A good science theory predicts …

good science theory predicts surprisesIf a good theory predicts then a good science theory should also predict successfully and not nearly always seem to be surprised, back to the drawing board, a total rethink of the present theory, by what it does and does not find.

In recent years, though, astronomers have seen that asteroids can suddenly don the appearance of comets, complete with a fuzzy head and a long tail. Astronomers call them main-belt comets, because they exhibit comet like traits but orbit within the Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter.

“It’s hugely shocking that this body that looks like an asteroid is behaving like a comet,” Jewitt says. “It’s a fact, but somehow it’s wrong.”
Astronomers Puzzle Over Newfound Asteroid That Acts Like a Comet | Scientific American

The Universes own theory is wrong?

science theory surprisedThe greatest example of what we actually can observe and measure in the universe but the universe is very wrong and incorrect is Dark Stuff (Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Dark Flow, Black Holes etc).

Over the years the universe has showed science mathematical computer models calculations to be 95% out or missing. Scientists could not be wrong, the universe had to be wrong. Dark Stuff was created because that missing 95% had to be there somewhere. Although we can not measure or observe the Dark Stuff but we can the visible stuff like plasma in an Electric Universe.

the scientists involved in the study thought the result was a mistake when they first saw the data. "When we first saw it, we went a little bit into denial because it is not what you would expect to find on a comet," she said.

That is because oxygen reacts very easily with other elements to form compounds, rather than stay in its unique form. The researchers suggest that oxygen must have been frozen very quickly and became trapped in clumps of material early on in the formation of the Solar System. "It was the most surprising discovery we have made so far (about the comet)," said Prof Altwegg. "The big question was how it got there".

... "If we have O2 at the beginning of the formation of the comet, how did it survive so long?" said the study's author Andre Bieler, from the University of Michigan ... "All the models say it shouldn't survive for so long"
Surprise discovery suggests 'gentle' start for Solar System | BBC

A decade ago, three teams of scientists reported that they had detected methane in the Martian atmosphere — two using observations from Earth, one using the European Space Agency’s Mars Express orbiter.

All of the measurements were at the edge of sensitivity, and the methane appeared to disappear a couple of years later. If true, that meant that not only was something creating methane on Mars, but something else was quickly destroying it.

Many Mars scientists decided that a simpler solution to the methane mystery was that the measurements were mistaken.
A New Clue in the Search for Life on Mars: Methane Gas | New York Times

When physicists study the dynamics of galaxies and the movement of stars, they are confronted with a mystery, according to the press release.

If they only take visible matter into account, their equations simply don't add up: the elements that can be observed are not sufficient to explain the rotation of objects and existing gravitational forces. There is something missing. From this they deduced that there must be an invisible kind of matter that does not interact with light, but does, as a whole, interact by means of the gravitational force.

The enormous galaxies and clusters of galaxies that populate the universe weigh just a fraction of the mass of the massive, unseen dark matter ‘halos’ that anchor them.
Scientists Hope to Detect Dark Matter Signals Buried in X-Rays | Sputnik News

"The feature was so surprising, I initially foolishly thought the instruments on the probes weren't working properly, but I soon realized the lab had built such wonderful instruments that there wasn't anything wrong with them, so what we saw must be true," Baker said.
NASA Discovers New Radiation Belt Around Earth | space.com

A good theory predicts?

There has to finally be a moment when you have modified the modified modified completely changed modified slightly changed modified your theory yet again when people should start to question the original ideas and all the other theories based them.

The Big Bang theory, theory of evolution, nebula and planetary formation theory, comet formation theory, geology theory, the theory of gravity, particle standard model ... surprise!

The Universe may be expanding up to 9% faster than previously thought.

This new assessment comes from the Hubble Space Telescope, which has significantly refined the rate at which nearby galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other.

"To be honest, with this latest measurement we've really gone beyond what we might call 'tension'; we're missing something in our understanding of the cosmos," the Nobel Laureate told BBC News.
Hubble clocks faster cosmic expansion | BBC

The Hubble Space Telescope has spied the most distant galaxy yet. It is so far away that the light from this extremely faint collection of stars, catalogued as GN-z11, has taken some 13.4 billion years to reach us ... Or to put that another way - Hubble sees the galaxy as it was just 400 million years after the Big Bang.

"The surprising thing is how bright it is (for what it represents), and it's growing really fast, producing stars at a much faster rate," said the Yale astronomer.

"So, it's challenging some of our models, but it's showing galaxy build-up was well under way early on in the Universe, and it's a great preview for James Webb, which will be pushing even deeper to see the progenitors of this galaxy."
Hubble sets new cosmic distance record | BBC

It's well-known that lightning is an electric current—a quick, powerful burst of charge that flows within a cloud or between a cloud and the ground. But surprisingly, scientists still don't fully understand how the initial spark forms that generates such powerful lightning.

