Electric Universe forum - Everything Is Electric

Everything and anything => Electrical Universe DIScussion => Topic started by: electrobleme on August 04, 2009, 06:47:31

Title: Surprised science - a good theory predicts...
Post by: electrobleme on August 04, 2009, 06:47:31
It's always a surprise to Space Scientists - a good theory predicts


2012 posts


** Water on the moon. Surprised and exactly as not predicted (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg1961#msg1961) - "The traditional view that the Moon was entirely dry has been proven incorrect in recent years, with growing evidence that icy drops of water can be found on its surface."

** Planets orbiting a pair of stars (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg1953#msg1953) - "These planets are very difficult to form using the currently accepted paradigm, and I believe that theorists will be going back to the drawing board to try to improve our understanding of how planets are assembled"

** Dust ring around star disappears in a few years (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg1899#msg1899) - "The dust disappearance at TYC 8241 2652 1 was so bizarre and so quick, initially I figured that our observations must simply be in error in some strange way" ... "A perplexing thing about this discovery is that we don't have a really satisfactory explanation to address what happened around this star"

2011 posts

** comet lovejoy - dirty snowball or electric rock comets (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg1774#msg1774) -"I was delighted when I saw it go into the sun and I was astounded when I saw something re-emerge"

** Mysterious Radio filaments in our galaxies center (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg1719#msg1719) - "There's a long literature about these objects, and there have been some ideas as to what might generate their emission - but frankly no one really knows"

** What happens when they find an object younger than the Big Bang? (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg1718#msg1718) - Scientists are struggling to explain how these objects could have evolved so big, so fast. "It is safe to say that the existence of this quasar will be giving some theorists sleepless nights"

** Voyagers ride 'magnetic bubbles' (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg1705#msg1705) - "Researchers confess to being surprised; they thought the outskirts of our solar neighbourhood would be more sedate - that the Sun's field lines would simply turn around and reconnect with the Sun."


2010 posts

** retrograde "black" holes (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg1188#msg1188) - "This new model also solves a paradox in the old spin paradigm," said David Meier, a theoretical astrophysicist at JPL not involved in the study. "Everything now fits nicely into place."

** Suprised science (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum) - everything?

** spacequakes - plasma bombs create galaxy earthquakes (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg1032#msg1032) - "This is all new for us," marvels Kalevi Mursula University of Oulu in Finland, an expert on solar wind

** Mystery object - 2 asteriods colliding? (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg950#msg950) - they dont know what it is ...

** Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) 20MeV or more (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg744#msg744) - nobody knew they even existed!

** The Pioneer anomaly (the Pioneer effect) and the end of the gravityVerse? (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg599#msg599) -  The Pioneer anomaly was discovered by John Anderson, also of JPL, in the 1980s. For years he didn't publish what he'd noticed. Then he discussed it with physicist Michael Martin Nieto at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Nieto says he "almost fell off my chair."

** Sun's protective 'bubble' (heliosphere) is shrinking (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg577#msg577) - Scientists are baffled at what could be causing the barrier to shrink in this way and are to launch mission to study the heliosphere.

** The Mystery of the Fading Star in a Gravity Universe (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg575#msg575) - what is surprising about a star fading/brightening in a 27 year cycle?

**  hot companions - orbiting objects/planets(?) hotter than their host stars !!!  (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg574#msg574) - "The universe keeps making strange things stranger than we can think of in our imagination," said Jon Morse, head of astrophysics for NASA.


2009 posts

water water everywhere - even in Mercury exosphere (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg152#msg152) - "Nobody expected that.  I don't know a single person that did.  We were astonished, just astonished"

Mid-ocean Gakkel Ridge - plate tectonics? (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg213#msg213) - "I just about fell off my chair"..."it was surprising to find rocks that had not been remixed inside the mantle for two billion years."

Planet found that defies the laws of physics - exoplanet WASP-18b (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg246#msg246) - "This is another bizarre planet discovery"

Saturns flat rings? No, they have "ripples" miles high! (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg269#msg269) - "We thought the plane of the rings was no taller than two stories of a modern-day building and instead we've come across walls more than two miles high," ... "Isn't that the most outrageous thing you could imagine? It truly is like something out of science fiction."

Water on the moon? Computer and the man from Del Monte they say YES. We say NOOO (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg289#msg289) - "The first reaction that I think all of us had was, this is ridiculous,"

Maelstrom of magnetism - Surprising Mercury - "Magnetic" circuit and exosphere (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg306#msg306) - "One of the biggest surprises was how...."

Surprise! Its an electric universe! Sorry, we mean a magnetic universe... (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg340#msg340) - "This is a shocking new result...We had no idea this ribbon existed--or what has created it."

The Great Wall, Great Attractor and surprising Dark Flow (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg358#msg358) - "We never expected to find anything like this"

Dark Flow - the end of the Gravity Universe? (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg359#msg359) - "It was greatly surprising to us and I suspect to everyone else"

Mystery of the Solar Tsunami -- Solved (?) (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg373#msg373) - they doubted their senses. The scale of the wave was staggering:...Skeptical observers suggested it might be a shadow of some kind—a trick of the satellite's eye—but surely not a real wave.

Stars brightness vary (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg438#msg438) - "but instead of backing up any of the existing ideas for why these stars see additional fluctuations, the observations contradicted all of them...So with this new data, astronomers will have to go back to the drawing board to come up with an explanation."

Earths atmosphere not from Volcanoes (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg463#msg463) - "We will now have to redraw this picture"

The surprising Northern Lights Show (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg544#msg544) - "Our jaws dropped when we saw the movies for the first time...It was like nothing I had seen before," Lyons recalls.


A good theory predicts...

If science and astronomy is so correct and proved by its predictions then why are they always so surprised. By virtually everything they find.

Everytime you read a report on something new discovered take note of the words, surprised, amazed, unexpected and the classic "this surprising result means we are going to have to go back to the drawing board".

The only real test of a good theory is that it proves the predictions, especially long term.  Space scientists make a prediction and then constantly change it until it is virtually unrecognisable.

Quote
""This backs up our prediction that the water is found in the jet from the supermassive black hole, rather than the rotating disc of gas that surrounds it." European Week of Astronomy and Space Science meeting (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8012501.stm)

Was not the whole point of a Black Hole that it did not let anything out? So if it's not a Black Hole then what is it? When was this prediction made that water came from the jets coming out of a Black Hole. When was a jet spurting out of a Black Hole ever predicted?

Does any of astronomy and science reflect the nature around you? Is it really that complicated? Would the Universe really create a different set of rules for every single thing in it? Would the Universe create 95-99% Dark Matter and Dark Energy that can not be seen or measured but is there?

Title: Surprised science - water water everywhere - even in Mercury exosphere
Post by: electrobleme on August 04, 2009, 07:30:57
"Nobody expected that.  I don't know a single person that did.  We were astonished, just astonished"

Quote
As MESSENGER flew past the night side of Mercury in January, ...scooped up ions from an atmosphere so tenuous that it's usually called an "exosphere."  ... but to the science team's great surprise there was also water present, and in large amounts.  "Nobody expected that.  I don't know a single person that did.  We were astonished, just astonished," said MESSENGER science team member Thomas Zurbuchen.

At the same briefing, scientists announced the answer to the three-decade-old question of whether volcanism was important in shaping Mercury's surface as it has been for the Moon by showing visual evidence for volcanic constructs.

They also reaffirmed their earlier conclusion that Mercury has a liquid core whose motions drive a dipolar magnetic field and whose slow solidification results in surface faulting as a the whole planet shrinks.  All these results came from just one flyby encounter; there are two further flybys and MESSENGER's full orbital mission yet to come.
planetary .org/news "MESSENGER Scientists Astonished" (http://www.planetary.org/news/2008/0703_MESSENGER_Scientists_Astonished_to.html)



Title: Surprised science - Mid-ocean Gakkel Ridge - plate tectonics?
Post by: electrobleme on September 07, 2009, 02:14:32

"I just about fell off my chair"..."it was surprising to find rocks that had not been remixed inside the mantle for two billion years."

Quote
The mantle, the rock layer that comprises about 70 percent of the Earth's mass, sits several miles below the planet's surface. Mid-ocean ridges like Gakkel, where mantle rock is slowly pushing upward to form new volcanic crust as the tectonic plates slowly move apart, is one place geologists look for clues about the mantle. Gakkel Ridge is unique because it features -- at some locations -- the least volcanic activity and most mantle exposure ever discovered on a mid-ocean ridge, allowing Snow and his colleagues to recover many mantle samples.

"I just about fell off my chair," Snow said. "We can't exaggerate how important these rocks are - they're a window into that deep part of the Earth."

...mantle rocks devoid of sea floor alteration. Analysis of the isotopes of osmium, a noble metal rarer than platinum within the mantle rocks, indicated they were two billion years old...

Since the mantle is slowly moving and churning within the Earth, geologists believe the mantle is a layer of well-mixed rock. Fresh mantle rock wells up at mid-ocean ridges to create new crust. As the tectonic plates move, this crust slowly makes its way to a subduction zone, a plate boundary where one plate slides underneath another and the crust is pushed back into the mantle from which it came.

Because this process takes about 200 million years, it was surprising to find rocks that had not been remixed inside the mantle for two billion years. The discovery of the rocks suggests the mantle is not as well-mixed or homogenous as geologists previously believed, revealing that the Earth's mantle preserves an older and more complex geologic history than previously thought.
Journey To The Center Of The Earth: Discovery Sheds Light On Mantle Formation - Science Daily .com (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=110.msg212#msg212)
Title: Planet found that defies the laws of physics - exoplanet WASP-18b
Post by: electrobleme on September 11, 2009, 00:55:04
Surprising super planet to close to its sun - "This is another bizarre planet discovery"

Quote
It's the planet that really shouldn't exist – or at least not for long. It is 10 times the size of Jupiter, orbits its own star in under 24 hours and should soon be spiralling into the surface of its searingly-hot sun.

Under the laws of physics, planet WASP-18b orbiting a star 1,000 light years from Earth is too big and too close to its sun for comfort. The tidal interactions between the two massive objects should be pulling them together in a deadly gravitational embrace.

British astronomers say they have made a highly unusual planetary discovery in finding WASP-18b. Either they just happened to have witnessed an exceptionally rare event that they have likened to winning the lottery, or they do not understand the tidal forces affecting distant planets beyond our own solar system.

"The problem with this planet is that it's very massive and very close to its star. It should be creating tidal bulging that makes it spiral into its star," said Professor Andrew Collier Cameron of St Andrew's University.

The planet is at least one billion years old, yet at this rate it should have no more than half a million years left before it crashes into its own star. The chances of finding it at this point in its life cycle is about 1 in 2,000.

Professor Cameron said: "This is another bizarre planet discovery. The situation is analogous to the way tidal friction is gradually causing the Earth's spin to slow down, and the Moon to spiral away from the Earth," he said. "In this case, however, the spin of the star is slower than the orbit of the planet, so the star should be spinning up, and the planet spiralling in," he said.

WASP-18b, one of more than 300 known "exoplanets" orbiting distant stars, was discovered by a team led by Coel Hellier of Keele University, whose study is published in the journal Nature.

It is a hot, Jupiter-like planet where temperatures exceed 2,100C – high enough to create clouds of silica-based gems, according to Professor Cameron. If anyone could visit this planet, and survive, they might see a sky full of diamonds and sapphires, he said.
WASP-18b -
Planet found that defies the laws of physics (http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/planet-found-that-defies-the-laws-of-physics-1777738.html)
Title: Saturns flat rings? No, they have "ripples" miles high!
Post by: electrobleme on September 22, 2009, 03:35:46
"We thought the plane of the rings was no taller than two stories of a modern-day building and instead we've come across walls more than two miles high," ... "Isn't that the most outrageous thing you could imagine? It truly is like something out of science fiction."

