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The KTB superdeep borehole (German Continental Deep Drilling Program)

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electrobleme:
The German KTB superdeep borehole project


The planning for the KTB superdeep borehole project, known as the Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm de Bundesreplik Deutschland (German Continental Deep Drilling Program), began in 1978 and drilling started in 1987 on the test hole KTB-VB (finished 1989) and the main borehole KTB-HB started in 1990 (finished 1994). In only 4 years KTB-HB was drilled down to a depth of 9101 m (29,859 ft). They made a number of very surprising finds and non finds including water deep below the surface.

The reason for the site finally chosen and the scientific research aims of the KTB superdeep borehole were:


--- Quote ---Both geology and the expectation of a lower formation temperature gradient favored the Windischeschenback site. The site is located on the western flank of the Bphemian Massif about 4 km (2.5 miles) east of a major fault system - the Franconian line.

Scientists also believe it lies at the boundary of two major tectono-stratigaphic uniits in Central Europe - the Saxothuringian and Moldanbubian. This boundary - which they hoped to cross - is regarded as a suture zone formed by the closer of a former oceanic basin 320 million years ago. This process gave rise to the continent-continent collision- forming a mountain chain and the present-day Eurasion plate. The mountains have long since eroded away, exposing rocks that were once deeply buried.

Therefore, this area is ideal for the study of deep-seated crustal processes. In addition, geophysical surface experiments have shown that the area around the drillsite has unusally high electrical conductivirty and strong gravimetric and magnetic anomalies, which deserve closer investigation.

The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust (pdf)
--- End quote ---

How did the world famous German efficiency compare to the Russian superdeep borehole? What surprises did they find or didn't find and how electric is it under the Earth?


--- Quote ---Suprises - Some Welcome, Some Not
...At a depth of about 7000 m (22,966 ft) they had expected to drill through the boundary between two tectonic plates that collided 320 millions years ago, forming the Eurasion plate. However, this boundary was never crossed, and the geologists have had to redraw most of the subsurface picture.
Other unexpected results include core and log evidence for a network of conductive pathways through highly resistive rock, and in rock devoid of matric porosity, an ample supply of water.
(page 16) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---


--- Quote ---Fluids - The scientists at KTB expected deep crystalline rock to be bone dry, but to their surprise, water influx occured at several depths from open fractures.
(Page 19) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---


--- Quote ---Thermal Studies - ...During the initial temperature mapping, KTB-VB held the unwelcome surprise that the formation temperature gradient was higher than anticipated. This disappointing result meant that 300C - the set limit of current technology - would be reached at about 10,000 m - much shallower than originally predicted.
(page 18) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---






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electrobleme:

German KTB  superdeep borehole - topics and DIScussion articles

The main initial (and perhaps the only) bulk of the DIScussion about the KTB (German Continental Deep Drilling Program) comes from this pdf - The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust. A lot of it is quoted but for the full article, references and lots of images please read the pdf.


** Unexpected water found deep below the Earths surface - how does water form there where they expected zero water?

** In 200 meters how much can rock layers change? - how and why did the rock change that much?

** electrical KTB - electrical layers, networks in an electric Earth and Universe?


electrobleme:
Unexpected water found deep below the Earths surface?



--- Quote ---Fluids - The scientists at KTB expected deep crystalline rock to be bone dry, but to their surprise, water influx occured at several depths from open fractures.

...As fresh mud was used for drilling, any saline water inflow would cause a decrease in mud resistivity.

... During a two-month pumping test 275m3 (1730 bbl) of salt water were produced from an open fracture system at the bottom of KTB-VB. Further evidence showed the extent of the fluid network.During a production test at 6000 m KTB-HB, the fluid level in KTB-VB dropped. WHen the 13 3/8-in. casing in KTB-HB was cemented, there was an increase in fluid level in KTB-VB. These two events confirmed hydraulic communication...
Natural causes of fluid movement became apparent when pressure sensors deployed in KTB-VB recorded changes in pressure due to earth tides caused by the gravitational pull of the moon.
Fluids play an important role in the chemical and physical processes in the Earth's crust, influencing mineral reactions, rheological properties of rocks and melting and crystallization processes.

