Author Topic: The Kaali crater field  (Read 46387 times)

electrobleme

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The Kaali crater field
« on: July 23, 2010, 22:33:48 »
The Kaali crater field, Saaremaa Island, Estonia



lake Kaali and its crater field


The Kaali crater field, Saaremaa Island, Estonia, is a famous mini crater field in Europe. Legends of ancient catastrophe in the area are linked to these craters by local folklore but not by science because the dating does not match. But then the dating itself does not agree with itself.



The Kaali crater field and its myths and legends


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The old toponyms, like Paasiaia põld (Field of the limestone wall), Püha mets (Sacred forest) and the name of the whole county – Püha – which means "sacred" encourage fantasy and offer possible explanations.
Kaali meteorite - The beginning of archaeological research | muinas.struktuur.ee



Kaali meteorite crater field, Saaremaa Island, Estonia


Is the Kaali crater field an actual meteorite crater field or are these electrical discharges in an Electric Universe? Similar to the Shrieking Pits and Meres of Norfolk? Are they a scalable version of the mini craters and EU craters found on Malta?



Kaali crater in Estonia caused by a meteorite or electric discharge?




devils punchbowl, Thetford (Norfolk Mere)



shrieking pits near Wretham Mere similar to the Kaali crater field?


the Kaali main crater has legends and folklore attached to it and its creation. the area and the Kaali Lake (main crater) is holy and had a massive wall built around it. In the lake the bones of many animals have been found, similar to the possible sacrificial lakes/Meres in Norfolk.

were the Kaali craters formed at the same time as the Kamil Crater in Egypts desert and were both events part of the process that triggered and created the Sahara Desert?

were the Kaali crater field and the shrieking pits and Meres in Norfolk created by plasma arc pitting or are they are discharge event from the earth upwards?


** The Kaali crater field - EU review of the geological/science report and evidence
** The Kaali crater field - and other geosites of Saaremaa Island, Estonia
** Kaali meteorite - its myths and legends
** Kaali crater - in the Sacred forest and the Field of the limestone wall
** The Kalevala and The Kaali crater field creation - english translation
** Kaali crater field Estonia - geological facts and figures
** The Kaali meteorite craters -  geology and folklore - Saaremaa Island, Estonia
** The Kaali crater field -glassy spherules and local legend about Tarapita




more Electric Universe geology sites
gEUlogy.com
gEUlogy.com | articles index
** thunderbolts.info | Planetary Science
** thunderbolts TPOD | Earth Geology
EYE | gEUlogy and EU photographs

« Last Edit: July 26, 2010, 07:07:31 by electrobleme »

electrobleme

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The Kaali crater field - EU review of the geological/science report and evidence



The Kaali crater field - Saaremaa and Muhumaa islands Estonia


the "meteorite" remains found are the high iron content meteorites. the largest meteorites found on earth, some wieghing up to 60 tonnes are iron meteorites but they leave no crater. yet this smaller iron meteorite has left a crater. are they the remains of a meteorite or the transformation of material into iron and that is why only small fragments are found?

The main Kaali crater is a similar size to the Meres of Norfolk.

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Now, there is no doubt anymore that the Kaali craters are of meteoritic origin. The energy needed for the formation of the main crater is traditionally estimated as 4 x 1019 ergs. The meteorite was about 4.8 m in diameter and its mass was some 450,000 kg; its impact velocity was 21 km/s (Tiirmaa, 1994). The uplifted, tilted and highly destroyed dolostone blocks on the slopes of the main crater (Fig. 4) demonstrate clearly an upward explosion direction.

...The somewhat irregular shape of the crater wall can be explained by the uneven ejection of material as a result of the angle of incidence of the meteorite, but human impact during many centuries may also play a role. Fortunately, the crater is located in hard carbonate rocks, and its main morphological features have been well preserved

Thats a large meteorite with no large remains left. The tilted dolostone blocks could be due to an EDM event or plasma discharge. An irregular shape? most craters are either an oval/circle shape or hexagon. How does a meteorite create an irregular shape?


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In the 1970s, archaelogical excavations were begun in the old fortification that was discovered on the outside slope of the northern wall of the main crater. Most artefacts date from the Iron Age. During the 1976–1978 excavations, archaeologists found animal bones in Lake Kaali in peat layers of over 1500–2000 years old; these bones are believed to be remnants of religious sacrifices.

An Iron Age fort was found beside the main Kaali crater. The Iron Age began after the "Bronze Age collapse" when civilisations around the world dissapeared. The Iron Age, according to official dating began around 1200 BC. Was the fort built after the crater was formed because of the water in the lake, or, did the event that create the crater happen here because of water/energy in the area, or, did the event happen after the Iron Age fort had been built because of its location?

Did this event occur at the same time as the vitrification of hill forts in the UK, stone walls in America and temples in India?

The animal bones as religious sacrifices in Lake Kaali is similar to the Norfolk Meres (Merehenge).

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The age of the Kaali craters is still under discussion as the various data are inconsistent ... On the basis of the above data, it is obvious that the craters are older than 4000 years. This implies that many of interesting legends about the origin and age of the craters (Veski et al., 2001), like the burning of ancient strongholds at Asva and Ridala due to an impact at about 2600 years ago, are scientifically not tenable.

Dating relies on a stable solar system and earth. There are numerous tales and evidence of catastrophes having struck the earth. One of them is the Squatter Man that would have emitted immense amounts of synchrotron radiation and other rays that would have affected dating on earth.

The local estonian legends would be inspired by real life events, they have no reason to make them up. it is likely that the the Kaali crater field (Electric Universe EDM or discharge event) and the burning (variation of vitrification) were caused by the same event. perhaps not just a local event but a world wide catastrophe.


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If the meteorite had pierced the dolostone rocks at the surface, the impact must have been accompanied by the setting free of heat which must have turned the water in the rocks instantaneously into steam; it must also have heated the gases. They must have caused burning of the rock not only to the depth reached by the impactor, but also at much greater depths, thanks to the dense net of impact-generated cracks.

The high temperatures and pressures occurring during the meteorite impact must have induced bleaching, and the luminescence ages should therefore coincide with the age of the craters. The first investigations in the Kaali main crater (5.8±0.6 and 5.6±0.9 ka TL) and small craters are therefore very promising (Stankowski et al., 2007).

the science seems to suggest heat/energy yet the above local lore of what happened in the area is nothing to do with the formation of the Kaali crater field. even the smaller craters have this bleaching.



uplifted dolostone main Kaali crater


Crater 1 has the uplifted dolostone, the same as the main crater, although much smaller. an interesting feature of Crater 1 is the glacial erratic boulders. were these moved here by a glacier or were they formed at the same time as the craters?

Craters 2 and 8 are twin craters because they are connected. Or are they 2 EDM craters, a bit like the Rim Shot Craters or Mickey Mouse craters you find, especially with Carolina Bays?

Crater 3 with its sloping bottom seems to be very similar to the shrieking pits or like the Devils Punchbowl Mere

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The shape of Crater 4 has been strongly affected by geological excavations. Initially it was bowl-like, oval in shape and 14–20 m in diameter. On the distorted bedrock surface of its bottom, a funnel-shaped trace of the impact was discovered ... The largest number of meteorite fragments was found at the crater bottom itself, 3–4 m away from the impact trace.

