spectrum or long wave end of the spectrum - that is the redshift. It is absolutely vital to because all our distances measured in the far universe depend upon it .., the greater the red shift, the greater the distance and the greater the velocity of recession.

That depends on the redshifts being pure Doppler effects. Now just suppose there are some other cause of the redshift superimposed on the Doppler effect. If that is so and the redshifts are not pure Dopllers then all our distance measures may be wrong.
Patrick Moore introduction | Sky at Night


Our entire view of the universe - the size, the mass and the contents depends on this assumption, that we can tell the distances by redshift. If that one crucial assumption is incorrect, then our picture falls apart and we dont know very much.

Fundamentally, the only way you can tell the distance in the universe is to see the object associated with another object whose distance you know. So if you see objects which are clustered together or are interacting together, you know they are at the same distance. And if you find that their redshifts are much different, then you know that redshift cant be a measure of distance. An example of this is this very pretty spiral galaxy with 3 quasars on the edge of it. The quasars have enormously high redshift and the spiral galaxy has a low redshift. These quasars are so close to the galaxy that they are statistically or probably associated ... Not only do we have quasars with very high redshift linked and associated with lower redshift galaxies but also we have galaxies themselves with different redshift which are clearly interacting but have different redshift.

There is a great commitment to the assumption that redshifts always mean velocity and there is a great reluctance to give up this assumption because a lot of work has been based on it and there is this reluctance to recognise evidence that contradicts this assumption.

If its true that the redshifts are not always indicative of velocity and this assumption is continued to be believed then we reach a very critical point in the science of extra galactic astronomy. This is so important that I think every person has to make up their own mind, exercise their own judgement on this matter. And therefore i think its very important to discuss the matter of the facts as we have here.

[Patrick Moore] If you are right and there is an extra redshift superimposed on the Doppler redshift, what is the cause of this non velocity redshift?

The first point I have to make is the observations show that the present assumptions are inadequate, so we have to have some other explanations ...
My particular working hypothesis, my explanation, is that the matter which goes into making up these quasars and higher redshift galaxies is young matter which has intrinsicly high redshift, which is ejected from the galaxy and which decays and evolves as a function of time to the more normal redshift galaxies.
Halton Arp | Sky at Night

Halton Arp evidence against redshift and blueshift

Halton Arp was investigating galaxies and created the famous Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies when he seemed to find that they were colliding and that objects were linked with them. The red shift of science suggested that although they appeared to look like they were connected they were light years apart.

Halton Arp become convinced that redshift was wrong. He wrote a book about it called Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science.

Following are a few examples of image evidence from his video and book, and some related evidence.

In 1967 Arp noted that several of these objects appeared on the list of quasars. In some photographs a quasar is in the foreground of known galaxies, and in others there appeared to be matter bridging the two objects, implying they are very close in space. If they are, and the redshifts were due to Hubble expansion, then both objects should have similar redshifts. The galaxies had much smaller redshifts than the quasars. Arp argued that the redshift was not due to Hubble expansion or physical movement of the objects, but must have a non-cosmological or "intrinsic" origin.

Arp also noted that quasars were not evenly spread over the sky, but tended to be more commonly found in positions of small angular separation from certain galaxies. This being the case, they might be in some way related to the galaxies. Arp's hypothesis is that quasars are local objects ejected from the core of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Nearby galaxies with both strong radio emission and peculiar morphologies, particularly M87 and Centaurus A, appeared to support Arp's hypothesis.
Halton Arp - red shift problem (wikipedia)

Spiral Galaxy NGC 1097

Clusters of redshift galaxies?

redshift galaxies clusters age

The above plot shows the redshift distribution of about 1400 galaxies in the field of Abell 104. The prominent peak at z ~ 0.08 is due to Abell 104 itself. Emission line galaxies are coloured blue and early type galaxies are colored red. The plot clearly illustrates the well known tendency for early type galaxies to be more clustered than late type galaxies.

redshift galaxy clusters groupings of age

A redshift "pie" diagram for the Abell 104 region is shown above ... The concentration of galaxies around the redshift of Abell 104 (z ~0.08) is clearly visible. The lozenge shape of the galaxy redshift distribution is due to the large virial velocities within the cluster. The different colors show galaxy groupings inferred using a "friends of friends" algorithm.
Superclusters and Large Scale Structure - Norris Surveys | Caltech