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/saturns-rings-equinoxes-cassini-satellite.jpg)
Quote
NASA scientists are marveling over the extent of ruffles and dust clouds revealed in the rings of Saturn during the planet's equinox last month. Scientists once thought the rings were almost completely flat, but new images reveal the heights of some newly discovered bumps in the rings are as high as the Rocky Mountains. NASA released the images Monday....

"The biggest surprise was to see so many places of vertical relief above and below the otherwise paper-thin rings," said Linda Spilker, deputy project scientist at JPL. "To understand what we are seeing will take more time, but the images and data will help develop a more complete understanding of how old the rings might be and how they are evolving."

The chunks of ice that make up the main rings spread out 85,000 miles from the center of Saturn, but they had been thought to be only around 30 feet thick in the main rings, known as A, B, C, and D.

In the new images, particles seemed to pile up in vertical formations in each of the rings. Rippling corrugations -- previously seen by Cassini to extend approximately 500 miles in the innermost D ring -- appear to undulate out to a total of 11,000 miles through the neighboring C ring to the B ring.

The heights of some of the newly discovered bumps are comparable to the elevations of the Rocky Mountains. One ridge of icy ring particles, whipped up by the gravitational pull of Saturn's moon Daphnis as it travels through the plane of the rings, looms as high as 2.5 miles. It is the tallest vertical wall seen within the rings.

"We thought the plane of the rings was no taller than two stories of a modern-day building and instead we've come across walls more than two miles high," said Carolyn Porco, Cassini imaging team leader at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo. "Isn't that the most outrageous thing you could imagine? It truly is like something out of science fiction."
Cassini Reveals New Ring Quirks, Shadows During Saturn Equinox  - NASA (http://godark.us/tu166680)

Saturn's moon Daphnis is 5 miles across but seems to have a large gravity pull. Or could it be Electrical Universe activity?

Now that they had not predicted these walls, or even clumpy stuff in the rings, they will be able to carry on using their models to increase our understanding of the rings.

Quote
"The biggest surprise was to see so many places of vertical relief above and below the otherwise paper-thin rings," said Linda Spilker, deputy project scientist at JPL. "To understand what we are seeing will take more time, but the images and data will help develop a more complete understanding of how old the rings might be and how they are evolving."


Scientists also were intrigued by bright streaks in two different rings that appear to be clouds of dust kicked up in collisions between small space debris and ring particles. Understanding the rate and locations of impacts will help build better models of contamination and erosion in the rings and refine estimates of their age.



Surprised science - clumpy Saturns Rings and gaps in Saturns Ring system

Quote
Saturn’s largest, most compact ring consists of tightly packed clumps of particles separated by nearly empty gaps, according to new findings from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft.

“We originally thought we would see a uniform cloud of particles,”....Instead we find that the particles are clumped together with empty spaces in between."

Because previous interpretations assumed the ring particles were distributed uniformly, scientists underestimated the total mass of Saturn’s rings, researchers said: the mass may actually be two or more times previous estimates.

“These results will help us understand the overall question of the age and hence the origin of Saturn’s rings”
Saturn rings found clumpier, heavier than thought (http://www.world-science.net/othernews/070523_saturn.htm)

All weights/mass in space are calculated using math theories which are built on other theories use support another theory... If something is wrong along the line then the mass/weight of everything could be wrong.

Title: Water on the moon? Computer and the man from Del Monte they say YES. We say NOOO
Post by: electrobleme on September 26, 2009, 03:52:59
Water on the? Computer says YESSSS! Scientits say no you Fucking Stupid Universe

Quote
Water and hydroxyl are related molecular species and have similar spectroscopic signatures—the wavelengths characteristic of each reside nearby in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The three-micron absorption band indicative of water appeared broadly across the lunar surface in spectrometric data taken by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), an instrument that circled the moon aboard India's Chandrayaan 1 spacecraft until the orbiter's mission ended prematurely last month.

At first, the instrument's minders were confounded, figuring that something on M3 had gone awry. "The first reaction that I think all of us had was, this is ridiculous," says Carle Pieters, a planetary scientist at Brown University and principal investigator for M3. The team was finding evidence for water not in permanently shadowed craters but on the sunlit portions of the moon, which just did not add up.

"We spent months going through our data, trying to find what went wrong," she recalls. "What is it that gives us this signature that we can't get rid of?" Unable to troubleshoot the odd result, Pieters's group turned to a second, and then a third, independent observation.

Roger Clark, a U.S. Geological Survey spectroscopist on the M3 team, reanalyzed archival data from the Cassini spacecraft, now exploring Saturn and its satellites, taken during a 1999 flyby of the moon. The Cassini data agreed with the finding that water appears to be widespread across the lunar surface.  
Stream of Evidence from 3 Spacecraft Indicates That the Moon Has Water (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=140.msg280#msg280)

Overwhelming evidence not just found 10 years before (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=140.msg278#msg278) but a paper was written on it that could not get through the peer review and be publicised.
Title: Maelstrom of magnetism - Surprising Mercury - "Magnetic" circuit and exosphere
Post by: electrobleme on October 03, 2009, 16:05:01

Maelstrom of magnetism with Magnetic Mercury and its Magnetic circuits

(http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/thumbs/lrg-1318-mercury-magnetic-electrical-circuit-space-weather-diagram.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/index.php?level=picture&id=1319)
Mercurys magnetic circuit and magnetic stuff

Magnetopause current...plasmoid...flux rope..flux transfer events...spluttering...

At least any article on it will mention that magnetism is not the creator but a secondary effect...

Quote
WASHINGTON -- A NASA spacecraft gliding over the surface of Mercury has revealed that the planet's atmosphere, the interaction of its surrounding magnetic field with the solar wind, and its geological past display greater levels of activity than scientists first suspected...

"This second Mercury flyby provided a number of new findings," said Sean Solomon, the probe's principal investigator from the Carnegie Institution of Washington. "One of the biggest surprises was how strongly the dynamics of the planet's magnetic field–solar wind interaction changed from what we saw during the first Mercury flyby in January 2008...

The variability that the spacecraft observed in Mercury's magnetosphere, the volume of space dominated by the planet's magnetic field, so far supports the hypothesis that the great day-to-day changes in Mercury's atmosphere may be a result of changes in the shielding provided by the magnetosphere.

"The spacecraft observed a radically different magnetosphere at Mercury during its second flyby compared with its earlier Jan. 14 encounter," said James Slavin from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Slavin is a mission co-investigator and lead author of one of the papers. "During the first flyby, important discoveries were made, but scientists didn't detect any dynamic features. The second flyby witnessed a totally different situation."
MESSENGER Spacecraft Reveals a Very Dynamic Planet Mercury  - nasa .gov (http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2009/apr/HQ_09_092_Messenger_flyby_results.html)


(http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/thumbs/lrg-1320-space-weather-on-mercury-article-screenshot.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/index.php?level=picture&id=1320)
spaceweather.com front page article on Mercurys magnetic circuit and space weather

Maelstrom of magnetism...magnetic field...magnetic tornadoes...twisted bundles of magnetic fields...magnetic twisters....explosive magnetic reconnections...solar wind magnetic field boundary...

Scientists will be continually surprises about Mercury, its exosphere and especially its magnetic field


Mercury has an atmosphere?

Water in Mercurys atmosphere was surprising? (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=94.msg152#msg152)

Quote
The spacecraft also made the first detection of magnesium in Mercury's thin atmosphere, known as an exosphere. This observation and other data confirm that magnesium is an important constituent of Mercury's surface materials.

The probe's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer instrument detected the magnesium. Finding magnesium was not surprising to scientists, but seeing it in the amounts and distribution observed was unexpected. The instrument also measured other exospheric constituents, including calcium and sodium.

The variability that the spacecraft observed in Mercury's magnetosphere, the volume of space dominated by the planet's magnetic field, so far supports the hypothesis that the great day-to-day changes in Mercury's atmosphere may be a result of changes in the shielding provided by the magnetosphere.

MESSENGER Spacecraft Reveals a Very Dynamic Planet Mercury  - nasa .gov (http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2009/apr/HQ_09_092_Messenger_flyby_results.html)


Are the changes due to the magnetosphere or are they the magnetosphere?


Title: Surprise! Its an electric universe! Sorry, we mean a magnetic universe...
Post by: electrobleme on October 17, 2009, 02:10:57

"This is a shocking new result...We had no idea this ribbon existed--or what has created it. Our previous ideas about the outer heliosphere are going to have to be revised

Quote

"This is a shocking new result," says IBEX principal investigator Dave McComas of the Southwest Research Institute. "We had no idea this ribbon existed--or what has created it. Our previous ideas about the outer heliosphere are going to have to be revised."

NASA - Giant Ribbon Discovered at the Edge of the Solar System (http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2009/15oct_ibex.htm?list185832)



Quote


Giant Ribbon Discovered at the Edge of the Solar System
   10.15.2009

October 15, 2009: For years, researchers have known that the solar system is surrounded by a vast bubble of magnetism. Called the "heliosphere," it springs from the sun and extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto, providing a first line of defense against cosmic rays and interstellar clouds that try to enter our local space. Although the heliosphere is huge and literally fills the sky, it emits no light and no one has actually seen it.

Until now.

NASA's IBEX (Interstellar Boundary Explorer) spacecraft has made the first all-sky maps of the heliosphere and the results have taken researchers by surprise. The maps are bisected by a bright, winding ribbon of unknown origin:

Above: IBEX's all-sky map of energetic neutral atom emission reveals a bright filament of unknown origin. V1 and V2 indicate the positions of the Voyager spacecraft. [more]

"This is a shocking new result," says IBEX principal investigator Dave McComas of the Southwest Research Institute. "We had no idea this ribbon existed--or what has created it. Our previous ideas about the outer heliosphere are going to have to be revised."


Although the ribbon looks bright in the IBEX map, it does not glow in any conventional sense. The ribbon is not a source of light, but rather a source of particles--energetic neutral atoms or ENAs. IBEX's sensors can detect these particles, which are produced in the outer heliosphere where the solar wind begins to slow down and mix with interstellar matter from outside the solar system.

"This ribbon winds between the two Voyager spacecraft and was not observed by either of them," notes Eric Christian, IBEX deputy mission scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "It's like having two weather stations, but missing the big storm that runs between them."

Unlike the Voyager spacecraft, which have spent decades traveling to the edge of the solar system for in situ sampling, IBEX stayed closer to home. It is in Earth orbit, spinning around and collecting ENAs from all directions. This gives IBEX the unique "big picture" view necessary to discover something as vast as the ribbon.

The ribbon also has fine structure--small filaments of ENA emission no more than a few degrees wide: image. The fine structure is as much of a mystery as the ribbon itself, researchers say.

One important clue: The ribbon runs perpendicular to the direction of the galactic magnetic field just outside the heliosphere, as shown in the illustration at right.

"That cannot be a coincidence," says McComas. But what does it mean? No one knows. "We're missing some fundamental aspect of the interaction between the heliosphere and the rest of the galaxy. Theorists are working like crazy to figure this out."

Understanding the physics of the outer heliosphere is important because of the role it plays in shielding the solar system against cosmic rays. The heliosphere's size and shape are key factors in determining its shielding power and, thus, how many cosmic rays reach Earth. For the first time, IBEX is revealing how the heliosphere might respond when it bumps into interstellar clouds and galactic magnetic fields.