Crater 4 again bowl like but is oval in shape, like the Norfolk Meres, Carolina Bays etc. The funnel shape in its bottom with the distorted but not utterly destroyed bedrock would suggest that its not a meteorite impact. is this similar to Kimberlite pipes?

is this is a discharge event coming up from the earth or striking downwards? How is a funnel shape created away from where most of the "meteorite" remains are found?



Kaali craters field Saaremaa Estonia


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Crater 7 ... Its shape resembles an irregular quadrangle ... The Silurian dolomite floor was encountered during the sampling at a depth of ~175 cm. One year later (2006), three samples of the crater infilling material were collected for TL and OSL analyses from ~210 cm deep (see Fig. 6). The obtained result for the thin layer of silty-loamy sediments (2–10 cm thick) from this depth (immediately covering the solid Silurian dolomite) is 10.20±0.46 ka (Gd TL 929). This outcome is difficult to interpret ... The conclusion of the present authors is that the dates ~7000 years BP indicate the moment of sedimentary infilling, which must have started almost immediately after the creation of the crater.

another irregular meteorite impact crater, what are the odds? Dating does not fit in with the theory of the dates it should be. Dating and science can not be wrong although nature and local folklore say otherwise.


When you read the main report you will notice a lot of "musts", "has to" etc. especially where the data does not agree with local folklore. this normally occurs in reports where the data does not quite back up what was expected or needed, so this things must have occured. otherwise science is wrong and that can not happen.

« Last Edit: July 24, 2010, 00:57:27 by electrobleme »

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The Kaali crater field and other geosites of Saaremaa Island, Estonia

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The Kaali crater field
The Kaali site is one of the most important places of morphogenetic interest in Europe. The Kaali crater field (Fig. 3), about 19 km NE of the town of Kuressaare consists of a main crater surrounded by eight secondary craters and covers an area of about 1 km2, as the result of a small meteorite shower. This meteorite shower is one of very rare cosmic catastrophes of this magnitude that took place in Europe in historical time.


Meteorite characteristics
The meteorite represents the most common type of iron meteorite, a coarse octahedrite, which contains 91.5% Fe and 8.3% Ni, with Co, Ge and Ir as admixtures, and contains minerals characteristic of iron meteorites such as shreibersite, kamasite and taenite (Marini et al., 2004). A polished surface of the meteorite displays the typical Widmanstätten’s structure.

The meteorite fragments found in Kaali are small, with an uneven surface and sharp edges, with a weight of 0.5–2 g. The surface of the fragments has become oxidised over time and is covered with rust. Presently, strict rules have been established for those searching for meteorite fragments, because the excavation activities carried out to date have considerably affected several craters.


Origin and characteristics of the craters
The main crater, 105–110 m in diameter, attracted natural scientists already in the first half of the 19th century. Johan Wilhelm Ludwig von Luce (1756–1842) explained the formation of the crater ”after the explosion of the underground fire”. During the past hundreds of years, several studies on the Kaali main crater have been published, explaining its origin as (1) a subterranean fire or phreatomagnetic explosion, (2) a volcanic eruption or abrupt emission of water, steam, gas and mud, (3) the collapse of a karst cave due to limestone fissuring, or collapse of a salt dome, (4) an ancient stronghold, where the natural lake served as a well that was later surrounded by man-made walls, and (5) a meteorite crater.

Now, there is no doubt anymore that the Kaali craters are of meteoritic origin. The energy needed for the formation of the main crater is traditionally estimated as 4 x 1019 ergs. The meteorite was about 4.8 m in diameter and its mass was some 450,000 kg; its impact velocity was 21 km/s (Tiirmaa, 1994). The uplifted, tilted and highly destroyed dolostone blocks on the slopes of the main crater (Fig. 4) demonstrate clearly an upward explosion direction.


Crater research
Up to the mid–70’s of the last century, the craters were investigated mainly by geologists. Later, historians and botanists joined them. Lennart Meri, writer and former president of Estonia, analyzed in his books the possible influence of the Kaali catastrophe on human recollections. He tied together disputed historical tidbits, linguistic expressions and his own thoughts into an interesting whole (Meri, 1976).

In the 1970s, archaelogical excavations were begun in the old fortification that was discovered on the outside slope of the northern wall of the main crater. Most artefacts date from the Iron Age. During the 1976–1978 excavations, archaeologists found animal bones in Lake Kaali in peat layers of over 1500–2000 years old; these bones are believed to be remnants of religious sacrifices. Detailed specialist studies of extraterresrtial matter mineralogy were carried out as well (Marini at al., 2004; Raukas, 2004; Uscinowicz, 2008).

The morphology of the main crater has been well studied (Raukas et al., 2005). The average depth of the main crater, from the top of the mound down to the mud layer on the lake's floor, is 16 m. Considering the maximum thickness of the lake sediments, the depth of the crater may be some 22 m. The somewhat irregular shape of the crater wall can be explained by the uneven ejection of material as a result of the angle of incidence of the meteorite, but human impact during many centuries may also play a role. Fortunately, the crater is located in hard carbonate rocks, and its main morphological features have been well preserved (Fig. 5).

On the base of 98 borings and several purposely dug excavations, new information about the lithology of the crater filling deposits was recently obtained (Moora et al., 2008). The correlation of the various boreholes is complicated due to reworking of the material filling the crater. For instance, a heap of large stones has been positioned at the centre of the lake bottom as a monument for a deceased owner of the estate. In addition, the large number of visitors and natural processes have facilitated the erosion of the crater slope and accelerated the accumulation of sediments in the lake-filled depression. Reworked and in situ material have commonly become mixed, so that the palynological spectra are difficult to interpret.


Date of the impact
The age of the Kaali craters is still under discussion as the various data are inconsistent. It is agreed, however, that the craters were formed after the retreat of the Baltic Sea from this part of Saaremaa (possibly during the very last phase of the retreat: see the luminescence data of the infilling of crater 7). This implies that they are younger than 8500 years. The pollen spectrum from the bottom deposits of Lake Kaali has been dated as approx. 3700 years old. Radiocarbon datings have yielded an age of about 4000 years (Raukas et al., 2005). Based on the findings of silicate spherules in the peat layer in the bogs surrounding the craters, it might be deduced that the craters formed 7500–7600 years ago (Raukas, 2004).

On the basis of the above data, it is obvious that the craters are older than 4000 years. This implies that many of interesting legends about the origin and age of the craters (Veski et al., 2001), like the burning of ancient strongholds at Asva and Ridala due to an impact at about 2600 years ago, are scientifically not tenable.

If the meteorite had pierced the dolostone rocks at the surface, the impact must have been accompanied by the setting free of heat which must have turned the water in the rocks instantaneously into steam; it must also have heated the gases. They must have caused burning of the rock not only to the depth reached by the impactor, but also at much greater depths, thanks to the dense net of impact-generated cracks.

