Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies

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Halton Arp's Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies (free PDF) was published in 1966. Halton's interpretations of what can be observed in his photographs of galaxies, nebula and what were then strange new astronomical objects that become known as quasars, created the Redshift Controversy.

Halton Arp's catalogue of mysterious shaped galaxy and interacting plasma and cosmic dust filaments were grouped into similar categories.

From the 1960s, however, astronomers began to discover strange objects that became known as quasars — intense radio sources whose spectra are shifted dramatically towards longer, redder wavelengths of light, implying they are moving away from our galaxy at enormous velocities and are therefore at extreme distances away from us. Arp began looking at quasars and noticed that many appeared to be lying quite close in the sky to galaxies, sometimes in alignment with them. In 1971 he claimed to have found a “bridge” of gas joining a galaxy named NGC 4319 and a quasar that sits next to it in the sky. As the quasar had a far higher red shift than the galaxy, under conventional Big Bang theory it should be millions or even billions of light years further away. Its apparent proximity needed some explaining.

Most cosmologists concluded that Arp’s observations were wrong, explaining that the galaxy and quasar simply appeared to be close because they were in the same line of sight. Arp’s response was to produce more and more images of objects which seemed to be associated with each other, yet had remarkably different redshifts. One showed a neat row of stellar objects consisting of a deformed spiral galaxy flanked at equal distances by two quasars which appeared to be related to it even though the quasars had enormous red shifts, much bigger than the central galaxy. Another quasar-like object had a redshift which placed it about a billion light years from us, but appeared to be in front of a galaxy only 70 million light years away.

Arp went on to suggest that quasars are created in and ejected by galaxies, and have an “intrinsic” high redshift that has nothing to do with distance or velocity...

While Big Bang is almost universally accepted as the most plausible account of the origin of the universe, it is still only a theory, not proven fact, and in principle should be open to any scientists to test it against alternative cosmological possibilities. Yet Arp found himself being treated as a pariah.
Halton Arp - obituary | The Telegraph

Halton Arp's suggests plasma cosmologies, magnetic galaxies and universe?

The Atlas as it has been realized in the following pages illustrates again that galaxies contain more than just stars, radiation, and gravitation. The pictures emphasize the importance of dust in some, they particularly imply a much more important role for the gas in general, and point to the existence of either new forces or forces which previously have been little considered. For example, if we consider galaxies to be merely an assemblage of mass particles, we should be able to treat them, in the limit, hydrodynamically as a frictionless fluid.

But the twisted, distorted shapes and curious linkages pictured there suggest that viscosity-like forces are present. Dynamical friction does not seem sufficient because some of the filaments suggest a degree of viscosity approaching that of an elastic medium. Probably the only agency likely to account for this is that of magnetic fields that interconnect regions of wholly or partially ionized gas. Vorontsov-Velyaminov has stressed in the past the probable magnetic nature of some of the effects in peculiar galaxies.

Magnetic forces are very difficult to study optically, but are undoubtedly of great importance in our universe. Recent radio astronomy discoveries of violent events in galaxies reveal sources of energetic charged particles. These charged particles interact with magnetic fields and offer the hope of mapping, measuring, and understanding cosmic magnetic fields. The connection between the plasmas observed with the radio telescopes and the optical evidences of plasma effects pictured in the present Atlas is now open to us.
Halton Arp - Preface to Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies

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