"IBEX is now making a second all-sky map, and we're eager to see if the ribbon is changing," says McComas. "Watching the ribbon evolve--if it is evolving--could yield more clues."

Stay tuned for updates.

NASA - Giant Ribbon Discovered at the Edge of the Solar System (http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2009/15oct_ibex.htm?list185832)

A good theory predicts and our standard theories didnt predict this and dont predict most things.

So they will revise the standard theory that did not predict this and use that as the new theory? Genius. And your tax $$s are paying for this mathematical wet dream and gravy train. Your tax money that you have got up on a Monday morning to work towards paying will fund this new research into the revised ideas. Now that is Genius.


So what 2 things are perpendicular to each, one is magnetic fields and the other is? No, cant work it out but it is an important clue.

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/magnetic_or_electric_universe.gif)


Quote
Scientists have known since the early part of the 19th century that electrical fields and magnetic fields are intimately related to each other and applications of this connection are found all around you. Moving electric charge (electric current) creates a magnetic field...

A changing magnetic field creates electrical current---an electric field...James Clerk Maxwell (lived 1831--1879) put these ideas together and proposed that if a changing magnetic field can make an electric field, then a changing electric field (from an oscillating electric charge, for example) should make a magnetic field. A consequence of this is that changing electric and magnetic fields should trigger each other and these changing fields should move at a speed equal to the speed of light. To conclude this line of reasoning, Maxwell said that light is an electromagnetic wave. Later experiments confirmed Maxwells's theory.

Electric and magnetic fields oscillate together but perpendicular to each other and the electromagnetic wave moves in a direction perpendicular to both of the fields.
Electric and Magnetic Fields - astronomynotes .com (http://www.astronomynotes.com/light/s2.htm)



Quote
Giant Ribbon Discovered at the Edge of the Solar System

One important clue: The ribbon runs perpendicular to the direction of the galactic magnetic field just outside the heliosphere, as shown in the illustration at right.

"That cannot be a coincidence," says McComas. But what does it mean? No one knows. "We're missing some fundamental aspect of the interaction between the heliosphere and the rest of the galaxy. Theorists are working like crazy to figure this out."

Stay tuned for updates.

NASA - Giant Ribbon Discovered at the Edge of the Solar System (http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2009/15oct_ibex.htm?list185832)

So you know the ribbon runs perpendicular to the direction of the galactic magnetic field , thats an important clue and cannot be a coincidence but what could cause the ribbon. What could cause a magnetic field perpendicular to it?

Quote
Giant Ribbon Discovered at the Edge of the Solar System

But what does it mean? No one knows. "We're missing some fundamental aspect of the interaction between the heliosphere and the rest of the galaxy. Theorists are working like crazy to figure this out."

Stay tuned for updates.

NASA - Giant Ribbon Discovered at the Edge of the Solar System (http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2009/15oct_ibex.htm?list185832)


Spacecraft Detects Mysterious "Ribbon" at Edge of Solar System

Quote
Spacecraft Detects Mysterious "Ribbon" at Edge of Solar System
October 15th, 2009

Since it launched a year ago, the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has been monitoring heliosphere and how our Sun interacts with and the local interstellar medium — the gas and dust trapped in the vacuum of space. The first results from the mission, combined with data from the Cassini mission, are showing the heliosphere to be different from what researchers have previously thought. Data show an unexpected bright band or ribbon of surprisingly high-energy emissions. "We knew there would be energetic neutral atoms coming in from the very edge of the heliosphere, and our theories said there would be small variations in their emissions," said David McComas, IBEX Principal Investigator at a press conference on Thursday. "But instead we are seeing two-to-three hundred percent variations, and this is not entirely understood. Whatever we thought about this before is definitely not right."

The energies IBEX has observed range from 0.2 to 6.0 kiloelectron volts, and the scientists said its flux is two to three times greater than the ENA activity throughout the rest of the heliosphere. McComas and his colleagues said that no existing model can explain all the dominant features of this “ribbon.” Instead, they suggest that these new findings will prompt a change in our understanding of the heliosphere and the processes that shape it.

McComas suggested that the energetic neutral atom (ENA) ribbon could be caused by interactions between the heliosphere and the local interstellar magnetic field. "The local interstellar magnetic field is oriented in such a way that it correlates with the ribbon. If you 'paint' the ribbon on the boundary of the heliosphere, the magnetic field is like big bungie cords that pushing in along the sides and at southern part of the heliosphere. Somehow the magnetic field seems to be playing a dominant roll in these interactions, but we don't know it could produced these higher fluxes. We have to figure out what physics were are missing."

The solar wind streaks away from the sun in all directions at over a millions kilometers per hour. It creates a bubble in space around our solar system.

For the first ten billion kilometers of its radius, the solar wind travels at over a million kilometers per hour. It slows as it begins to collide with the interstellar medium, and the point where the solar wind slows down is the termination shock; the point where the interstellar medium and solar wind pressures balance is called the heliopause; the point where the interstellar medium, traveling in the opposite direction, slows down as it collides with the heliosphere is the bow shock.

The Voyager spacecraft have explored this region, but didn't detect the ribbon. Team member Eric Christian said the ribbon wound in between the location of Voyager 1 and 2, and they couldn't detect it in their immediate areas. Voyager 1 spacecraft encountered the helioshock in 2004 when it reached the region where the charged particles streaming off the sun hit the neutral gas from interstellar space. Voyager 2 followed into the solar system's edge in 2007. While these spacecraft made the first explorations of this region, IBEX is now revealing a a more complete picture, filling in where the Voyagers couldn't. Christian compared Voyager 1 and 2 to be like weather stations while IBEX is first weather satellite to provide more complete coverage.

McComas said his first reaction when the data started coming in was that of terror because he thought something must be wrong with the spacecraft. But as more data kept coming back each week, the team realized that they were wrong, and the spacecraft was right.

"Our next steps will be to go through all the detailed observations and rack them up against the various models and go find what it is that we are missing, what we’ve been leaving out," he said.
Spacecraft Detects Mysterious "Ribbon" at Edge of Solar System - universetoday .com (http://www.universetoday.com/2009/10/15/spacecraft-detects-mysterious-ribbon-at-edge-of-solar-system/)

Spacecraft Detects Mysterious "Ribbon" at Edge of Solar System

Quote
Spacecraft Detects Mysterious "Ribbon" at Edge of Solar System
October 15th, 2009

...The first results from the mission, combined with data from the Cassini mission, are showing the heliosphere to be different from what researchers have previously thought. Data show an unexpected bright band or ribbon of surprisingly high-energy emissions. "We knew there would be energetic neutral atoms coming in from the very edge of the heliosphere, and our theories said there would be small variations in their emissions," said David McComas, IBEX Principal Investigator at a press conference on Thursday. "But instead we are seeing two-to-three hundred percent variations, and this is not entirely understood. Whatever we thought about this before is definitely not right."

...McComas and his colleagues said that no existing model can explain all the dominant features of this “ribbon.” Instead, they suggest that these new findings will prompt a change in our understanding of the heliosphere and the processes that shape it.

...Somehow the magnetic field seems to be playing a dominant roll in these interactions, but we don't know it could produced these higher fluxes. We have to figure out what physics were are missing."

McComas said his first reaction when the data started coming in was that of terror because he thought something must be wrong with the spacecraft. But as more data kept coming back each week, the team realized that they were wrong, and the spacecraft was right.

"Our next steps will be to go through all the detailed observations and rack them up against the various models and go find what it is that we are missing, what we’ve been leaving out," he said.
Spacecraft Detects Mysterious "Ribbon" at Edge of Solar System - universetoday .com (http://www.universetoday.com/2009/10/15/spacecraft-detects-mysterious-ribbon-at-edge-of-solar-system/)




Title: The Great Wall, Great Attractor and surprising Dark Flow
Post by: electrobleme on November 03, 2009, 19:22:47

"We never expected to find anything like this"


Quote
WASHINGTON -- Using data from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), scientists have identified an unexpected motion in distant galaxy clusters. The cause, they suggest, is the gravitational attraction of matter that lies beyond the observable universe.

"The clusters show a small but measurable velocity that is independent of the universe's expansion and does not change as distances increase," says lead researcher Alexander Kashlinsky at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "We never expected to find anything like this."

Kashlinsky calls this collective motion a "dark flow" in the vein of more familiar cosmological mysteries: dark energy and dark matter. "The distribution of matter in the observed universe cannot account for this motion," he says.

Hot X-ray-emitting gas in a galaxy cluster scatters photons from the cosmic microwave background. Clusters don't precisely follow the expansion of space, so the wavelengths of scattered photons change in a way that reflects each cluster's individual motion.

This results in a minute shift of the microwave background's temperature in the cluster's direction. Astronomers refer to this change as the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect.

A related distortion, known as the thermal SZ effect, has been observed in galaxy clusters since the 1980s. But the kinematic version is less than one-tenth as strong and has not been detected in any cluster.

In 2000, Kashlinsky and Fernando Atrio-Barandela from the University of Salamanca, Spain, showed that astronomers could, in essence, amplify the effect isolating the kinematic SZ term. The trick, they found, is to study large numbers of clusters.

The astronomers teamed up with Dale Kocevski at the University of California, Davis, and Harald Ebeling from the University of Hawaii to identify some 700 X-ray clusters that could be used to find the subtle spectral shift. This sample includes objects up to 6 billion light-years -- or nearly half of the observable universe -- away.

Using the cluster catalog and WMAP's three-year view of the microwave background, the astronomers detected bulk cluster motions of nearly 2 million miles per hour. The clusters are heading toward a 20-degree patch of sky between the constellations of Centaurus and Vela.

What's more, this motion is constant out to at least a billion light-years. "Because the dark flow already extends so far, it likely extends across the visible universe," Kashlinsky says.

The finding flies in the face of predictions from standard cosmological models, which describe such motions as decreasing at ever greater distances.

Cosmologists view the microwave background - a flash of light emitted 380,000 years after the big bang - as the universe's ultimate reference frame. Relative to it, all large-scale motion should show no preferred direction.

Big-bang models that include a feature called inflation offer a possible explanation for the flow. Inflation is a brief hyper-expansion early in the universe's history. If inflation did occur, then the universe we can see is only a small portion of the whole cosmos.

WMAP data released in 2006 support the idea that our universe experienced inflation. Kashlinsky and his team suggest that their clusters are responding to the gravitational attraction of matter that was pushed far beyond the observable universe by inflation. "This measurement may give us a way to explore the state of the cosmos before inflation occurred," he says.

The next step is to narrow down uncertainties in the measurements. "We need a more accurate accounting of how the million-degree gas in these galaxy clusters is distributed," says Atrio-Barandela.

"We’re assembling an even larger and deeper catalog of X-ray clusters to better measure the flow," Ebeling adds. The researchers also plan to extend their analysis by using the latest WMAP results, released in March.
Scientists Detect Cosmic 'Dark Flow' Across Billions of Light Years - NASA (http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2008/dark_flow.html)
Title: Dark Flow - the end of the Gravity Universe?
Post by: electrobleme on November 03, 2009, 19:31:05
"It was greatly surprising to us and I suspect to everyone else"

Quote
Mysterious New 'Dark Flow' Discovered in Space

As if the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy weren't vexing enough, another baffling cosmic puzzle has been discovered.

Patches of matter in the universe seem to be moving at very high speeds and in a uniform direction that can't be explained by any of the known gravitational forces in the observable universe. Astronomers are calling the phenomenon "dark flow."