The high temperatures and pressures occurring during the meteorite impact must have induced bleaching, and the luminescence ages should therefore coincide with the age of the craters. The first investigations in the Kaali main crater (5.8±0.6 and 5.6±0.9 ka TL) and small craters are therefore very promising (Stankowski et al., 2007).


Description of the secondary craters
The eight small secondary craters in Kaali are mostly dry; their diameters range from 12 to 40 m and their depth from 1 to 4 m. Studies of the secondary craters have provided valuable information about the meteorite shower that could not have been obtained from the main crater alone. Due to Estonian-Polish co-operation, TL and OSL measurements from the secondary craters of the Kaali impact could be realized.
Crater 1 is a depression that is overgrown with shrubs. The crater has a diameter of 39 m and is 4 m deep. Uplifted dolostone layers are exposed here, as in the main crater. Erratic boulders from the field have been carried into the crater and onto the rim. The crater is easily visible in the middle of cultivated land as a evenly rounded group of trees. Two TL dates, 5.8±0.9 ka (bleaching connected to impact) and 11.4±2.6 ka (time of the sediments’ origin, in this particular case not bleaching) have been obtained for the proximal slope of the rim, segmentS. The data of ~11 ka BP for non-bleached material correspond well to the known time of last ice retreat from North-West Estonia. The correctness of this luminescence dating was successfully verified by us through a sample age from Salpausselkä near Ekenes (Finland), which was 10.34±0.82 ka (Gd TL 930).

Twin craters 2 and 8 were formed by the impact of two separate meteorite fragments. The traces left behind are located very close to each other, thus forming one depression with a somewhat complex outline. The northern crater (no 2) is 27 m in diameter and 2 m deep, and the southern one (no 8 ) is 36 m wide and 3.5 m deep. The longitudinal axis of the twin crater is 53 m. In 1937, the first 28 meteorite fragments (total weight 102.4 g) were found in this twin crater (Reinwaldt, 1938). Excavations have considerably altered the craters’ preliminary appearance; the crater rim is barely visible anymore. From the top part of the rim, segment S, a TL date of 9.8±2.3 and an OSL date of 8.7±078 ka have been obtained. A sample from about 40 m to south of the rim, at a depth of 60 cm, yielded an OSL date of 4.25±0.32 ka.

Crater 3 is the best preserved, and forms a clearly visible secondary crater. The crater is surrounded by hazel shrubs and measures 33 m in diameter and 3.5 m in depth, with a gently sloping bottom. More than 200 g of meteorite fragments have been collected here. It is not allowed anymore to collect samples from this well preserved crater.

The shape of Crater 4 has been strongly affected by geological excavations. Initially it was bowl-like, oval in shape and 14–20 m in diameter. On the distorted bedrock surface of its bottom, a funnel-shaped trace of the impact was discovered (Reinwaldt, 1928); it has provided valuable information about the parameters of meteorite fall. Unfortunately, this trace, too, has been deformed as a result of later excavations. The largest number of meteorite fragments was found at the crater bottom itself, 3–4 m away from the impact trace. Powdered dolomite from 20 cm beneath the crater bottom has yielded a Tl age of 5.4±0.6 ka and a similar sample from a depth of about 55 cm yielded an OSL age of 1.55±0.20 ka. These data can be interpreted as a decrease with the depth of the bleaching effect.

Crater 5 also has been affected by excavations, and is presently overgrown with bushes. Its original shape resembled a flat bowl with a maximum diameter of 13 m and depth of 3 m. In some places, fragments of the crater rim have been preserved. On the bottom of this crater, too, a trace left by the impact is visible. This crater yielded the biggest meteorite fragment (38.4 g, including a lamina of rust). The crater was not sampled for TL dating.

Crater 6 was discovered near the road from Masa to Putla, 450 m to the North-West of the main crater. Its diameter is 26 m and depth 0.6 m. It has been deformed due to its location near the road embankment, but numerous meteorite fragments have been found here. Only in 1963, A. Aaloe recovered 150 g of meteorite fragments (Tiirmaa, 1994). The crater was not sampled for TL dating.

Crater 7 is located south of the main crater. Its diameter is 15 m, and it is somewhat over 2 m deep. Its shape resembles an irregular quadrangle. Excavations have been carried out in this crater and abundant meteorite fragments have been collected. Two samples of the crater infilling were taken in 2005, but they have not been dated yet. The Silurian dolomite floor was encountered during the sampling at a depth of ~175 cm. One year later (2006), three samples of the crater infilling material were collected for TL and OSL analyses from ~210 cm deep (see Fig. 6). The obtained result for the thin layer of silty-loamy sediments (2–10 cm thick) from this depth (immediately covering the solid Silurian dolomite) is 10.20±0.46 ka (Gd TL 929). This outcome is difficult to interpret. The thin silty-loamy layer can be attribute to one of latest Baltic floodings of the area. The question remains nevertheless whether this material in situ. Another possible interpretation is the influence of Silurian strata (cf. Stankowski et al., 2007). The luminescence data of two samples consisting of a mixture of shattered Silurian dolomite fragments and the Quaternary sedimentary crater infilling yield data, for a depth of ~175 cm, of 7.09±0.34 ka (Gd TL 928), and, for a depth of ~140 cm, of 7.16±0.41 ka (Gd TL 927). These results seem to prove an Early Holocene crater age. The conclusion of the present authors is that the dates ~7000 years BP indicate the moment of sedimentary infilling, which must have started almost immediately after the creation of the crater.
The Kaali crater field and other geosites of Saaremaa Island, Estonia : the perspectives for a geopark (pdf)


electrobleme

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Kaali meteorite and its myths and legends
« Reply #3 on: July 24, 2010, 02:02:43 »
Kaali meteorite and its myths and legends



lake Kaali crater field - main crater


the Kaali meteorite may be the origin and reason for the local Estonian myths and legends. Some, as shown below,  suggest it was the same event as the ancient Greek myth of Phaeton, the Son of Sun.


Quote
The age of the Kaali craters is still under discussion as the various data are inconsistent ... On the basis of the above data, it is obvious that the craters are older than 4000 years. This implies that many of interesting legends about the origin and age of the craters (Veski et al., 2001), like the burning of ancient strongholds at Asva and Ridala due to an impact at about 2600 years ago, are scientifically not tenable.
The Kaali crater field and other geosites of Saaremaa Island, Estonia : the perspectives for a geopark (pdf)



Kaali meteorite crater lake


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The reflections on the Kaali meteorite in ancient legends

The fall of the giant meteorite was certainly a tragic event, probably accompanied by extensive demolition, fires and even human victims. Falling of heavenly fire, explosion, clouds of dust and smoke, and the landscape changed beyond recognition must have caused fright and horror and awe among the surviving inhabitants. It is not known, how long the place maintained the taboo, but it is most likely that such a special place became a sacrificial site already before the settlement was established on its bank. The 6 m thick sediments at the bottom of the main crater may contain offerings. Hitherto the investigations have been stopped by a deposit of oak trunks, up to 1 m in diameter, at the depth of 4 m. Relying upon the dendrochronological data, these trees grew at the turn of the 1st and the 2nd millennia. The researchers have not yet been able to reach the deeper layers, which probably contain offerings. Still, the sacrificial water bodies in the neighbouring and Nordic countries allow to expect worthy results.

