Horst and Graben faults in Iran

faults horst grabenA spectacular V shaped fault at Zanjan on the road between Tabriz and Tehran in Iran.

This is a superb example of how geology fault lines can create what are considered horst and graben areas on a very small scale.
fault horsts grabens
Horsts are the higher, uplifted or not sunk areas. Grabens are the lower or not raised up areas.

Horst and graben systems are usually considered to be the geological explanation for ridge and valley areas or mountain and valley systems.

Horst and Graben fault, Iran

Horsts and grabens system

Malta geology: horst and graben features

A geology example of horst and graben faults creating valley and ridges in a fairly flat landscape can be found on the island of Malta in the Maltese islands.
malta geology horst graben geological fault lines gozo comino
What initially created the fault lines?

Could some other force or process have created the fault lines, the high and low blocks of land (the horsts and grabens)? Especially on the limestone islands of Malta and Gozo?

  • These are created by shock waves. The “horst” is an astrobleme created by the passing of a surface conductive current at hypersonic velocity. I will predict the triangular fault shown is below the edge of the “horst” not a fault system that spans beneath the entire hill like “horst-grabben” theory predicts. The triangular feature is typical of a standing wave from a supersonic shock and its reflected wave. I also predict you will find triangular buttresses on the flanks of the hill above which are also shock wave features.

    • I have just started looking at more shock wave images and spotted these few.

      A focused shock wave could produce some interesting effects.

      I know this is just one image and you need more but the shock wave focus seems to create an X or two V’s in either direction (or at least one direction depending on the experiment).

      Depending on the material/terrain in the ground you could get very different shock wave types or patterns?

  • Solon

    In some of the images it is obvious that the strata are of different thickness to the ones in the adjacent horst, or do not line up if you were to move the graben up. The mechanical model of the graben sliding down just can not work. The features were probably formed just as they now appear, and no movement has taken place.
    One possible method for formation would involve microwaves, again due to a solar storm event, as ions at RF or microwave frequencies (which can penetrate down 3 or 4 kilometers) could form the strata. There would have to have been sufficient water in the matrix for this to occur, and the excess water would be squeezed out. This is a utilised industrial process, not something I just made up, but of course the magnitude of such events, even amongst EU proponents, is not something most are willing to even consider as having happened to Earths surface.

    • In some situations could you have a combination of your idea and Hall’s? Some sort of shock wave with the EM frequency/energy transforming the material?

      Could you have a 2 stage event with either an external event triggering internal event or the other way round?

      Couple of quick examples just to show the sort of thing but not what I am suggesting did happen …

      A massive CME transmutating material and this triggers a discharge with the huge focused shock waves?

      Or a bolide explosion with its shock waves then triggering an electromagnetic discharge upwards from the Earth?

  • Samuel Senesie

    Now the only stratum that do not match in terms of thickness is the top stratum, and there is a simple geology to that. the Graben which is the down drop block is preserved, while the Horsts which are the up thrown blocks are subjected to the rigorous weathering and erosion. so the only thing one expects after thousands and millions of years is the thinning of upper stratum of the Horst.