The stuff that's pulling this matter must be outside the observable universe, researchers conclude.

When scientists talk about the observable universe, they don't just mean as far out as the eye, or even the most powerful telescope, can see. In fact there's a fundamental limit to how much of the universe we could ever observe, no matter how advanced our visual instruments. The universe is thought to have formed about 13.7 billion years ago. So even if light started travelling toward us immediately after the Big Bang, the farthest it could ever get is 13.7 billion light-years in distance. There may be parts of the universe that are farther away (we can't know how big the whole universe is), but we can't see farther than light could travel over the entire age of the universe.

Mysterious motions

Scientists discovered the flow by studying some of the largest structures in the cosmos: giant clusters of galaxies. These clusters are conglomerations of about a thousand galaxies, as well as very hot gas which emits X-rays. By observing the interaction of the X-rays with the cosmic microwave background (CMB), which is leftover radiation from the Big Bang, scientists can study the movement of clusters.

The X-rays scatter photons in the CMB, shifting its temperature in an effect known as the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. This effect had not been observed as a result of galaxy clusters before, but a team of researchers led by Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., found it when they studied a huge catalogue of 700 clusters, reaching out up to 6 billion light-years, or half the universe away. They compared this catalogue to the map of the CMB taken by NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite.

They discovered that the clusters were moving nearly 2 million mph (3.2 million kph) toward a region in the sky between the constellations of Centaurus and Vela. This motion is different from the outward expansion of the universe (which is accelerated by the force called dark energy).

"We found a very significant velocity, and furthermore, this velocity does not decrease with distance, as far as we can measure," Kashlinsky told SPACE.com. "The matter in the observable universe just cannot produce the flow we measure."

Inflationary bubble

The scientists deduced that whatever is driving the movements of the clusters must lie beyond the known universe.

A theory called inflation posits that the universe we see is just a small bubble of space-time that got rapidly expanded after the Big Bang. There could be other parts of the cosmos beyond this bubble that we cannot see.

In these regions, space-time might be very different, and likely doesn't contain stars and galaxies (which only formed because of the particular density pattern of mass in our bubble). It could include giant, massive structures much larger than anything in our own observable universe. These structures are what researchers suspect are tugging on the galaxy clusters, causing the dark flow.

"The structures responsible for this motion have been pushed so far away by inflation, I would guesstimate they may be hundreds of billions of light years away, that we cannot see even with the deepest telescopes because the light emitted there could not have reached us in the age of the universe," Kashlinsky said in a telephone interview. "Most likely to create such a coherent flow they would have to be some very strange structures, maybe some warped space time. But this is just pure speculation."

Surprising find

Though inflation theory forecasts many odd facets of the distant universe, not many scientists predicted the dark flow.

"It was greatly surprising to us and I suspect to everyone else," Kashlinsky said. "For some particular models of inflation you would expect these kinds of structures, and there were some suggestions in the literature that were not taken seriously I think until now."

The discovery could help scientists probe what happened to the universe before inflation, and what's going on in those inaccessible realms we cannot see.
Mysterious New 'Dark Flow' Discovered in Space - space .com (http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/080923-dark-flows.html)
Title: Mystery of the Solar Tsunami -- Solved (?????)
Post by: electrobleme on November 20, 2009, 18:39:28

they doubted their senses. The scale of the wave was staggering

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/solar-tsunamis-fast-mode-magnetohydrodynamical-wave-mhd-banner.jpg) (http://www.electricyouniverse.com/eye/index.php?level=picture&id=1517)

What has been solved?


Quote
PhysOrg.com) -- Sometimes you really can believe your eyes. That's what NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is telling researchers about a controversial phenomenon on the sun known as the "solar tsunami."

Years ago, when solar physicists first witnessed a towering wave of hot plasma racing across the sun's surface, they doubted their senses. The scale of the wave was staggering: It rose up higher than Earth itself and rippled out from a central point in a circular pattern millions of kilometers in circumference. Skeptical observers suggested it might be a shadow of some kind—a trick of the satellite's eye—but surely not a real wave.

"Now we know," says Joe Gurman of the Solar Physics Laboratory at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "Solar tsunamis are real."

The twin STEREO spacecraft confirmed their reality in February 2009 when sunspot 11012 unexpectedly erupted. The blast hurled a billion-ton cloud of gas (a coronal mass ejection, or CME) into space and sent a tsunami racing along the sun's surface. STEREO recorded the wave from two positions separated by 90 degrees, giving researchers an unprecedented view of the event.

"It was definitely a wave," says Spiros Patsourakos of George Mason University, lead author of a paper reporting the finding in Astrophysical Journal Letters. "Not a wave of water, but a giant wave of hot plasma and magnetism."

The technical name is "fast-mode magnetohydrodynamical wave," or "MHD wave" for short. The one STEREO saw reared up about 100,000 kilometers high, raced outward at 250 km/second (560,000 mph), and packed as much energy as 2400 megatons of TNT (1029 ergs).

Solar tsunamis were discovered in 1997 by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). In May of that year, a CME came blasting up from an active region on the sun's surface, and SOHO recorded a tsunami rippling away from the blast site.

"We wondered," recalls Gurman, "is that a wave, or just a shadow of the CME overhead?"

SOHO's single point of view was not enough to answer the question—neither for that first wave nor for many similar events recorded by SOHO in years that followed.

The question remained open until after the launch of STEREO. At the time of the February 2009 eruption, STEREO-B was directly over the blast site, while STEREO-A was stationed at a right angle —"perfect geometry for cracking the mystery," says co-author Angelos Vourlidas of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C.

The physical reality of the waves has been further confirmed by movies of the waves crashing into things. "We've seen the waves reflected by sunspots," says Vourlidas. "And there is a wonderful movie of a solar prominence oscillating after it gets hit by a wave. We call it the 'dancing prominence.'"

Solar tsunamis pose no direct threat to Earth, but they are important to study. "We can use them to diagnose conditions on the sun," notes Gurman. "By watching how the waves propagate and bounce off things, we can gather information about the sun's lower atmosphere available in no other way."

"Tsunami waves can also improve our forecasting of space weather," adds Vourlidas, "Like a bull-eye, they 'mark the spot' where an eruption takes place. Pinpointing the blast site can help us anticipate when a CME or radiation storm will reach Earth."

And they're pretty entertaining, too. "The movies," he says, "are out of this world."
Mystery of the Solar Tsunami -- Solved (http://www.physorg.com/news177872248.html)

Title: Stars brightness varies - destroys all theories - back to the old drawing board
Post by: electrobleme on December 08, 2009, 20:49:23

Variations in stars brightness - destroys all standard theories

Quote
Mystery of Changing Star Brightness Deepens

Unusual fluctuations in the brightness of older sun-like stars have long mystified astronomers, and new, detailed observations of the phenomenon have only deepened the mystery.

The new data, taken with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, contradict all of the explanations that astronomers have previously put forward to account for years-long variations seen in the brightness of one-third of sun-like stars that are in the later stages of their lives.

"We have obtained the most comprehensive set of observations to date for this class of sun-like stars, and they clearly show that all the possible explanations for their unusual behavior just fail," said study team member Christine Nicholls of Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia.

The mystery investigated by Nicholls and her team dates back to the 1930s and affects about a third of sun-like stars in our Milky Way and other galaxies. All stars with masses similar to our sun become, towards the end of their lives, red, cool and extremely large, just before retiring as white dwarfs.

Also known as red giants, these elderly stars exhibit very strong periodic variations in their luminosity over timescales up to a couple of years.

"Such variations are thought to be caused by what we call 'stellar pulsations,'" Nicholls explained. "Roughly speaking, the giant star swells and shrinks, becoming brighter and dimmer in a regular pattern. However, one third of these stars show an unexplained additional periodic variation, on even longer timescales — up to five years."

In order to find out the origin of this secondary feature, the astronomers monitored 58 stars in our galactic neighbor, the Large Magellanic Cloud, over two and a half years.

But instead of backing up any of the existing ideas for why these stars see additional fluctuations, the observations contradicted all of them.

"The newly gathered data show that pulsations are an extremely unlikely explanation for the additional variation," said team leader Peter Wood of Australia National University. "Another possible mechanism for producing luminosity variations in a star is to have the star itself move in a binary system. However, our observations are strongly incompatible with this hypothesis too."

The team found from further analysis that whatever the cause of these unexplained variations is, it also causes the giant stars to eject mass either in clumps or as an expanding disc.

So with this new data, astronomers will have to go back to the drawing board to come up with an explanation.

"A Sherlock Holmes is needed to solve this very frustrating mystery," Nicholls said.
Mystery of Changing Star Brightness Deepens  (http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/091207-sun-stars-brightness.html)

Title: Earths atmosphere not from Volcanoes - "We will now have to redraw this picture"
Post by: electrobleme on December 14, 2009, 05:17:48



Quote
Earth's Atmosphere Came from Outer Space, Scientists Find

The gases which formed the Earth's atmosphere -- and probably its oceans -- did not come from inside the Earth but from outer space, according to a study by University of Manchester and University of Houston scientists.

The report published in the journal Science means that textbook images of ancient Earth with huge volcanoes spewing gas into the atmosphere will have to be rethought.

According to the team, the age-old view that volcanoes were the source of the Earth's earliest atmosphere must be put to rest.

Using world-leading analytical techniques, the team of Dr Greg Holland, Dr Martin Cassidy and Professor Chris Ballentine tested volcanic gases to uncover the new evidence.

The research was funded by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

"We found a clear meteorite signature in volcanic gases," said Dr Greg Holland the project's lead scientist.

"From that we now know that the volcanic gases could not have contributed in any significant way to the Earth's atmosphere.

"Therefore the atmosphere and oceans must have come from somewhere else, possibly from a late bombardment of gas and water rich materials similar to comets.

"Until now, no one has had instruments capable of looking for these subtle signatures in samples from inside the Earth -- but now we can do exactly that."

The techniques enabled the team to measure tiny quantities of the unreactive volcanic trace gases Krypton and Xenon, which revealed an isotopic 'fingerprint' matching that of meteorites which is different from that of 'solar' gases.

The study is also the first to establish the precise composition of the Krypton present in the Earth's mantle.

Project director Prof Chris Ballentine of The University of Manchester, said: "Many people have seen artist's impressions of the primordial Earth with huge volcanoes in the background spewing gas to form the atmosphere.

"We will now have to redraw this picture."
Earth's Atmosphere Came from Outer Space, Scientists Find (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/12/091210153538.htm)
Title: The surprising Northern Lights show
Post by: electrobleme on December 29, 2009, 20:22:37
The surprising Northern Lights show


(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/colliding-auroras-northern-lights.gif)


Quote
A network of cameras deployed around the Arctic in support of NASA's THEMIS mission has made a startling discovery about the Northern Lights. Sometimes, vast curtains of aurora borealis collide, producing spectacular outbursts of light. Movies of the phenomenon were unveiled at the Fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union today in San Francisco.

"Our jaws dropped when we saw the movies for the first time," says space scientist Larry Lyons of UCLA, a leading member of the team that made the discovery. "These outbursts are telling us something very fundamental about the nature of auroras."

The collisions occur on such a vast scale, isolated observers on Earth with limited fields of view had never noticed them before. It took a network of sensitive cameras spread across thousands of miles to get the big picture.

..."It was like nothing I had seen before," Lyons recalls. "Over the next several days, we surveyed even more events. Our excitement mounted as we became convinced that the collisions were happening over and over."

The explosions of light, they believe, are a sign of something dramatic happening in the space around Earth—specifically, in Earth's "plasma tail."