... a rare but extremely powerful type of lightning spark, or discharge, called narrow bipolar events. The scientists found that this powerful type of lightning is caused by a newly recognized type of discharge called fast positive breakdown ... This discovery is surprising, since previous simulations have shown that lightning breakdown appears to be negative, meaning the spark moves upward in the cloud from a negative to a positive region. In positive breakdown, the spark moves downward from a positive to a negative region.
Scientists find clues to the mystery of what causes lightning | Phys.org

The orbits of Pluto's four smallest moons are even more chaotic than scientists had expected ... "The way I would describe this system is not just chaos, but pandemonium, ...We honestly have not seen anything like this before, and we still don't know what to make of it."

The new results show that as the four moons orbit Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, some of them are spinning incredibly fast, one is spinning backward against its orbit and some are tilted on their sides. This is in stark contrast to nearly every other moon in Earth's solar system, most of which are locked into a more rigid and unmoving orbit around their parent bodies, making Pluto's moons the wild children of the solar system.

... But now that more data have come down from New Horizons, scientists say things in the system are beyond disorganized — and it's unexplainable ... "This is unprecedented," Showalter said at the news conference. "We simply have not seen a satellite system that does this."

... Showalter clarified that it is not impossible to imagine that the moons would spin so rapidly following a collision with another object. What is so mysterious is that all four objects are spinning rapidly (it's difficult to imagine a collision that would affect all four of them), and that the gravitational pull of Pluto doesn't appear to have slowed them down, he said.

Typically, the gravity of a parent body would dissipate the planet's rotational motion, "and yet that's not what we're seeing, so that's really the puzzle," Showalter said at the news conference. "The question is, why [don't they] slow down? It's not so much why [are they] so fast."
Pandemonium! Motion of Pluto's Moons Perplexes Scientists | Space

“The Pluto system is baffling us,” planetary scientist Alan Stern, with the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder ...a startling look at two mountains on the surface of Pluto, each measuring more than 160 kilometers in diameter and several kilometers in height ... “Nothing like this has ever been seen in the outer solar system,” said New Horizons scientist Oliver White.

... White admits the idea of volcanoes on Pluto, which is about 30 times farther away from the sun than Earth, sounds crazy, “but it’s the least crazy thing we can thing of” to explain the mountains.
Scientists: New data suggest Pluto could have ice volcanoes | The Japan News

Ever since New Horizons beamed back images of Pluto and Charon in July, scientists have wondered why the two worlds look to have been geologically active in the recent past. This kind of geological variation — from Pluto's ice mountains, to Charon's relatively young surface — wasn't thought possible before the New Horizons mission because of the cosmic bodies' significant distance from the sun.
New Horizons spots a mysterious crater on Pluto's largest moon | mashable

"The comatose galaxies in the Sausage cluster are coming back to life, with stars forming at a tremendous rate. When we first saw this in the data, we simply couldn't believe what it was telling us."
'Cosmic Tsunami' Shocks Comatose 'Sausage' Galaxy Cluster Into Star Formation | space.com

“How could we have this massive black hole when the universe was so young? We don’t currently have a satisfactory theory to explain it,”
Astronomers find a shockingly ancient black hole the size of 12 billion suns | The Star

They say the discovery indicates that planets have been forming almost from the time the Universe began ... "It is extraordinary that such an ancient system of terrestrial-sized planets formed when the universe was just starting out," says Huber.
Astronomers find oldest-known solar system | ABC Australia

Protoplanet Vesta, visited by NASA's Dawn spacecraft from 2011 to 2013, was once thought to be completely dry, incapable of retaining water because of the low temperatures and pressures at its surface.
"Nobody expected to find evidence of water on Vesta. The surface is very cold and there is no atmosphere, so any water on the surface evaporates," ... "These results, and many others from the Dawn mission, show that Vesta is home to many processes that were previously thought to be exclusive to planets,"
Gullies on Vesta Suggest Past Water-Mobilized Flows | NASA

the supermassive black hole that may lie in the core of M60-UCD1 appears five times larger than the one in the Milky Way, and also seems to make up about 15 percent of the dwarf galaxy's mass, which is about 140 million suns.