Lennart Meri has analysed the possible reflections of the Kaali catastrophe in human recollections in his books "Hõbevalge" and "Hõbevalgem", connecting Saaremaa with the mythical Thule, supposedly visited by the Greek traveller Pytheas in 325 BC, and also with the place of worship of the Germanic goddess of land, Nerthus, described by Tacitus. Besides the written sources, the falling of the Kaali meteorite was indubitably reflected in the folklore and mythology of several peoples. The falling of Sun from the sky, which, depending of the location of the observer, could occur altogether in the wrong quarter of the horizon, the terrible crash, the all-demolishing impactwave, the cloud of dust and forest fires indubitably left a deep impression in the people of that time. Several verses of the Finnish epic "Kalevala", the ancient Germanic "Older Edda" as well as in the folklore of Estonia and the neighbouring peoples indicate that impression.

Taevas lapati lõhenes
ilma kõiki auklikuksi;
keerles see tulekübeke,
surtsatas punasädeke,
läbi tuiskas taeva'asta,
piki pilvesid pirahtas,
läbi taeva'a üheksa,
kaudu kuue kirjukaane.
Siisap sinna tullessaie
Tuuri uudeje tubaje
pistiski pahule töile,
hakkas töile tooreille:
rikkus rinnad tüttareilta,
neidudelta nännid näppis,
kõrvetas pojalta põlved,
isandalt habeme kärssas.

("Kalevala")
   
-----------------------------
below is google translate, very rough version with lots missing
   
The sky was split lapati
without any auklikuksi;
tulekübeke twirled it,
taeva'asta a whirl,
cloud along the ring,
taeva'a out of nine,
through six cover letters.
violated breasts,
Son of the burned knees,
lord beard

("Kalevala")

there seems to be a full translation in english of the whole Kalevala here, with lots of interesting parts including Rune IX. Origin of Iron, Rune XXVI. Origin of the Serpent. Rune XLVII. Louhi Steals Sun, Moon, and Fire
------------------------------


Oi imeta või imeta
Mis nägin mina imeta
Õuessagi käiessagi
Nägin Saaremaa põlema
Tule luugista tulema
Sood süütsid, järved põlesid
Kivid keereldi ojusid
Tähed lõivad tääringida
Mõõga otsad mõõringida
Pühi nutab Saare maada
Teine Saaremaa mehida
Nutan Saare neidisida
Vöö kudujad, kooga loojad
Rahaskirja kirjutajad
Laia raamatu lugejad.

(Harju-Jaani, Kuusalu)

-------------------------------------

What I saw imeta
I saw a fire in Saaremaa
Come on come from the window is
Moors managed, lakes burned
The ends of the sword mõõringida
Wipe the island weeping maada
Another Saaremaa mehida
The island will cry neidisida

(Harju-Jaani, Kuusalu)
-------------------------------------------

The ancient Greek myth about Phaeton, the son of Sun, who, driving the solar chariot, lost the power over the horses and tumbled into the mysterious river of Eridanos, also leads one's thoughts to the Kaali catastrophe.

One day a young man stepped up to the God of Sun and claimed that he was Phaeton, the son of the God of Sun himself and an earthborn woman Klymene. The young man had doubted his high parentage and demanded affirmation. The God of Sun admitted it, and, as an affirmation, promised to carry out his fondest wish. The boy, who had often admired sun disc's journey across the firmament, uttered an unexpected wish: he wanted to drive the sun chariot across the sky.

Hearing that, the God of Sun regretted his easily given promise. He tried to persuade the youngster to wish for something else, but without success. The boy, taking no heed of the menaces he was told about, had his will. At first the drive came off quite well and Phaeton felt himself almost the lord of the sky. But then the things took a tragic turn: the spirited horses, feeling that the reins were in weak hands, became frisky and sheered from the right direction. The youngster lost power over the horses, who now dashed up to the skies, now turned right down to the Earth so that forests and fields there caught fire, rivers and fountains evaporated and dried out.

When the cries and lamentations from the Earth reached Jupiter's ears, the latter, in this emergency, seized his lightning bolts and punished the irresponsible charioteer. The blazing Phaeton shot through the air and fell on the Earth into the mysterious river of Eridanos, which no mortal eye has seen. Phaeton's sisters Heliads, daughters of the God of Sun, Helios, sought out their brother's grave to bemoan him there. The mourning sisters were turned into poplar trees on the banks of Eridanos.

The reflections on the Kaali meteorite in ancient legends | muinas.struktuur.ee



Kaali crater meteorite field


Quote
Finno-Ugric tribes have folk tales about the second sun and big fire. Former Estonian President Lennart Meri has explained these folk tales as stemming from the Kaali impact.
Kaali meteorite crater | gsi.ie


The Kaali craters and the island of Saaremaa are part of the legends of Ebavere Hill and Tharapita (Taarapita, Taara). The great god Tharapita had his home in Ebavere Hill but was seen and thought to move his abode from Ebavere Hill to the island of Saaremaa. The result was likely to be the formation of the Kaali craters and other gEUlogy in the area as well as the local folklore of catastrophe and destructions that struck the land.

Were some iron deposits created at the same time in the land of Estonia/Finland? Did the Tharapita event create the Simuna/Orguse crater where no meteorite remains have been found, or, does it show that Ebavere Hill is a high point for EU events/discharges?


« Last Edit: July 28, 2010, 20:12:50 by electrobleme »

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Kaali crater - in the Sacred forest and the Field of the limestone wall

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On the external slope of the North-eastern part of the crater wall a stronghold was discovered. On the lake side it was protected by the steep bank, on the other side a mortarless limestone wall, 110 m long and 2 m wide, had been erected.

The limestone blocks thrown up by the explosion were used to smooth the slope and pave the buildings. The external wall that was to shelter the houses on the slope had to be at least 4 m high.
Such a strong wall hasn't been discovered on any of the hitherto investigated early strongholds. The fortified settlement on the crater slope persisted for a couple of centuries at most.

The exclusiveness of the main crater is also accentuated by a mysterious massive stone wall surrounding it. These remains have attracted the attention of the archaeologists since the beginning of the investigations. The wall, 470 m long and 2.5 m wide, surrounding the main crater is far mightier than the mightiest stone fences of Saaremaa. The stones in the wall were also very big – their diameter was up to 1.5 m. The aim of such powerful and labour-intensive construction had to be different from that of an ordinary stone fence. Probably its function was to separate the important cult site from the surrounding world, so that no unwelcome guest could approach it.