(Page 19) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---


Water is found virtually everywhere much to the surprise of scientists, this includes on the surface of the Sun. Mecury's atmosphere and it was also found during the drilling project of the Russian Kola Superdeep Borehole.

As you will read what they found with the Geology of the area was nothing like they expected to find. It was all surprising. If most things you predict are not found or wrong wouldn't you consider that perhaps your main ideas and theories are incorrect. After all a good theory predicts...

Is water created by a process in an Electric Universe? One of the main reasons for choosing this drill site was its strange electrical properties and Telluric Currents (large natural electrical currents) have been proven to flow through the ground.



--- Quote ---Suprises - Some Welcome, Some Not
Other unexpected results include core and log evidence for a network of conductive pathways through highly resistive rock, and in rock devoid of matric porosity, an ample supply of water.
(page 16) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---



--- Quote ---
...Information about thermal structure - temperature distribution, heat sources and heat flow - was also needed to understand chemical processes such as the transformation to metamorphic rock and minerization of ores. Fluids also play an important role in temperature distribution, heat flow and various chemical processes, so measurements of pressure, permeability and recovery of fluids found were also important.

(page 3)  The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---



--- Quote ---(regarding KTB-VB the test drill hole)...This coring method worked well until February 1989 when excessive corrosion in the pipe joints meant replacing the mining string...

...they had to modify the mud system to account for water influx and water-senstive rock,

(page 5)  The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---



--- Quote ---...Abnormal Spontaneous Potential (SP) deflections occurred across mineralized fault systems. Other SP deflections combined with low mud resistivity readings from the Auxiliary Measurement Sonde (AMS) occured at zones of water influx.
(page 12) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---


electrobleme:

In 200 meters how much can rock layers change?



Although KTB-VB and KTB-HB were only 200 meters apart the geology structure or physical properties of the same depth change considerably.


--- Quote ---
... Lithology comparison between KTB-VB and KTB-HB... The difference in lithology between the two boreholds - which are only 200 m apart - highlight the complext structure being drilled
(page 9) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---



Are the difference in layers due to natural Electrofocusing (isoelectric focusing)? The area does have high electrical activity and water.


--- Quote ---...This provided concentrations of 10 elements present in rock: silicon, calium, iron, potassium, uranium and thorium. Another tool with a semiconductor detector - germanium ... elemental concentrations of sodium, magnesium, manganese, chromium and vanadium... minerals such as pyrite, pyrrhotite, magnetite and hematite could be quantified.

... this was regarded as an indicator of mineralization. Uranium tends to concentrate at graphite accumulations...
(page 12) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---



--- Quote ---(Suprises - Some Welcome, Some Not
...At a depth of about 7000 m (22,966 ft) they had expected to drill through the boundary between two tectonic plates that collided 320 millions years ago, forming the Eurasion plate. However, this boundary was never crossed, and the geologists have had to redraw most of the subsurface picture.
Other unexpected results include core and log evidence for a network of conductive pathways through highly resistive rock, and in rock devoid of matric porosity, an ample supply of water.

.... It is now known that the borehole remained inside the Zone of Erbendorf Vohenstrauss (ZEV), a small crystalline unit tectonically placed between the Saxothuringian and Moldanubian units.
(page 16) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---



--- Quote ---Electromagnetics - One of the reasons for choosing the Windischeschenbacksite was to investigate the origin and nature of a low resistivity layer recorded by surface measurements that appeared to be 10 km below the Earth's surface. This is not unique to southern Germany as similar layers are found in many continents around the world.
To unravel the mysteries of this conductive layer, scientists pursued many different angles, Conductivity measurements on cores from KTB-VB showed highly resistivity as expected in crystalline rocks. But then hightly conductive graphite-bearing faults and cataclastic zones were found at various depths up to 7000 m (22,970 ft). These were also seen on borehole logs where abnormal SP deflections of more than 200 millivolts (mV) coincided with the graphite. Other logs, such as induced polarization - where the decay of a voltage applied at a surface electrode is measured downhole - showed conductive pathways potentially formed by veins of graphite and/or sulfides.
At a much larger scale, when KTB-HB was at a depth of 6013 m (19,730 ft) a dipole-dipole experiment was carried out. This consisted of using the casing from both holes to inject current into the formation. The resulting potential field was measured around the borehole. Any changes in potential indicated a connection of an electric conductor to one of the casings, supporting the theory for a conducting layer extending over a distance of several hundred meters. The results showed that the conducting layer coincided with graphite deposits in a north-south striking fault system - the Nottersdorf fault zone. The faults from this system crossed KTB-VB at about 250 m (820 ft) and KTB-HB at about 1500 m (4921 ft).
Further experiments are planned to investigate the depth, thickness, electrical anisotropy and source of the high conductivity layer still believed to be at 10 km.
(page 17) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---