"That is pretty amazing, given that the Milky Way is 500 times larger and more than 1,000 times heavier than the dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1," Seth said in a statement.
Surprise! Monster Black Hole Found in Dwarf Galaxy | space.com

What they found was not what was expected: A series of long, narrow features that look like rift structures, places where the Moon’s crust is thinner, and which are generally associated with upwelling magma. The structures form a rough square or pentagon that neatly outlines the lowlands.
This changes the way they interpret the formation of Procellarum. Instead of a single huge impact, these rifts formed and magma started to seep (or more likely flood) through.
What Put the Man in the Moon in the Moon? | Bad Astronomy

The latest mystery revolves around an “extremely sharp” boundary at the inner edge of the outer belt at roughly 7,200 miles in altitude that appears to block the ultrafast electrons from breeching the shield and moving deeper towards Earth’s atmosphere.
“It’s almost like theses electrons are running into a glass wall in space,” said Baker, the study’s lead author. “Somewhat like the shields created by force fields on Star Trek that were used to repel alien weapons, we are seeing an invisible shield blocking these electrons. It’s an extremely puzzling phenomenon.”
Star Trek-like invisible shield found thousands of miles above Earth | University of Colorado Boulder

"What we found was there is significantly more lightning in the UK when the field is pointing towards the Sun than when its pointing away which was surprising," said Dr Matt Owens from the University of Reading, the lead author on the study.
Sun's magnetic field boosts lightning strikes across the UK | BBC

The universe is far brighter than it should be based on the number of light-emitting objects we can find, a cosmic accounting problem that has astronomers baffled.
"Something is very wrong," says Juna Kollmeier at the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in Pasadena, California.
Solving the mystery could show us novel ways to hunt for dark matter, or reveal the presence of another unknown "dark" component to the cosmos.
"It's such a big discrepancy that whatever we find is going to be amazing, and it will overturn something we currently think is true," says Kollmeier.
Strange dark stuff is making the universe too bright | New Scientist

The surprising discovery — a new, albeit temporary, radiation belt around Earth — reveals how much remains unknown about outer space, even those regions closest to the planet, researchers added.

"They were something we thought we mostly understood by now, the first discovery of the Space Age," said lead study author Daniel Baker, a space scientist at the University of Colorado.

The discovery of a temporary new radiation belt now has scientists reviewing the Van Allen radiation belt models to understand how it occurred.

"The feature was so surprising, I initially foolishly thought the instruments on the probes weren't working properly, but I soon realized the lab had built such wonderful instruments that there wasn't anything wrong with them, so what we saw must be true," Baker said.

"More than five decades after the original discovery of these radiation belts, you can still find new unexpected things there," Baker said. "It's a delight to be able to find new things in an old domain. We now need to re-evaluate them thoroughly both theoretically and observationally."
NASA Discovers New Radiation Belt Around Earth | space.com

"Earth's magnetic field is currently 50 microteslas in strength," Weiss said. "The early moon may have had a magnetic field that was bigger, maybe up to more than 70 microteslas."

It remains uncertain what might have powered this surprisingly intense lunar magnetic field. "It's hard to understand how the moon's magnetic field could be as strong as it seemed given how the moon has a very small core," Weiss said. "The moon's core is maybe one-fifth to one-seventh the radius of the moon, while Earth's core is maybe one-half the planetary radius. This means the surface of the moon is much farther away from its core than you see with Earth. Since magnetic fields fall rapidly in strength with distance, it's hard to understand how the moon could have had a magnetic field that was that strong all the way to its surface."
Moon's Long-Ago Magnetic Field May Have Trumped Earth's | space.com

What's puzzled astrophysicists since the 1970s is their observations that only a small fraction of matter in the clouds becomes a star. The best computer simulations, however, predicted nearly all of a cloud's matter would cool and become a star.
Interstellar Mystery Solved by Supercomputer Simulations | The University of Texas

“Our discovery presents a serious challenge to theories about the black hole growth in the early universe,” lead researcher Xue-Bing Wu with Peking University in Beijing, wrote in an email. “It may require either very special ways to grow the black hole within a very short time or the existence of a huge seed black hole when the first generation stars and galaxies formed.

Both are difficult to be explained by the current theories.” Another option is that two massive black holes in the early universe collided, forming an even larger black hole, Venemans said.
Astronomers find giant black hole in early universe | The Express Tribune

“We’ve never seen anything like this — it is such an old star and the large number of small planets make it very special,” Huber said in a statement. “It is extraordinary that such an ancient system of terrestrial-sized planets formed when the universe was just starting out, at a fifth its current age.”
Astronomers find solar system more than double ours in age | Japan Times

"The images of the goosebump terrain in the pits are suggesting that the nucleus is indeed a rubble pile but all the 'rubble' is about the same size," he said. "This is consistent with current ideas about how accretion of comets worked in the early solar system."
Rosetta studies reveal a complex cometary world hurtling toward the sun | Los Angeles Times

"Most people would have thought the interstellar medium would have been smooth and quiet. But these shock waves seem to be more common than we thought," Don Gurnett, professor of physics at the University of Iowa, explained in a recent press release.

"The density of the plasma is higher the farther Voyager goes," Stone said. "Is that because the interstellar medium is denser as Voyager moves away from the heliosphere, or is it from the shock wave itself? We don't know yet."
Voyager is still riding shock wave in interstellar space | United Press International

NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN probe, or MAVEN, has detected high-speed particles in the solar wind penetrating deeper into the planetary atmosphere than previously thought possible
Solar wind probably leaches Mars’ lower atmosphere | Science News

"Earth's magnetic field is currently 50 microteslas in strength," Weiss said. "The early moon may have had a magnetic field that was bigger, maybe up to more than 70 microteslas."