The excavations at the foot of the wall revealed that at the time of building the wall of the manor period, the earlier wall, probably dating from the prehistoric period, was already dismantled. Hitherto it is not clear whether the wall was erected on cult purpose or to defence end. The old toponyms, like Paasiaia põld (Field of the limestone wall), Püha mets (Sacred forest) and the name of the whole county – Püha – which means "sacred" encourage fantasy and offer possible explanations.
The beginning of archaeological research | muinas.struktuur.ee


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The Kalevala - english translation
« Reply #5 on: July 24, 2010, 02:40:39 »

The Kalevala is the national saga of Finland. Pieced together (and embellished) by Elias Lönnrot in the late 19th Century, from a traditional cycle told by rural storytellers, the tales which constitute the Kalevala show signs of great antiquity.--J. B. Hare

Rune XLVII. Louhi Steals Sun, Moon, and Fire - seems to be about the events that created the catastrophe and fire in the area. if these events directly created the Kaali craters themselves or the Kaali craters were a by product of happenings surrounding it could be discussed.

mentions of the sun and the moon either disappearing or moving in the sky and the nine which is mentioned with Woden/Odin and the Raging Hord and Wild Hunt


(english translation here)

Title Page
Contents
Preface
Proem.
Rune I. Birth of Wainamoinen.
Rune II. Wainamoinen's Sowing.
Rune III. Wainamoinen and Youkahainen.
Rune IV. The Fate of Aino.
Rune V. Wainamoinen's Lamentation.
Rune VI. Wainamoinen's Hapless Journey.
Rune VII. Wainamoinen's Rescue.
Rune VIII. Maiden of the Rainbow.
Rune IX. Origin of Iron.
Rune X. Ilmarinen Forges the Sampo.
Rune XI. Lemminkainen's Lament.
Rune XII. Kyllikki's Broken Vow.
Rune XIII. Lemminikainen's Second Wooing.
Rune XIV. Death of Lemminkainen.
Rune XV. Lemminkainen's Restoration.
Rune XVI. Wainamoinen's Boat-building.
Rune XVII. Wainamoinen Finds the Lost-word.
Rune XVIII. The Rival Suitors.
Rune XIX. Ilmarinen's Wooing.
Rune XX. The Brewing of Beer.
Rune XXI. Ilmarinen's Wedding-feast.
Rune XXII. The Bride's Farewell.
Rune XXIII. Osmotar the Bride-adviser
Rune XXIV. The Bride's Farewell.
Rune XXV. Wainamoinen's Wedding-songs.
Rune XXVI. Origin of the Serpent.
Rune XXVII. The Unwelcome Guest.
Rune XXVIII. The Mother's Counsel
Rune XXIX. The Isle of Refuge.
Rune XXX. The Frost-fiend.
Rune XXXI. Kullerwoinen Son of Evil.
Rune XXXII. Kullervo As A Sheperd.
Rune XXXIII. Kullervo and the Cheat-cake.
Rune XXXIV. Kullervo Finds His Tribe-folk.
Rune XXXV. Kullervo's Evil Deeds.
Rune XXXVI. Kullerwoinen's Victory and Death.
Rune XXXVII. Ilmarinen's Bride of Gold.
Rune XXXVIII. Ilmarinen's Fruitless Wooing.
Rune XXXIX. Wainamoinen's Sailing.
Rune XL. Birth of the Harp.
Rune XLI. Wainamoinen's Harp-songs.
Rune XLII. Capture of the Sampo.
Rune XLIII. The Sampo Lost In the Sea.
Rune XLIV. Birth of the Second Harp.
Rune XLV. Birth of the Nine Diseases
Rune XLVI. Otso the Honey-eater.
Rune XLVII. Louhi Steals Sun, Moon, and Fire.
Rune XLVIII. Capture of the Fire-fish.
Rune XLIX. Restoration of the Sun and Moon.
Rune L. Mariatta--Wainamoinen's Departure.
Epilogue
Glossary


below is Rune XLVII. Louhi Steals Sun, Moon, and Fire

WAINAMOINEN, ancient minstrel,
Touched again his magic harp-strings,
Sang in miracles of concord,
Filled the north with joy and gladness.
Melodies arose to heaven,
Songs arose to Luna's chambers,
Echoed through the Sun's bright windows
And the Moon has left her station,
Drops and settles in the birch-tree;
And the Sun comes from his castle,
Settles in the fir-tree branches,
Comes to share the common pleasure,
Comes to listen to the singing,
To the harp of Wainamoinen.

Louhi, hostess of Pohyola,
Northland's old and toothless wizard,
Makes the Sun and Moon her captives;
In her arms she takes fair Luna
From her cradle in the birch-tree,
Calls the Sun down from his station,
From the fir-tree's bending branches,
Carries them to upper Northland,
To the darksome Sariola;
Hides the Moon, no more to glimmer,
In a rock of many colors;
Hides the Sun, to shine no longer,
In the iron-banded mountain;
Thereupon these words she utters:
"Moon of gold and Sun of silver,
Hide your faces in the caverns
Of Pohyola's dismal mountain;
Shine no more to gladden Northland,
Till I come to give ye freedom,
Drawn by coursers nine in number,
Sable coursers of one mother!"

When the golden Moon had vanished,
And the silver Sun had hidden
In the iron-banded caverns,
Louhi stole the fire from Northland,
From the regions of Wainola,
Left the mansions cold and cheerless,
And the cabins full of darkness.
Night was king and reigned unbroken,
Darkness ruled in Kalevala,
Darkness in the home of Ukko.
Hard to live without the moonlight,
Harder still without the sunshine;
Ukko's life is dark and dismal,
When the Sun and Moon desert him.

Ukko, first of all creators,
Lived in wonder at the darkness;
Long reflected, well considered,
Why this miracle in heaven,
What this accident in nature
To the Moon upon her journey;
Why the Sun no more is shining,
Why has disappeared the moonlight.
Then great Ukko walked the heavens,
To the border of the cloudlets,
In his purple-colored vestments,
In his silver-tinselled sandals,
Seeking for the golden moonlight,
Looking for the silver sunshine.
Lightning Ukko struck in darkness
From the edges of his fire-sword;
Shot the flames in all directions,
From his blade of golden color,
Into heaven's upper spaces,
Into Ether's starry pastures.

When a little fire had kindled,
Ukko hid it in the cloud-space,
In a box of gold and silver,
In a case adorned with silver,
Gave it to the ether-maidens,
Called a virgin then to rock it,
That it might become a new-moon,
That a second sun might follow.
On the long-cloud rocked the virgin,
On the blue-edge of the ether,
Rocked the fire of the Creator,
In her copper-colored cradle,
With her ribbons silver-studded.
Lowly bend the bands of silver,
Loud the golden cradle echoes,
And the clouds of Northland thunder,
Low descends the dome of heaven,
At the rocking of the lightning,
Rocking of the fire of Ukko.
Thus the flame was gently cradled
By the virgin of the ether.
Long the fair and faithful maiden
Stroked the Fire-child with her fingers,
Tended it with care and pleasure,
Till in an unguarded moment
It escaped the Ether-virgin,
Slipped the hands of her that nursed it.
Quick the heavens are burst asunder,
Quick the vault of Ukko opens,
Downward drops the wayward Fire-child,
Downward quick the red-ball rushes,
Shoots across the arch of heaven,
Hisses through the startled cloudlets,
Flashes through the troubled welkin,
Through nine starry vaults of ether.

Then the ancient Wainamoinen
Spake and these the words he uttered:
"Blacksmith brother, Ilmarinen,
Let us haste and look together,
What the kind of fire that falleth,
What the form of light that shineth
From the upper vault of heaven,
From the lower earth and ocean.
Has a second moon arisen,
Can it be a ball of sunlight?