...By examining many collisions, Lyons and Nishimura have identified a common sequence of events. It begins with two elements: (1) a broad curtain of slow-moving auroras and (2) a smaller knot of fast-moving auroras, initially far apart. The slow curtain is quietly glowing over the Arctic when the speedy knot rushes in from the north. The two auroras collide and an eruption of light ensues.

How does this sequence connect to events in the plasma tail?

"It took some creative thinking to come up with an answer, but I believe this team has done it," says THEMIS project scientist Dave Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight Center.

(to read more click here) Colliding Auroras Produce Explosions of Light - science.nasa .gov (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=131.msg542#msg542)
Title: hot companions - orbiting objects hotter than their host stars !!!
Post by: electrobleme on January 07, 2010, 15:16:52


hot companions - what the hell are they?

2 orbiting "objects" just discovered are hotter than the stars they orbit! What are they, how come they are so hot?  Will they be found to be very "magnetic" (its seems you can not have a magnetic field without a flow of current), will they be "gas giants" of a new type, will they have connections to the star (physical material and "magnetic"? More should be found and will some be hotter and smaller?

"The universe keeps making strange things stranger than we can think of in our imagination," said Jon Morse, head of astrophysics for NASA.


Quote
NASA's new planet-hunting telescope has found two mystery objects that are too hot to be planets and too small to be stars.

The Kepler Telescope, launched in March, discovered the two new heavenly bodies, each circling its own star. Telescope chief scientist Bill Borucki of NASA said the objects are thousands of degrees hotter than the stars they circle. That means they probably aren't planets. They are bigger and hotter than planets in our solar system, including dwarf planets.

"The universe keeps making strange things stranger than we can think of in our imagination," said Jon Morse, head of astrophysics for NASA.

The new discoveries don't quite fit into any definition of known astronomical objects, and so far don't have a classification of their own. Details about the mystery objects were presented Monday at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Washington.

For now, NASA researcher Jason Rowe, who found the objects, said he calls them "hot companions."

How hot? Try 26,000 degrees Fahrenheit. That's hot enough to melt lead or iron.

There are two leading theories for what the objects might be and those theories cover both ends of the cosmic life cycle:

Rowe suggests they are newly born planets. New planets have extremely high temperatures, and in this case Rowe speculates they might be only about 200 million years old.

Ronald Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute says they could be white dwarf stars that are dying and stripping off their outer shells and shrinking.
Planet-hunting telescope unearths hot mysteries (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/ap_on_sc/us_sci_space_mystery)
Title: The Mystery of the Fading Star in a Gravity Universe?
Post by: electrobleme on January 08, 2010, 15:34:50


The Mystery of the Fading Star in a Gravity Universe

Doe the dimming of this star every 27 years due to it being eclipsed by another object or is it part of the Electric Universe? Could the current power this Electric Star change or could it involve the dusty plasma associated with it?


Quote
Explanation: Every 27 years Epsilon Aurigae fades, remaining dim for roughly two years before growing bright again. Since the 19th century, astronomers have studied the mystery star, eventually arguing that Epsilon Aur, centered in this telescopic skyview, was actually undergoing a long eclipse by a dark companion object. But the nature of the companion and even the state of bright star itself could not be pinned down by observations.

Continuing to collect evidence, Citizen Sky, a team of professional and amateur astronomers, is studying the current eclipse of Epsilon Aur, reporting that it began in August 2009 and by late December had reached its deepest point. Epsilon Aur is now expected to remain dim for all of 2010, before rapidly regaining normal brightness in 2011.

Meanwhile, recent infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope supports a model for the enigmatic system that identifies Epsilon Aur as a large but lower mass star near the end of its life, periodically eclipsed by a single star embedded in a dusty disk. The disk is estimated to have a radius of about 4 AU, or 4 times the Earth-Sun distance, and to be about 0.5 AU thick.
Astronomy Picture of the Day 2010 January 8  (http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/)
Title: Sun's protective 'bubble' (heliosphere) is shrinking - Scientists are baffled...
Post by: electrobleme on January 08, 2010, 23:48:30

Sun's protective 'bubble' (heliosphere) is shrinking

An Electric Sun would be expected to have variations in its power output / resistance / current flowing in - it is after all a component in an electrical circuit in the universe. Stars vary in brightness in cycles also. What is so baffling and puzzling?


Quote
The protective bubble around the sun that helps to shield the Earth from harmful interstellar radiation is shrinking and getting weaker, Nasa scientists have warned.

New data has revealed that the heliosphere, the protective shield of energy that surrounds our solar system, has weakened by 25 per cent over the past decade and is now at it lowest level since the space race began 50 years ago.

Scientists are baffled at what could be causing the barrier to shrink in this way and are to launch mission to study the heliosphere.

The Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, will be launched from an aircraft on Sunday on a Pegasus rocket into an orbit 150,000 miles above the Earth where it will "listen" for the shock wave that forms as our solar system meets the interstellar radiation.

Dr Nathan Schwadron, co-investigator on the IBEX mission at Boston University, said: "The interstellar medium, which is part of the galaxy as a whole, is actually quite a harsh environment. There is a very high energy galactic radiation that is dangerous to living things.

"Around 90 per cent of the galactic cosmic radiation is deflected by our heliosphere, so the boundary protects us from this harsh galactic environment."

The heliosphere is created by the solar wind, a combination of electrically charged particles and magnetic fields that emanate a more than a million miles an hour from the sun, meet the intergalactic gas that fills the gaps in space between solar systems.

At the boundary where they meet a shock wave is formed that deflects interstellar radiation around the solar system as it travels through the galaxy.

The scientists hope the IBEX mission will allow them to gain a better understanding of what happens at this boundary and help them predict what protection it will offer in the future.

Without the heliosphere the harmful intergalactic cosmic radiation would make life on Earth almost impossible by destroying DNA and making the climate uninhabitable.

Measurements made by the Ulysses deep space probe, which was launched in 1990 to orbit the sun, have shown that the pressure created inside the heliosphere by the solar wind has been decreasing.

Dr David McComas, principal investigator on the IBEX mission, said: "It is a fascinating interaction that our sun has with the galaxy surrounding us. This million mile an hour wind inflates this protective bubble that keeps us safe from intergalactic cosmic rays.

"With less pressure on the inside, the interaction at the boundaries becomes weaker and the heliosphere as a whole gets smaller."

If the heliosphere continues to weaken, scientists fear that the amount of cosmic radiation reaching the inner parts of our solar system, including Earth, will increase.

This could result in growing levels of disruption to electrical equipment, damage satellites and potentially even harm life on Earth.

But Dr McComas added that it was still unclear exactly what would happen if the heliosphere continued to weaken or what even what the timescale for changes in the heliosphere are.

He said: “There is no imminent danger, but it is hard to know what the future holds. Certainly if the solar wind pressure was to continue to go down and the heliosphere were to almost evaporate then we would be in this sea of galactic cosmic rays. That could have some large effects.

“It is likely that there are natural variations in solar wind pressure and over time it will either stabilise or start going back up.”
Sun's protective 'bubble' (heliosphere) is shrinking - telegraph .co.uk (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/3222476/Suns-protective-bubble-is-shrinking.html)
Title: The Pioneer anomaly/effect - the end of the Gravity Universe?
Post by: electrobleme on January 11, 2010, 17:31:49
The Pioneer anomaly (the Pioneer effect) and the gravityVerse


(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/pioneer-anomaly-effect-10-11-satellites.jpg)
The Pioneer anomaly or Pioneer effect


The Pioneer anomaly or the Pioneer effect is the puzzling physical force acting on the Voyager probes as they have journeyed out towards the edge of our Solar System. The Pioneer anomaly is slowing the satellite probes Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 down, or, accelerating them towards the Sun. Does this show evidence for the Electric Sun model in that they are either being pulled back to the Sun or they are being pushed back by the flow of stuff in the Electroc Universe circuit involving our Sun?

Whatever it is just the fact of them slowing down as they get further away from the Gravity of the Sun is very puzzling to astronomers and scientists. So much of a puzzle that it questions our knowledge of the gravityVerse.

Quote
The Problem with Gravity: New Mission Would Probe Strange Puzzle

Imagine the weight of a nagging suspicion that what held your world together, a constant and consistent presence you had come to understand and rely on, wasn't what it seemed. That's how scientists feel when they ponder gravity these days.

For more than three centuries, the basics of gravity were pretty well understood.

Newton described the force as depending on an object's mass. Though it extends infinitely, gravity weakens with distance (specifically, by the inverse square of the distance). Einstein built on these givens in developing his theory of relativity.

Then more than a decade ago a researcher noticed something funny about two Pioneer spacecraft that were streaming toward the edge of the solar system. They weren't where they should have been.

Something was holding the probes back, according to calculations of their paths, speed and how the gravity of all the objects in the solar system -- and even a tiny push provided by sunlight -- ought to act on them.

Now scientists have proposed a new mission to figure out what's up with gravity.

Staggering possibilities

Pioneer 10 and 11 launched in 1972 and 1973. Today each is several billion miles away, heading in opposite directions out of the solar system.

The discrepancy caused by the anomaly amounts to about 248,500 miles (400,000 kilometers), or roughly the distance between Earth and the Moon. That's how much farther the probes should have traveled in their 34 years, if our understanding of gravity is correct. (The distance figure is an oversimplification of the actual measurements, but more on that in a moment.)

Scientists are quick to suggest the Pioneer anomaly, as they call it, is probably caused by the space probes themselves, perhaps emitting heat or gas. But the possibilities have been tested and modeled and penciled out, and so far they don't add up.

Which leaves open staggering possibilities that would force wholesale reprinting of all physics books:

    * Invisible dark matter is tugging at the probes
    * Other dimensions create small forces we don't understand
    * Gravity works differently than we think

Devoted to the problem

Slava Turyshev at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is one of a handful of scientists who wrestle mentally with the Pioneer anomaly every day. He is not paid to work specifically on the problem, so he has to juggle the disturbing thought with his regular research, which involves other aspects of gravity and, significantly, whether theories that explain the glue of the whole universe might one day match neatly with those describing the invisible, subatomic world.

"I have been working on [the Pioneer anomaly] for more than 11 years now, and was never funded to do this job," Turyshev tells SPACE.com. "I guess this says a lot about my devotion to solve this mystery."

Data from the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft suggest the anomaly may have affected them, too. But neither has been far enough from the Sun -- the dominant source of gravity in the solar system -- to firmly distinguish any possible discrepancy from noise in the data, Turyshev says. Galileo was crashed into Jupiter last year, and Ulysses will never go farther than it has.

That leaves two data points -- one from each Pioneer craft. Turyshev pointedly considers the pair as one data point, so as not to inflate the case for strange new physics. He looked at the two Voyager spacecraft, also exiting the solar system, but says their design involved "numerous attitude-control maneuvers" that "can overwhelm the signal of a small external acceleration."

NASA engineers have made their last communications with the Pioneer probes, so the two table-sized robots are carrying the unsolved mystery silently to the stars.

New mission proposed

The Pioneer anomaly was discovered by John Anderson, also of JPL, in the 1980s. For years he didn't publish what he'd noticed. Then he discussed it with physicist Michael Martin Nieto at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Nieto says he "almost fell off my chair."

Nieto jumped into the investigation, and the two were later joined by Turyshev. They dug deeper into the data, even tracking down retired NASA scientists for some of it.

Unraveling the enigma will require a new mission, the researchers say. NASA, however, doesn't have such a project on its agenda and has not expressed much interest in one. Europeans, for reasons both historic and having to do with a current strong desire to better grasp gravity, seem more interested in investigating the problem.