It remains uncertain what might have powered this surprisingly intense lunar magnetic field. "It's hard to understand how the moon's magnetic field could be as strong as it seemed given how the moon has a very small core," Weiss said. "The moon's core is maybe one-fifth to one-seventh the radius of the moon, while Earth's core is maybe one-half the planetary radius. This means the surface of the moon is much farther away from its core than you see with Earth. Since magnetic fields fall rapidly in strength with distance, it's hard to understand how the moon could have had a magnetic field that was that strong all the way to its surface."
Moon's Long-Ago Magnetic Field May Have Trumped Earth's | space.com

Methane is often found naturally leaking from the seafloor, particularly in petroleum basins like the Gulf of Mexico or along tectonically active continental margins like the U.S. West Coast, but such plumes were not expected along passive margins, like the east coast of North America
Hundreds of methane seeps discovered along the U.S. East Coast | Earth Magazine

Q. Why is it so surprising that a lunar dynamo may have been so intense and long-lived?

A. Both the strong intensity and long duration of lunar fields are surprising because of the moon's small size. Convection, which is thought to power all known dynamos in the solar system today, is predicted to produce surface magnetic fields on the moon at least 10 times weaker than what we observe recorded in ancient lunar rocks.
Moon's molten, churning core likely once generated a dynamo | phys.org

“[This finding] sets a very different initial condition for what the early Earth’s atmosphere was most likely like,” Schlichting says. “It gives us a new starting point for trying to understand what was the composition of the atmosphere, and what were the conditions for developing life.”

Jay Melosh, a professor of earth, atmospheric, and planetary sciences at Purdue University, says Schlichting’s conclusion is a surprising one, as most scientists have assumed the Earth’s atmosphere was obliterated by a single, giant impact.
Losing air | Massachusetts Institute of Technology

"Ground-based spectroscopy of Vesta indicates regions that are basaltic, which means lava flows once occurred on its surface.

This is surprising evidence that the asteroid once had a molten interior, like Earth does. This contradicts conventional ideas that asteroids are essentially cold, rocky fragments left behind from the early days of planetary formation.
Vesta | Solar Views

A European space telescope has spotted a massive star that is pulsing with brilliant X-rays. Studying the bizarre beast might yield important insights into stellar evolution, for instance, why some stars have strong magnetic fields while others don't, and what controls their powerful winds of charged particles.

... were using the telescope to take a closer look at Xi-1 Canis Majoris, a large blue star near the constellation Canis Major.

The team got more than they bargained for. Although the star is well-known for emitting X-rays, it was a surprise to find these emissions were pulsing. Until now, almost all stars known to throb with such radiation were rapidly spinning neutron stars, the leftover cores of massive stars that have exploded.

... Oddly, Oskinova and her team found that the X-ray pulses are in time with the star's brightness changes. The reason is still a mystery, but the star's strong magnetic field might be a clue
Astrophile: Big blue star is an X-ray oddball | New Scientist

Surprising Dark Matter

In the early 1990s, one thing was fairly certain about the expansion of the Universe. It might have enough energy density to stop its expansion and recollapse, it might have so little energy density that it would never stop expanding, but gravity was certain to slow the expansion as time went on. Granted, the slowing had not been observed, but, theoretically, the Universe had to slow. The Universe is full of matter and the attractive force of gravity pulls all matter together. Then came 1998 and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of very distant supernovae that showed that, a long time ago, the Universe was actually expanding more slowly than it is today. So the expansion of the Universe has not been slowing due to gravity, as everyone thought, it has been accelerating. No one expected this, no one knew how to explain it. But something was causing it.

Eventually theorists came up with three sorts of explanations. Maybe it was a result of a long-discarded version of Einstein's theory of gravity, one that contained what was called a "cosmological constant." Maybe there was some strange kind of energy-fluid that filled space. Maybe there is something wrong with Einstein's theory of gravity and a new theory could include some kind of field that creates this cosmic acceleration. Theorists still don't know what the correct explanation is, but they have given the solution a name. It is called dark energy.
Dark Energy, Dark Matter

The cosmic-ray data collected by AMS showed that the stream of positrons was completely different from the stream of electrons in both magnitude and energy. "They have no relation whatsoever with each other," Ting said. "This is a very, very strange thing. We spent a lot of time checking this; there's no question this is not correct."

... "There are many, many explanations possible," Ting said. "So far, measurements are consistent with a uniform source — dark matter. But that doesn't mean we have proven dark matter exists."
Hints of Mysterious Dark Matter Revealed by Cosmic Rays | Live Science