Thereupon the heroes wandered,
Onward journeyed and reflected,
How to gain the spot illumined,
How to find the sacred Fire-child.
Came a river rushing by them,
Broad and stately as an ocean.
Straightway ancient Wainamoinen
There began to build a vessel,
Build a boat to cross the river.
With the aid of Ilmarinen,
From the oak he cut the row-locks,
From the pine the oars be fashioned,
From the aspen shapes the rudder.
When the vessel they had finished,
Quick they rolled it to the current,
Hard they rowed and ever forward,
On the Nawa-stream and waters,
At the head of Nawa-river.

Ilmatar, the ether-daughter,
Foremost daughter of creation,
Came to meet them on their journey,
Thus addressed the coming strangers:
"Who are ye of Northland heroes,
Rowing on the Nawa-waters?"
Wainamoinen gave this answer:
"This the blacksmith, Ilmarinen,
I the ancient Wainamoinen.
Tell us now thy name and station,
Whither going, whence thou comest,
Where thy tribe-folk live and linger?
Spake the daughter of the Ether:
"I the oldest of the women,
Am the first of Ether's daughters,
Am the first of ancient mothers;
Seven times have I been wedded.
To the heroes of creation.
Whither do ye strangers journey?
Answered thus old Wainamoinen:
"Fire has left Wainola's hearth-stones,
Light has disappeared from Northland;
Have been sitting long in darkness,
Cold and darkness our companions;
Now we journey to discover
What the fire that fell from heaven,
Falling from the cloud's red lining,
To the deeps of earth and ocean."
Ilmatar returned this answer:
"Hard the flame is to discover,
Hard indeed to find the Fire-child;
Has committed many mischiefs,
Nothing good has he accomplished;
Quick the fire-ball fell from ether,
From the red rims of the cloudlets,
From the plains of the Creator,
Through the ever-moving heavens,
Through the purple ether-spaces,
Through the blackened flues of Turi,
To Palwoinen's rooms uncovered.
When the fire had reached the chambers
Of Palwoinen, son of evil,
He began his wicked workings,
He engaged in lawless actions,
Raged against the blushing maidens,
Fired the youth to evil conduct,
Singed the beards of men and heroes.

"Where the mother nursed her baby,
In the cold and cheerless cradle,
Thither flew the wicked Fire-child,
There to perpetrate some mischief;
In the cradle burned the infant,
By the infant burned the mother,
That the babe might visit Mana,
In the kingdom of Tuoni;
Said the child was born for dying,
Only destined for destruction,
Through the tortures of the Fire-child.
Greater knowledge had the mother,
Did not journey to Manala,
Knew the word to check the red-flame,
How to banish the intruder
Through the eyelet of a needle,
Through the death-hole of the hatchet."

Then the ancient Wainamoinen
Questioned Ilmatar as follows:
"Whither did the Fire-child wander,
Whither did the red-flame hasten,
From the border-fields of Turi,
To the woods, or to the waters?
Straightway Ilmatar thus answers:
"When the fire had fled from Turi,
From the castles of Palwoinen,
Through the eyelet of the needle,
Through the death-hole of the hatchet,
First it burned the fields, and forests,
Burned the lowlands, and the heather;
Then it sought the mighty waters,
Sought the Alue-sea and river,
And the waters hissed and sputtered
In their anger at the Fire-child,
Fiery red the boiling Alue!

"Three times in the nights of, summer,
Nine times in the nights of autumn,
Boil the waters to the tree-tops,
Roll and tumble to the mountain,
Through the red-ball's force and fury;
Hurls the pike upon the pastures,
To the mountain-cliffs, the salmon,
Where the ocean-dwellers wonder,
Long reflect and well consider
How to still the angry waters.
Wept the salmon for his grotto,
Mourned the whiting for his cavern,
And the lake-trout for his dwelling,
Quick the crook-necked salmon darted,
Tried to catch the fire-intruder,
But the red-ball quick escaped him;
Darted then the daring whiting,
Swallowed quick the wicked Fire-child,
Swallowed quick the flame of evil.
Quiet grow the Alue-waters,
Slowly settle to their shore-lines,
To their long-accustomed places,
In the long and dismal evening.

"Time had gone but little distance,
When the whiting grow affrighted,
Fear befel the fire-devourer;
Burning pain and writhing tortures
Seized the eater of the Fire-child;
Swam the fish in all directions,
Called, and moaned, and swam, and circled,
Swam one day, and then a second,
Swam the third from morn till even;
Swam she to the whiting-island,
To the caverns of the salmon,
Where a hundred islands cluster;
And the islands there assembled
Thus addressed the fire-devourer:
'There is none within these waters,
In this narrow Alue-lakelet,
That will eat the fated Fire-fish
That will swallow thee in trouble,
In thine agonies and torture
From the Fire-child thou hast eaten.'

"Hearing this a trout forth darting,
Swallowed quick as light the whiting,
Quickly ate the fire-devourer.
Time had gone but little distance,
When the trout became affrighted,
Fear befel the whiting-eater;
Burning pain and writhing torment
Seized the eater of the Fire-fish.
Swam the trout in all directions,
Called, and moaned, and swam, and circled,
Swam one day, and then a second,
Swain the third from morn till even;
Swam she to the salmon-island,
Swam she to the whiting-grottoes,
Where a thousand islands cluster,
And the islands there assembled
Thus addressed the tortured lake-trout:
'There is none within this river,
In these narrow Alue-waters,
That will eat the wicked Fire-fish,
That will swallow thee in trouble,
In thine agonies and tortures,
From the Fire-fish thou hast eaten."

Hearing this the gray-pike darted,
Swallowed quick as light the lake-trout,
Quickly ate the tortured Fire-fish.

"Time had gone but little distance,
When the gray-pike grew affrighted,
Fear befel the lake-trout-eater;
Burning pain and writhing torment
Seized the reckless trout-devourer;
Swam the pike in all directions,
Called, and moaned, and swam, and circled,
Swam one day, and then a second,
Swam the third from morn till even,
To the cave of ocean-swallows,
To the sand-hills of the sea-gull,
Where a hundred islands cluster;
And the islands there assembled
Thus addressed the fire-devourer:
'There is none within this lakelet,
In these narrow Alue-waters,
That will eat the fated Fire-fish,
That will swallow thee in trouble,
In thine agonies and tortures,
From the Fire-fish thou hast eaten.'"

Wainamoinen, wise and ancient,
With the aid of Ilmarinen,
Weaves with skill a mighty fish-net
From the juniper and sea-grass;
Dyes the net with alder-water,
Ties it well with thongs of willow.
Straightway ancient Wainamoinen
Called the maidens to the fish-net,
And the sisters came as bidden.
With the netting rowed they onward,
Rowed they to the hundred islands,
To the grottoes of the salmon,
To the caverns of the whiting,
To the reeds of sable color,
Where the gray-pike rests and watches.
On they hasten to the fishing,
Drag the net in all directions,
Drag it lengthwise, sidewise, crosswise,
And diagonally zigzag;
But they did not catch the Fire-fish.