So Anderson's team recently proposed to the European Space Agency a "mission to explore the Pioneer anomaly" using the latest accelerometers and advanced navigation methods. All possible sources of onboard radiation would be eliminated in "the most precisely tracked spacecraft ever to go into deep space," the group writes in the September issue of Physics World magazine.

The idea has "very high chances" of being chosen for future study, Turyshev thinks. If funded, it could launch as early as 2015.

If the mission were to find a natural, cosmic cause to the Pioneer anomaly, the revelation would rank right up there with other apple-on-the-head moments in the history of physics.

"If the anomaly is due to some new physical mechanism, this discovery would have a truly fundamental impact," Turyshev said.

Exotic candidates

One candidate is dark matter. This unknown stuff seems to infuse the universe and, though invisible, has a collective gravitational impact greater than all known matter, including stars and planets. Dark matter is inferred to exist because, without it, galaxies would fly apart. Every galaxy must be loaded with the stuff, astronomers conclude, based on how stars are bound to orbit the centers of the galaxies.

But dark matter's effects have been presumed to operate across large expanses, both within and between galaxies. There is no evidence of it controlling anything on a scale so small as our solar system.

Another idea is that gravity tugs slightly harder at things farther away. That radical suggestion, if proved true, would force a modification of Einstein's general theory of relativity and might eliminate dark matter as a player.

Yet one more exotic possibility: Dimensions exist beyond the four we know (three directions and time). Models of string theory propose that higher dimensions could provide weak forces that act in ways we don't yet comprehend.

No fancy theory in existence, however, properly explains the Pioneer data.

Drifting journeys

The Pioneer anomaly is not actually a measure of how far the Pioneer probes did or didn't travel.

Instead, scientists bounced microwave signals off each probe and noticed an unexpected drift in the Doppler frequency as the probes got farther away. The technique is akin to noting the sound change in a siren as an ambulance races first toward you, and then away from you. The Doppler effect is a shortening or lengthening of sound waves (or microwaves, or any waves) forced by an object's movement.

The drift showed that the Pioneers were being accelerated toward the Sun (or, rather, decelerated in their movement away from the Sun) by a tiny but inexplicable amount. The level of drift is equal to a gravitational effect 10 billion times weaker than the pull of Earth.

Though tiny, the signal is clear, other scientists agree.

Despite 11 years of devotion to the mystery, Turyshev is the first to admit that the "most obvious explanation" would be an unknown onboard effect. Perhaps excessive internal heat or leaks of propulsion gas are providing a wee bit of thrust that adds up over the years.

Yet despite a lot of testing, "no unambiguous, onboard systematic problem has been discovered," he said. "This inability to explain the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft with conventional physics has contributed to the growing discussion about its origin."

Even if the anomaly is caused by the Pioneer probes themselves, figuring it out will be useful says Turyshev, who is the proposal leader for the U.S. group.

"Finding it would help us to build a better spacecraft for the needs of fundamental physics," he said. "These craft would much more stable, quieter and would allow us to go even deeper in our quests of studying the fabric of fundamental and gravitational physics."
The Problem with Gravity: New Mission Would Probe Strange Puzzle - space. com (http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/mystery_monday_041018.html)

Below are the starting paragraphs of a recent investigation into The Pioneer anomaly/effect and perhaps an answer through thermal models. For the full articles click on the link at the bottom of each one.


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Preliminary thermal modeling accounts for some (but not all) of the Pioneer Anomaly

By now, Planetary Society members should be very familiar with the Pioneer Anomaly: it's a very tiny but definitely detectable acceleration felt by the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exited the solar system, an acceleration that has so far been unaccounted for. But the study of the Pioneer Anomaly was hampered by lack of access to the telemetry and Doppler tracking data -- stored on degrading magnetic tape -- and by lack of interest (by which I mean lack of funds) from NASA to support the analysis. Planetary Society members have repeatedly come through with donations of funds to support both the data recovery and analysis, and JPL researcher Slava Turyshev just made a presentation to the American Physical Society on the status of one of those lines of analysis: the development of a thermal model of the spacecraft.

Why a thermal model, and what is a thermal model, anyway? The magnitude of the Pioneer Anomaly is so very tiny that it could conceivably result from the uneven radiation of heat from the spacecraft. The Pioneers, like all spacecraft, were made from a wide variety of materials: aluminum, Teflon, Kapton, Mylar, aluminum-based paints, and so forth, all of which absorb, reflect, or emit radiation in different ways; and some materials, notably the plutonium in the spacecraft power supply, generate heat on their own. To figure out in which directions the spacecraft radiates how much heat, Slava and his colleagues needed to start from scratch, building a CAD model of the spacecraft, covering the model with surfaces with the right thermal properties, plugging in the recovered spacecraft data on the temperatures measured at various points within the spacecraft, and then solving a beastly difficult set of differential equations to determine how heat conducts and radiates around within the spacecraft, and then in what direction it radiates once it exits the surface. If Slava wanted to do this for a modern mission, like Cassini, he'd have it easy; very nice CAD models already exist. But there was no model for the Pioneers -- just lots and lots of aging documents (some of which Slava rescued from NASA's Ames research center in 2006 just before they were to be disposed of), and lots and help from a few retired engineers who actually built the spacecraft.
Preliminary thermal modeling accounts for some (but not all) of the Pioneer Anomaly - planetary .org/ (http://www.planetary.org/blog/article/00001400/)

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Pioneer Anomaly - Finding a needle in the haystack or proving that there may be none...

October 5, 2008 marked the tenth anniversary of the first announcement of the Pioneer anomaly's discovery.  On that date in 1998, The Physical Review Letters published a paper titled “Indication, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration” with the initial results of a detailed study of the newly discovered effect. Now, over ten years after that announcement, the mystery of the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft still remains, but hopefully not for long. In this report, we discuss our current efforts aimed at finding the nature of the Pioneer anomaly.

The Pioneer anomaly is so small, about one ten billionth the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration here on the surface of the Earth, that detecting it can be rightfully likened to the near impossible task of finding a needle in the proverbial haystack. The earlier studies have shown that there may be a needle in the haystack, but its presence remained to be proven rigorously.

As you may know, our preliminary thermal modeling indicates that anisotropic thermal radiation (that is, when the spacecraft emits more heat in one direction than the other) may account for some, but not necessarily for all of the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneers.  Rather than treating this result as the “smoking gun”, we realized that our further study of the Pioneer anomaly requires a thorough and complete understanding of this thermal recoil force. This means that the most difficult part of our work only just began and our task just became harder. What if the Pioneer acceleration is entirely of a mundane origin? For instance, what if anisotropic thermal radiation emitted by the spacecraft accounts fully for the observed acceleration? In other words, what if there is no anomaly at all? Try proving to someone who saw a glimpse of something shiny that there is no needle in the haystack. Or at least, what if much of the acceleration has an explanation within the standard laws of physics, and only a smaller anomaly exists? These thoughts characterize our current efforts.
Pioneer Anomaly - Finding a needle in the haystack or proving that there may be none... - planetary .org (http://www.planetary.org/programs/projects/innovative_technologies/pioneer_anomaly/update_20090209.html)


Title: 1st chemical fingerprint of Exoplanet and theoretical models wrong
Post by: electrobleme on January 13, 2010, 18:52:03



“The features observed ... are not compatible with current theoretical models”

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/first-spectrum-exoplanet-chemical-fingerprint-hr-8799.jpg)
Image of the HR 8799 system. In the center, the host star HR 8799. Further investigation shows that three of the specks surrounding the star are planets (marked): Starting at 11 o'clock, clockwise: HR 8799b, HR8799c and HR8799d. The other specks and patterns are artefacts, which are unavoidable in a challenging observation like this one – star and planets are extremely close, and the star is a few thousand times brighter than the planets. The distance from the star to HR 8799c corresponds to 38 times the average Earth-Sun distance. (image and captio from 'First Direct “Chemical Fingerprint” of an Exoplanet orbiting a Sun-Like Star' | Max Planck Institute for Astronomy)


A good theory predicts. We have Gas Giants in our Solar System and our scientists know how the whole Universe started and was formed. So what happened? If everything is based on the Big Bang then is the Big Bang wrong?


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First Direct “Chemical Fingerprint” of an Exoplanet orbiting a Sun-Like Star

Astronomers have obtained the first direct spectrum – a “chemical fingerprint” – of a planet orbiting a distant, Sun-like star, providing direct data about the composition of the planet's atmosphere. Such “chemical fingerprinting” is a key technique in the search for habitable planets around other stars. As such, the result represents a milestone in the search for life elsewhere in the Universe. More directly, results like this are expected to provide new insight into how planets form.

...More immediately, the results pose something of a challenge to current models of the exoplanet's atmosphere. “The features observed in the spectrum are not compatible with current theoretical models,” explains MPIA's Wolfgang Brandner, a co-author of the study. “We need to take into account a more detailed description of the atmospheric dust clouds, or accept that the atmosphere has a different chemical composition than previously assumed.”

Questions & Answers

What are the specific results?
The team was able to determine the spectrum of the planet – spatially distinct from the spectrum of the star – in the wavelength region between 3.88 and 4.08 micrometres. The spectrum is very noisy; taking an average ("smoothing") suppresses the noise and allows a comparison with the spectra predicted by theoretical models. Due to the noise, no spectral lines could be resolved. However, the comparison between the smoothed-out spectra shows a clear deviation between the observed spectral shape and that predicted by the current standard models, which assume chemical equilibrium between the different chemical elements present in the atmosphere, and a continuous temperature profile (hotter layers below colder layers). At longer wavelengths (above 4 micrometres), the planet is significantly fainter than expected, which points to molecular absorption in its atmosphere. The simplest explanation is that the atmosphere contains less methane and more carbon monoxide than previously assumed.
First Direct “Chemical Fingerprint” of an Exoplanet orbiting a Sun-Like Star | Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (http://www.mpia.de/Public/menu_q2.php?Aktuelles/PR/2010/PR100112/PR_100112_en.html)

You can read the full article and another one on the first chemical Spectrum of an Exoplanet on the "Geogate (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=204.msg621#msg621)" thread
Title: Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) of 20 MeV - nobody knew they even existed!
Post by: electrobleme on February 02, 2010, 16:38:53
"In fact before the 1990s nobody knew they even existed"

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/Terrestrial-Gamma-ray-Flashes-TGFs-image-MeV.jpg)
Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) in Earths atmosphere and into space

Scientists dont even know what causes lightning. That is amazing considering how much of it there is, its not like they dont have any chance to investigate or study it. What this actually implies is not that they dont understand lightning but that their models/theories are totally wrong. Fucking Stupid Nature. Lightning does not fit into our models of the Earth/Universe yet we seem to ignore what the Electric Universe is telling us.

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"We know how the clouds charge up," Rowland says, "we just don't know how they discharge. That is the mystery."

TGFs could provide that spark. By generating a quick burst of electron flow, TGFs might help lightning strikes get started, Rowland suggests. "Perhaps this phenomenon is why we have lightning," he says.

If not a single theory/model predicted these and no one knew they were there doesn't this prove that all the standard modeles/thinking are wrong? Yet we will still use these totally wrong modified models/theories to predict what has happened and what we will find. And spend all that research money and time on them.

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Firefly Mission to Study Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

High-energy bursts of gamma rays typically occur far out in space, perhaps near black holes or other high-energy cosmic phenomena. So imagine scientists' surprise in the mid-1990s when they found these powerful gamma ray flashes happening right here on Earth, in the skies overhead.