electrobleme:

the KTB superdeep borehole and the Electric Universe

The area for the KTB was also chosen for its special electrical nature but they were not expecting to find a network and layers of electrical activity and conductors. Similar to electrical components and circuits that we build but perhaps mother nature got there first? In an Electrical Universe you would want conductive, semi conductive, resistive materials and of course the flow of electrical current. Would you create a planet like Earth? 7/10ths salty sea water, silicon, electric atmosphere, layers of minerals...



--- Quote ---...In addition, geophysical surface experiments have shown that the area around the drillsite has unusally high electrical conductivity and strong gravimetric and magnetic anomalies, which deserve closer investigation.
(page 3) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---


--- Quote ---
...Petrophysical parameters, such as thermal conductivity, density, electrical conductivity, acoustic impedance, natural radioactivity, natural remanent magnetism and magnetic susceptibility were also routinely measured.
(page 11) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---


--- Quote ---...Another tool with a semiconductor detector - germanium ... elemental concentrations of sodium, magnesium, manganese, chromium and vanadium... minerals such as pyrite, pyrrhotite, magnetite and hematite could be quantified.

...Abnormal Spontaneous Potential (SP) deflections occurred across mineralized fault systems. Other SP deflections combined with low mud resistivity readings from the Auxiliary Measurement Sonde (AMS) occured at zones of water influx. When the AMS resistivity showed only mud and the SP showed deflection, this was regarded as an indicator of mineralization. Uranium tends to concentrate at graphite accumulations...
(page 12) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---


--- Quote ---Suprises - Some Welcome, Some Not
Other unexpected results include core and log evidence for a network of conductive pathways through highly resistive rock, and in rock devoid of matric porosity, an ample supply of water.
(page 16) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---


--- Quote ---
Electromagnetics - One of the reasons for choosing the Windischeschenbacksite was to investigate the origin and nature of a low resistivity layer recorded by surface measurements that appeared to be 10 km below the Earth's surface. This is not unique to southern Germany as similar layers are found in many continents around the world.

To unravel the mysteries of this conductive layer, scientists pursued many different angles, Conductivity measurements on cores from KTB-VB showed highly resistivity as expected in crystalline rocks. But then hightly conductive graphite-bearing faults and cataclastic zones were found at various depths up to 7000 m (22,970 ft). These were also seen on borehole logs where abnormal SP deflections of more than 200 millivolts (mV) coincided with the graphite. Other logs, such as induced polarization - where the decay of a voltage applied at a surface electrode is measured downhole - showed conductive pathways potentially formed by veins of graphite and/or sulfides.

At a much larger scale, when KTB-HB was at a depth of 6013 m (19,730 ft) a dipole-dipole experiment was carried out. This consisted of using the casing from both holes to inject current into the formation. The resulting potential field was measured around the borehole. Any changes in potential indicated a connection of an electric conductor to one of the casings, supporting the theory for a conducting layer extending over a distance of several hundred meters. The results showed that the conducting layer coincided with graphite deposits in a north-south striking fault system - the Nottersdorf fault zone. The faults from this system crossed KTB-VB at about 250 m (820 ft) and KTB-HB at about 1500 m (4921 ft).
Further experiments are planned to investigate the depth, thickness, electrical anisotropy and source of the high conductivity layer still believed to be at 10 km.
(page 17) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---


--- Quote ---Fluids - ...As fresh mud was used for drilling, any saline water inflow would cause a decrease in mud resistivity.
(page 19) The KTB Borehole - Germany's Superdeep Telescope into the Earth's Crust
--- End quote ---

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