Then the brothers went a-fishing,
Dragged the net in all directions,
Backwards, forwards, lengthwise, sidewise,
Through the homes of ocean-dwellers,
Through the grottoes of the salmon,
Through the dwellings of the whiting,
Through the reed-beds of the lake-trout,
Where the gray-pike lies in ambush;
But the fated Fire-fish came not,
Came not from the lake's abysses,
Came not from the Alue-waters.

Little fish could not be captured
In the large nets of the masters;
Murmured then the deep-sea-dwellers,
Spake the salmon to the lake-trout,
And the lake-trout to the whiting,
And the whiting to the gray-pike:
Have the heroes of Wainola
Died, or have they all departed
From these fertile shores and waters?
Where then are the ancient weavers,
Weavers of the nets of flax-thread,
Those that frighten us with fish-poles,
Drag us from our homes unwilling?"

Hearing this wise Wainamoinen
Answered thus the deep-sea-dwellers:
"Neither have Wainola's heroes
Died, nor have they all departed
From these fertile shores and waters,
Two are born where one has perished;
Longer poles and finer fish-nets
Have the sons of Kalevala!"
« Last Edit: July 25, 2010, 08:17:54 by electrobleme »

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Kaali crater field Estonia - geological facts and figures
« Reply #6 on: July 25, 2010, 08:03:43 »


Kaali crater field Estonia - geological facts and figures

the geology of the main Kaali crater can be viewed from an EU perspective. the different types of material in short distances and filling the gaps due to the transformation of the original material by electromagnetic forces combined with the electrical energy flowing through it. the rock seperated into different parts and also angled up due to the discharge upwards not the downwards force of the meteorite hitting the earth.

Quote
The main crater of Kaali is a typical explosion crater. The meteorite falling at cosmic velocity exploded when it collided with the earth, and created the crater with a surrounding mound of uplifted bedrock. The meteorite itself pulverized in the explosion and dispersed in the rising cloud of dust. Hereby, no meteoritic fragments preserved in the main crater.

At the end of the 1970ies and the beginning of the 1980ies, the systematic investigation of pulverized meteoritic matter (i.e. types and distribution of particles with the diameter less than 1 mm) began, first in the Kaali crater field and its immediate neighbourhood, later all over Saaremaa, Muhu and Western Estonia. It appeared that the distribution of the pulverized meteoritic matter was irregular and divided into rather complicated fields.

Kaali crater field Estonia - Geological Data | muinas.struktuur.ee

the main crater has no meteorite fragments but the smaller craters do. also meteorite mini fragments are found scattered over Estonia. how does that work out?

is it that the iron fragments were created in the area that they were found? this explaining the odd distribution pattern? if that is the case does it also explain glacial erratics, that they are formed where they are found and not pushed/moved by glaciers? the Kaali crater field in Estonia has glacial erratics.




Quote
Geological Data

9 meteorite craters are located on the 50-ha territory, 58º 24' N, 22º 40' E, of the only Estonian geological reserve: the main crater and 8 collateral craters.
   
In the main crater there is the lake of Kaali, with the diameter, depending on the water level, from 30-60 m and the depth from 1-6 m. The lake feeds on ground water and precipitation. The thickness of the bottom sediments of the lake is nearly 6 m and their age is about 4000 years.

The vicinity of Kaali is a moraine level, where the thickness of the clayey basal till near the main crater is about 1 meter, with the thick microbedded dolomites of the Upper Silurian Paadla Stage under it. The Kaali meteorite hit, so to say, two-ply target – the clayey basal till and the underlying dolomites.

Thus, the craters are filled with peculiar material, formed by the mixture of dolomite pieces of various size, basal till and humus. The upper part of the wall consists of the material thrown out of the crater during the explosion, and of dolomite layers tilted at an angle of 25…90°. The mean thickness of the uplifted bedrock complex is 10 m and it has been split into 9 separate shifted blocks, each up to 50 m wide. The filling between the dolomite blocks is quite clayey in the upper part of the wall, lower down dolomite shingle prevails. The dolomite blocks are underlain by pulverized dolomite, up to 6 m thick, in a lens form. This light grey dolomite powder formed as a result of the explosion and contains dolomite pieces of different sizes.

At the bottom of the crater lies a 8…10 m thick highly fractured and displaced layer of dolomite breccia. Geophysical investigations have revealed that the dolomite layers around the crater are heavily split to the depth of 40…50 m. The zone of destruction more than twice exceeds the area of the visible crater.

The main crater of Kaali is a typical explosion crater. The meteorite falling at cosmic velocity exploded when it collided with the earth, and created the crater with a surrounding mound of uplifted bedrock. The meteorite itself pulverized in the explosion and dispersed in the rising cloud of dust. Hereby, no meteoritic fragments preserved in the main crater.

The smaller craters, locally known as dry lakes, are shallow bowl-shaped hollows. However, vague and in some cases interrupted mounds can mostly be traced on the banks of the secondary craters. Hazel thicket grows in most of the dry lakes. These are impact craters and meteorite fragments were gathered in them.



Kaali crater field Estonia - pulverized meteorite fragments distribution map


At the end of the 1970ies and the beginning of the 1980ies, the systematic investigation of pulverized meteoritic matter (i.e. types and distribution of particles with the diameter less than 1 mm) began, first in the Kaali crater field and its immediate neighbourhood, later all over Saaremaa, Muhu and Western Estonia. It appeared that the distribution of the pulverized meteoritic matter was irregular and divided into rather complicated fields.

Kaali crater field Estonia - Geological Data | muinas.struktuur.ee
« Last Edit: July 26, 2010, 02:31:22 by electrobleme »

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The Kaali meteorite craters - Saaremaa Island, Estonia
« Reply #7 on: July 26, 2010, 03:29:13 »


The Kaali meteorite craters - Saaremaa Island, Estonia



kaali meteorite craters saaremaa island estonia


a couple of things in this article are good, the fact that the glass spheres or "martian blueberries" have been found around the Kaali meteorite craters and also that large number of animal bones were found in the holy lake. similar to the possible sacrificial Meres in Norfolk that were drained. They also are physically similar in size and have their own smaller craters or shrieking pits (electric discharges in an Electric Universe) associated near them.






Quote
The Kaali meteorite craters

Eighteen kilometers from Kuressaare towards Kuivastu is the location of Estonia's most unique geological object, Kaali lake.

Early explorers considered the ring-shaped Kaali crater as a volcanic depresion or a karst hole formed due to the dissolution of limestone, gypsum or salt. The meteoric origin of the lake basin was first suggested by J. Kalkun-Kaljuvee in 1922. In 1937 Ivan Reinvald collected 30 fragments of meteoritic iron from the collateral craters. The analysis of the fragments showed that the cosmic body which fell to the Kaali area belonged to the most frequent type of iron meteorite, coarse octahedrite, with the contents of Fe and Ni amounting to 91.5 and 8.3%, respectively.

The structure of the craters and the distribution of meteoritic material suggest that the meteorite fell from the east-northeast at an angle of 45 deg. The initial mass of the meteorite could have been 400 to 10 000 tons, mass at impact was 20 to 80 tons, initial velocity upon entering the atmosphere was 15 to 45 kilometers per second, velocity at impact ranged from 10 to 20 kilometers per second.