They're called Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes, or TGFs, and very little is known about them. They seem to have a connection with lightning, but TGFs themselves are something entirely different.

"In fact," says Doug Rowland of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, "before the 1990s nobody knew they even existed. And yet they're the most potent natural particle accelerators on Earth."

Individual particles in a TGF acquire a huge amount of energy, sometimes in excess of 20 mega-electron volts (MeV). In contrast, the colorful auroras that light up the skies at high latitudes are powered by particles with less than one thousandth as much energy.

At this stage, there are more questions about TGFs than answers. What causes these high-energy flashes? Do they help trigger lightning--or does lightning trigger them? Could they be responsible for some of the high-energy particles in the Van Allen radiation belts, which can damage satellites?

To investigate, Rowland and his colleagues at GSFC, Siena College, Universities Space Research Association, and the Hawk Institute for Space Sciences are planning to launch a tiny, football-sized satellite called Firefly in 2010 or 2011. Because of its small size, Firefly will cost less than $1 million — about 100 times cheaper than what satellite missions normally cost. Part of the cost savings comes from launching Firefly under the National Science Foundation's CubeSat program, which launches small satellites as "stowaways" aboard rockets carrying larger satellites into space, rather than requiring dedicated rocket launches.

If successful, Firefly will return the first simultaneous measurements of TGFs and lightning. Most of what's known about TGFs to date has been learned from missions meant to observe gamma rays coming from deep space, such as NASA's Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, which discovered TGFs in 1994. As it stared out into space, Compton caught fleeting glimpses of gamma rays out of the corner of its eye, so to speak. The powerful flashes were coming--surprise!--from Earth's atmosphere.

Subsequent data from Compton and other space telescopes have provided a tantalizingly incomplete picture of how TGFs occur:

In the skies above a thunderstorm, powerful electric fields generated by the storm stretch upward for many miles into the upper atmosphere. These electric fields accelerate free electrons, whisking them to speeds approaching the speed of light. When these ultra-high speed electrons collide with molecules in the air, the collisions release high-energy gamma rays as well as more electrons, setting up a cascade of collisions and perhaps more TGFs.

To the eye, a TGF probably wouldn't look like much. Unlike lightning, most of a TGF's energy is released as invisible gamma rays, not visible light. They don't produce colorful bursts of light like sprites and other lightning-related phenomena. Nevertheless, these unseen eruptions could help explain why brilliant lightning strikes occur.

A longstanding mystery about lightning is how a strike gets started. Scientists know that the turbulence inside a thundercloud separates electric charge, building up enormous voltages. But the voltage needed to ionize air and generate a spark is about 10 times greater than the voltage typically found inside storm clouds.

"We know how the clouds charge up," Rowland says, "we just don't know how they discharge. That is the mystery."

TGFs could provide that spark. By generating a quick burst of electron flow, TGFs might help lightning strikes get started, Rowland suggests. "Perhaps this phenomenon is why we have lightning," he says.

If so, there ought to be many more TGFs each day than currently known. Observations by Compton and other space telescopes indicate that there may be fewer than 100 TGFs worldwide each day. Lightning strikes millions of times per day worldwide. That's quite a gap.

Then again, Compton and other space telescopes before Firefly weren't actually looking for TGFs. So perhaps it's not surprising that they didn't find many. Firefly will specifically look for gamma ray flashes coming from the atmosphere, not space, conducting the first focused survey of TGF activity. Firefly's sensors will even be able to detect flashes that are mostly obscured by the intervening air, which is a strong absorber of gamma rays (a fact that protects people on the ground from the energy in these flashes). Firefly's survey will give scientists much better estimates of the number of TGFs worldwide and help determine if the link to lightning is real.

Stay tuned to Science@NASA for updates.
Firefly Mission to Study Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes | science.nasa.gov (http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2010/29jan_firefly.htm)
Title: Mystery object collision or Electric Universe Theory evidence?
Post by: electrobleme on March 27, 2010, 22:29:09

Mystery object collision or Electric Universe Theory evidence?

What are the odds of 2 asteroids colliding? What are the odds of 2 asteroids colliding and forming this shape? What are the odds of 2 asteroids colliding and this shape remaining? Why did it not dissapear instantly in the "collision".

Is it evidence of the electric universe?

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'The truth is we're still struggling to understand what this means,' lead scientist David Jewitt with the University of California at Los Angeles. 'It's most likely the result of a recent collision between two asteroids.'

(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/mysterious-space-objects-two-2-asteroids-collide-collision-or-electric-universe.jpg)
mysterious space objects 2 asteroids collision or evidence of the electric universe?


(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/electric-universe-theory-proof-evidence.jpg)
electric universe theory proof and evidence?


(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/mystery-science-space-mysteries-objects-images-satellite.jpg)
mysterious space object



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Hubble telescope captures the moment two asteroids collide 90 million miles from Earth

A comet-like object has been created by the collision of two asteroids related to the one blamed for killing the dinosaurs millions of years ago.

The object, known as P/2010 A2, was circling 90 million miles from Earth in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter when it was spotted last week by the Hubble Space Telescope.

'The truth is we're still struggling to understand what this means,' lead scientist David Jewitt with the University of California at Los Angeles. 'It's most likely the result of a recent collision between two asteroids.'

If so, he said, 'It'd be the first case we've seen of an asteroid smash happening, basically caught in the act.'

The object resembles a comet, but its nucleus is severed from its tail, which 'has a very strange appearance, the likes of which we've never seen before,' Mr Jewitt said.

Studies of the object - and searches for similar ones - would improve scientists' understanding of how asteroids break apart..

That information may be useful to thwart a future asteroid strike on Earth.

'The thing that we want to understand is how the asteroids smash into each other and destroy each other,' Mr Jewitt said.

'It might help us understand even how to destroy an asteroid and prevent one from hitting us.'

Scientists believe a giant comet or asteroid that hit Earth about 65 million years ago was linked to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

One theory says the object threw up dust or chemical clouds that blocked the sun or that it ignited global wildfires.

Calculations show the orbit of P/2010 A2 is related to the group of asteroids, known at the Flora family, that produced that asteroid.

Nasa is working to catalogue at least 90 per cent of the estimated 1,000 objects that approach Earth and are larger than two-thirds of a mile across.

The agency's proposed budget for the year includes a $16 million (£10 million) annual increase to step up that effort.

Hubble telescope captures the moment two asteroids collide 90 million miles from Earth | dailymail.co.uk (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1248163/Hubble-captures-asteroid-collision.html)

Title: spacequakes - plasma bombs create galaxy earthquakes
Post by: electrobleme on May 05, 2010, 22:17:43
spacequakes - plasma bombs create galaxy earthquakes

This is a google translated version of a german report entitled Plasmabomben lösen Weltraumbeben aus (http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/weltall/0,1518,693109,00.html)

Thank the Gods we have experts who will tell us later exactly what it has to be and how it fits in with their very soon to be modified theories

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The discovery has surprised the participants of the Vienna meeting: "This is all new for us," marvels Kalevi Mursula University of Oulu in Finland, an expert on solar wind.

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The measurement curve is similar to the seismogram of earthquake," says the researcher. "That really surprised us." The energy released by both natural phenomena is comparable, says Rumi Nakamura of the Academy.

Could everything be connected, could it be an Electric Universe? Are the only people not surprised are those who follow and investigate the Electric Universe Theory?


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A hitherto unknown natural phenomenon researchers have now tracked down: violent solar storms leave the Earth's magnetic field quake. Compass needles vibrate, light up the north polar lights - and for space travelers could be dangerous quake.

Compass needles quiver, they show currently not reliable to the north. A giant quake is in progress. But the soil does not wobble - Earth's magnetic field vibrates. "Just takes place near Earth space a really strong quake," says Wolfgang Baumjohann of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (AAS). It was probably the strongest quake ever measured space. "You can probably compare with the strength of the earthquake to Haiti in January."

First time ever, scientists report of measurements of the mysterious natural phenomenon. "We are trying to establish the concept of space quake now," says Karl-Heinz Glassmeifer from the Technical University of Braunschweig at the annual meeting of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) in Vienna.

Not only the trembling of the compass needle tells such an event, including the Northern Lights give a hint: Electrical discharges can light up the sky, sometimes as far south. Now and again were Polar Lights documented to central Europe - and interpreted in the Middle Ages as a divine warning. "Presumably, the lights were the consequences of space-quake," said John Baum. For people on the ground the events presented little risk; spaceships However, the quake came in such a space would be threatened.


Five satellites tracked the phenomenon

With five NASA satellites that measure since 2007, the geomagnetic field, the researchers of the phenomenon came to the track. Lined up like on a string vertically from Earth into space, floating probes of the "Themis" project. They have registered the cosmic vibration of the magnetic field. The space previously heaviest quake occurred, according to satellite measurements, 7 April this year. "It was, however, somewhat weaker than the currently taking place," said John Baum. Smaller earthquakes, however, it give "almost hourly".

The discovery has surprised the participants of the Vienna meeting: "This is all new for us," marvels Kalevi Mursula University of Oulu in Finland, an expert on solar wind.

The quake in the magnetic field begins with a solar storm: Time and again the central star torches, electrically charged particles hurled into space. These solar storms are fairly well known: With more than a thousand kilometers per second, they race towards the earth.

If the magnetic current on the magnetic field of the earth, he is guided around the planet. Huge amounts of energy get it on the night side of Earth where the magnetic field is charging accordingly. The solar wind blows the magnetic field lines to the rear until they flutter like hair in the wind. "The field lines are loaded with energy and it stretched like a rubber band," said John Baum.

Eventually, the energy surplus is too big - it shakes: some 60,000 kilometers above the earth discharge the magnetic field lines with a single blow. A plasma jet - a bomb charged particles - is released. Only the internal magnetic field of the earth about 30,000 miles it slows down in height - and trembles at the impact, like a trampoline. This is evident from satellite measurements of the research: The field lines oscillate thousands of miles up and down.


Plasma bomb on the magnetic field trampoline

The plasma bomb time and again thrown back into space, says Baumjohann: First, with about a thousand kilometers per hour, then at half speed, then with 360 km / h. "The measurement curve is similar to the seismogram of earthquake," says the researcher. "That really surprised us." The energy released by both natural phenomena is comparable, says Rumi Nakamura of the Academy. However: "A Space earthquake extends over a much larger area, the energy is distributed accordingly." A spacecraft that fly through the affected area could, according to the cosmic vibrations Baumjohann but quite dangerous.

Although the researchers can now predict strong solar storms usually - good news for remote communication and air traffic, because solar storms can move satellites and airplanes also affected. A forecast of the earthquake space seems so far impossible.

"When the critical moment is reached, it can not predict," says Nakamura. After all, sensitive compasses could detect the event, says the expert glass Braunschweig Meier: A Space quake she shook. Moreover, residents enjoy high latitudes - about glow in Alaska or Scandinavia - currently a special natural spectacle: Space quake can auroras in the sky. "Such a cosmic earthquake," said Meier glass, "is just fine especially.
Plasma bombs create Galaxy Earthquakes (http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/weltall/0,1518,693109,00.html)

** plasma bombs and spacequakes (http://www.xearththeory.com/spacequakes-plasma-bombs-sun-earth.html) - further discussion and article
Title: Suprised science - everything?
Post by: electrobleme on May 15, 2010, 19:33:15


Suprised science - everything?

the original article (http://news.discovery.com/space/rogue-stars-non-constant-constants-holes-in-space-our-universe-is-rebelling.html) has a lot of links and images in it, so its best to read that but below is a copy of the what is said.

a good theory predicts ... if a Gravity Universe and our science can not predict correctly then can it be a good theory?

all the stories show how poorly science understands or can predict what is happening but the "black hole" story at the bottom shows they have most of it wrong, when it comes to space.

remember when blackholes werer black yet all images of them are white. remember when blackholes use to suck everything in but now "eject" material. the only thing a blackhole is is not what science predicted it was and had to be.

if it was a proper business they would have all been sacked by now.