By passing through the atmosphere the meteorite heated and broke into pieces at an altitude of five to ten kilometers, falling to Earth as a meteorite shower. As a result, the main crater, 110 meters in diameter and 22 meters in depth, and at least eight collateral craters with a diameter of 12 to 40 meters and a depth of one to four metes, were formed.



lake kaali meteorite craters

The craters or their embankments do not contain marine sediments. Therefore the craters cannot be older than the time the area emerged from the sea. The explosion scattered into the air abundantly fine particles of soil and rock, which by melting formed glassy spherules. These spherules have been found in mires and lake sedimets in the vicinity of the craters. The age of the layers of peat with microimpactites is 7500 to 7600 years, which is the most probable age of the Kaali craters.

In the main crater there is a natural body of water that is known as Lake Kaali. Its diameter, ranging from 30 to 60 meters, depends on the water level. Its depth is one to six meters. The lake is fed by ground water and precipitation. The bottom sediment layers are about six meters thick and up to 4 000 years old.

Kaali crater can be compared with the world's best known and youngest craters, as follows:
Crater's name and location    No. of cracters    Diameter    Depth
1. Arizona (USA)                   1                    1207            174
2. Wolf Creek (Australia)        1                    853            46
3. Aouelloul (Mauretania)       1                    250            6
4. Henbury (Australia)           13                    110 - 220   12 - 15
5. Boxhole (Australia)            1                    175           16
8. Kaali (Estonia)                 9                    110           16
11. Ilumetsa (Estonia)          2                    80             12




kaali meteorite craters map saaremaa island estonia

Crater nr. 1 is approximaterly 300 meters northwest from the main crater and is the largest aside from the main crater. Today it is a brush-filled depression four meters in depth and 39 meters in diameter.

Craters nr. 2/8 are twin craters. They are located about 600 meters south from the main crater, on a flat hillock. Nr. 2 crater's north diameter is 25 meters and southside diameter 76 meters, its depth is 3.5 meters (the depression is clean of brush and can be easily observed). This is the crater from which I. Reinwald found the first pieces of meteor in 1937.

Crater nr. 3 is 250 meters east from the previous one. This is the best preserved of the dry depressions. Its diameter is 33 meters and its depth is 3.5 meters.

Crater nr. 4 is on the north side of the Kaali to Kõljala road, 300 meters east of the main crater. Its diameter is 20 meters and the depth is 1.25 meters. This craters is almost no longer discernible.

Crater nr. 5 is 170 meters south from the previous one. Its original diameter was 13 meters and its dpeth .9 meters. This crater has yielded the largest number of meteorite pieces, including the largest one found, which weighed almost 40 grams.

Crater nr. 6 is 450 meters northwest from the main crater. This is a barely discernible depression, by the side of the road. Its diameter is 26 meters and its depth is .6 meters.

Crater nr. 7 is located opposite the Kaali store. That this is a meteorite crater was only discovered in l965. Its measurements are 15 meters diameter and one meter in depth.

Crater nr. 9 is 100 meters northwest from crater nr. 6. Its diameter is 12 meters and its depth is almost one meter.

It is not impossible that there are as yet undiscovered meteorite craters. Since the meteor fell as a meteor shower, this is probably more than likely. But the smaller depressions have been filled with rocks and soil by the local farmers, and they have melted into the landscape.

Kaali lake also has an important place in tradition. It was also known as Holy Lake and there is archaeological evidence that it was a place of offering for many centuries. It is known that the lake was surrounded by a wall during the early Iron Age, (600 B.C. to 100 A.D.) The length of the wall was about 470 meters, its width around 2.5 meters and its heigth to two meters.

Stones 1.5 to 1.8 meters in diameter were used in its construction. An extraordinarly number of domestic animal bones have been found inside the walled area, the latest dating to the 17th century. It is known that Estonians made animal offerings to ensure good harvests and increase in domestic animals. It is also known that offerings continued to be made in secret long after the Chruch forbade such "pagan " practices. Silver ornaments have also been found that date to 300-500 A.D. It is therefore very probable that the lake was considered holy, and offerings were made there for centuries.

Lennart Meri, in his wonderful book "Hõbevalge" (Silverwhite) has found descriptions of the meteor's fall to earth in archaic runes. Kalevala 47 runo does indeed give a very realistic description of fire falling from the sky that burned houses, fields, fens and humans.

The Kaali meteorite craters | saaremaa.ee
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The Kaali crater field - glassy spherules and local legend about Tarapita



kaali main crater and uplifted dolomites in its massive wall


Does the local legend of Tarapita moving his home from Ebavere to his new home in Saaremaa Island give evidence of a local ground to ground discharge that created the craters in these areas?


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The excavations yielded surprisingly few archaeological artifacts ...

Phaethon, the son of the sun god Helios, and a woman Clymene wanted to drive the chariot of the sun through the heavens for a single day. The four, fiery white, stallions knew that an inexperienced hand was guiding them. They swerved from the well-worn path of the sun and bolted high into the sky. The chariot soon tumbled towards the Earth and began to scorch it. It started fires that destroyed woods and fields and dried up rivers and oceans. The mortals creid to the gods for help. To prevent further damage, Jupiter hurled a thunderbolt at Phaethon, the irresponsible chariot drier. The boy flew like a shooting star, his hair in flames, through the air, and fell to the earth at the mouth of the Eredanus. The latter may be interpreted as the Daugava River in Latvia, because the legend tells about amber which was formed by the tears of the sisters mourning the loss of their brother Phaethon.

The fall of the meteorite from the northeast is strongly supported by archaeologists (Lougas 1996). According to a legend, Tarapita, the great god of ancient inhabitants of Saaremaa Island, dashed as a fireball with a long pile-shaped tail (pile is "vai" in Estonian) from his birthplace, in the northeast, at Ebavere - the highest hill of northern Estonia - to his new abode on Saaremaa. Probably, the Estonian "vai" gave the name to the small Votian nation to the east of Estonia ("vailased"; "vadjalased" in Estonian; "vaddalain" in Votic). In the Baltic-Finnish lexis the word "vai" (also "vaaja") has also another meaning i.e. thunderbolt.

Unfortunately, this beautiful story is far from being realistic. The spherules in surficial layers of the Eastonian mainland, which, according to to Aaloe and Tirmaa (1982) show the fall trajectory, are mostly industrial in origin and were probably transported from Saaremaa and western Estonia by winds from the industrial region of northeastern Estonia and Tallin.


(Kaali crater field) Surrounding lakes and bogs were also searched for microimpactites. In the four mires studied, including the above mentioned Piila bog, microimpactites - mainly glassy spherules formed by melting and vaporization of meteoritiic matter and target rock - were identified only in one layer dated by palynological and radiocarbon methods as ca. 7500 yr old (Raukas et al., 1995 1999). Microimpactites consist mainly of silica and calcium, with an admixture of iron and nickel, and several other elements (Raukas, 2000). The dates of the peat layer with microimpactites provide the basis for the conclusion that the Kaali craters were formed ca. 7500-7600 yr ago.


Catastrophic events and mass extinctions: impacts and beyond | books.google.com