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Rogue Stars, Non-Constant Constants... Holes in Space? Our Universe is Rebelling!
I don't know if you've been paying attention to all the astrophysics news  coming down the pipeline this week, but it's clear that our universe is feeling a bit rowdy and unruly of late, in no mood for observing the usual established customs that govern a well-ordered cosmos. Don't believe me? Check out these stories that have come out in just the last few days.

First, there's this news story on how the fundamental constants in our universe might not be so constant after all -- you know, like the "fine structure constant," which determines the strength of the electromagnetic force.

Excuse me, but the very definition of "constant" means "unchanging" -- not "more or less unchanging, so long as the fluctuations are below 3 sigma." Oh, you can say it's harmless and all in good fun, and don't be such a rigid killjoy. But constants need a firm hand. Give them a little space here, a little wriggle room there, and before you know it they'll be running amok and thinking they're free-wheeling variables or something.

And then what will keep the negatively charged electron orbiting around a positively charged atomic nucleus, hmmm? Think of the electrons, people!

Then, the Bad Astronomer picked up on this press release from the European Space Agency's Herschel infrared space telescope, revealing a hole -- a hole!! -- in space (pictured top).

Originally astronomers thought that black spot next to NGC 1999 was just a really dense cloud of dust and gas, so thick it blocked visible light from passing through it. But Herschel looks at the universe in the infrared regime, and guess what? That patch is still black in the infrared, not because it's filled with dense dust and gas but because it is truly empty.

BIG PIC: You want to see unruly? Take a look at this chaotic mess these stellar babies are leaving behind in the Rosette Nebula.

They're spinning it like this is a good thing, a "surprising glimpse into the end of the star-forming process." But let's face it: it's a young rebellious adolescent star "emerging from its birth cloud" by blowing everything around it away and creating a black patch in the process. And does it ever call? Does it write? Kids today have no respect for the interstellar gas and dust that sacrificed everything to raise them.

Also on today's roster of celestial objects behaving rebelliously is a "heavyweight runaway star," fleeing its stellar nursery at more than 250,000 miles an hour. The star grew up in the 30 Doradus nebula, "a raucous stellar breeding ground" in the Large Magellanic Cloud, along with a bunch of starry siblings. Those siblings were even heftier, and rather bullying to boot. The poor smaller star got booted out of the nursery either by a roughhouse game of stellar "pinball" with its siblings -- or by a supernova explosion, although that seems less likely given the relative youth of that particular cluster (R136). And it's been on the run ever since. Chalk it up to a turbulent early home life.

It's not just stars causing trouble, either. Supermassive black holes generally know their place, right? They stay in the centers of their galaxies where they belong. Or so we thought. Yesterday also brought news from the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands that something fishy is going on with the supermassive black hole in the galaxy known as CXO J122518.6+144545 (if that's even its real name).

A young undergraduate named Marianne Heida was just combing through the Chandra Source Catalog, when she noticed a supermassive black hole that appeared to be leaving its home galaxy at very high speed, despite its mass of well over 1 billion Suns. Apparently this happens when two smaller black holes fall in love and defy their parent to merge anyway, because what does the galaxy know about their eternal love? The result is a much larger black hole that shoots away at high speeds, thanks to a recoil effect determined by the direction and speed of rotation of the original two black hole lovebirds -- or maybe the parent galaxy just gave them an ultimatum and the newly formed supermassive black hole called their bluff. "Fine! We don't need you anyway!"

See what I mean? Clearly some sort of cosmic intervention is in order. Or intensive family therapy.
Rogue Stars, Non-Constant Constants... Holes in Space? Our Universe is Rebelling! | news.discovery.com (http://news.discovery.com/space/rogue-stars-non-constant-constants-holes-in-space-our-universe-is-rebelling.html)

Title: retrograde "black" holes - backwards spinning whiteholes
Post by: electrobleme on June 02, 2010, 15:21:25


retrograde "black" holes - backwards spinning whiteholes


(http://www.everythingselectric.com/images/space/retrograde-black-holes-white-holes.jpg)
retrograde black holes or whiteholes? or not actually any kind of hole but an electric circuit/engine?


retrograde "black"holes means backwards spinning whiteholes, jets and wind created by magnetic fields etc... not currents of electric charged plasma accelerated by an electromagnetic field similar to the Suns solar plasma wind

at least none of this is a suprise and backs up all the old models and theories and thank god for theoretical astrophysicist or how else would we know what we were looking at and work out what is obviously going on


"This new model also solves a paradox in the old spin paradigm," said David Meier, a theoretical astrophysicist at JPL not involved in the study. "Everything now fits nicely into place."



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Going against the grain may turn out to be a powerful move for black holes. New research suggests supermassive black holes that spin backwards might produce more ferocious jets of gas. The results have broad implications for how galaxies change over time.

"A lot of what happens in an entire galaxy depends on what's going on in the miniscule central region where the black hole lies," said theoretical astrophysicist David Garofalo of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. Garofalo is lead author of a new paper that appeared online May 27 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Other authors are Daniel A. Evans of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., and Rita M. Sambruna of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

Black holes are immense distortions of space and time with gravity that is so great, even light itself cannot escape. Astronomers have known for more than a decade that all galaxies, including our own Milky Way, are anchored by tremendous, so-called supermassive black holes, containing billions of suns' worth of mass. The black holes are surrounded and nourished by disks of gas and dust, called accretion disks. Powerful jets stream out from below and above the disks like lasers, and fierce winds blow off from the disks themselves.

The black holes can spin either in the same direction as the disks, called prograde black holes, or against the flow – the retrograde black holes. For decades, astronomers thought that the faster the spin of the black hole, the more powerful the jet. But there were problems with this "spin paradigm" model. For example, some prograde black holes had been found with no jets.

Garofalo and his colleagues have been busy flipping the model on its head. In previous papers, they proposed that the backward, or retrograde, black holes spew the most powerful jets, while the prograde black holes have weaker or no jets.

The new study links the researchers' theory with observations of galaxies across time, or at varying distances from Earth. They looked at both "radio-loud" galaxies with jets, and "radio-quiet" ones with weak or no jets. The term "radio" comes from the fact that these particular jets shoot out beams of light mostly in the form of radio waves.

The results showed that more distant radio-loud galaxies are powered by retrograde black holes, while relatively closer radio-quiet objects have prograde black holes. According to the team, the supermassive black holes evolve over time from a retrograde to a prograde state.

"This new model also solves a paradox in the old spin paradigm," said David Meier, a theoretical astrophysicist at JPL not involved in the study. "Everything now fits nicely into place."

The scientists say that the backward black holes shoot more powerful jets because there's more space between the black hole and the inner edge of the orbiting disk. This gap provides more room for the build-up of magnetic fields, which fuel the jets, an idea known as the Reynold's conjecture after the theoretical astrophysicist Chris Reynolds of the University of Maryland, College Park.

"If you picture yourself trying to get closer to a fan, you can imagine that moving in the same rotational direction as the fan would make things easier," said Garofalo. "The same principle applies to these black holes. The material orbiting around them in a disk will get closer to the ones that are spinning in the same direction versus the ones spinning the opposite way."

Jets and winds play key roles in shaping the fate of galaxies. Some research shows that jets can slow and even prevent the formation of stars not just in a host galaxy itself, but also in other nearby galaxies.

"Jets transport huge amounts of energy to the outskirts of galaxies, displace large volumes of the intergalactic gas, and act as feedback agents between the galaxy's very center and the large-scale environment," said Sambruna. "Understanding their origin is of paramount interest in modern astrophysics."

Backwards Black Holes Might Make Bigger Jets (http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm?release=2010-186&cid=release_2010-186)
Title: Voyagers ride 'magnetic bubbles'
Post by: electrobleme on June 10, 2011, 18:15:36


Quote

Computer modelling based on the Voyager insights suggests the edge of our Solar System is a froth of activity, like "an agitated jacuzzi", said Eugene Parker from the University of Chicago, US.

Magnetic field lines carried in the "wind" of material coming off our star are breaking and reconnecting.

This process is sculpting the wind into discrete bubbles that are many tens of millions of kilometres wide...

... Researchers confess to being surprised; they thought the outskirts of our solar neighbourhood would be more sedate - that the Sun's field lines would simply turn around and reconnect with the Sun.

"The findings are significant as we will have to change our view on how the Sun interacts with particles, fields and gases from other stars, and this has consequences that reach down to Earth," commented Arik Posner, Nasa's Voyager programme scientist.
Voyagers ride 'magnetic bubbles' | bbc.co.uk (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13715764)

There are no such things as magnetic rcconnections and it sounds like double layer plasma cells and the circuitry of an Electric Universe.


Title: Re: Surprised science - a good theory predicts...
Post by: peter on June 29, 2011, 19:56:38
Surprised science = Ashamed science

Quote
If Edison had a needle to find in a haystack, he would proceed at once with the diligence of the bee to examine straw after straw until he found the object of his search.
I was a sorry witness of such doings, knowing that a little theory and calculation would have saved him ninety per cent of his labor.

Nikola Tesla
Title: What happens when they find an object younger than the Big Bang?
Post by: electrobleme on June 30, 2011, 18:11:21
What happens when they find an object younger than the Big Bang?

You do know whether to laugh and cry, perhaps one day one of these scientists may have the slightest of doubts about how nearly everything they predict is not correct. Maybe all the science and theories that manages to predict so little correctly might not be correct? But then they just modify the current theory and everything in the known universe is all ok again until the next experiment results come through ...

What happens when they find an object younger than the Big Bang?

The latest findings about Super Massive "Black Holes' are surprising to them in many ways but one of the interesting things is how young these objects are compared to the hallowed date of the Big Bang.

What will they do when an object is impossibly young or even younger/earlier than the Big Bang? Will they change the data or have to modify some other theory about the speed or bending or warping or light or space so that the new object now fits in with the data.

As our technology gets better the chances of us finding objects earlier or younger than the Big Bang increase.


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Astronomers have spied a monster black hole - the brightest object yet seen in the early Universe.

Detected by a UK telescope in Hawaii, the hole is seen as it was a mere 770 million years after the Big Bang.

This means its light has taken an astonishing 12.9 billion years to reach us here on Earth.

Scientists report the discovery in the journal Nature. They say it will help them understand better the conditions that existed in the early cosmos.

It should also provide new insights on how so-called super-massive black holes come into being.

As has become clear from a number of recent observations, these giants seem to have established themselves very early on in the Universe.

"Technically, this object is what we call a quasar," explained Dr Daniel Mortlock, the lead author of the Nature paper from Imperial College London.

"The super-massive black hole itself is dark but it has a disc of gas or dust around it that has got so hot that it will outshine an entire galaxy of stars."

As bright as it was in the early Universe, the object appears now to us on Earth as just a faint dot in the infrared.

It glows in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum because the brilliant ultraviolet light with which it once shone has been stretched to longer wavelengths on its passage through the expanding cosmos.

The UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) has been trawling the sky looking for such light sources, knowing that any detection is likely to be a very distant object.

The newly identified quasar has been designated ULAS J1120+0641. It is not the most distant object seen in the Universe - that record probably goes to gamma-ray burst (GRB), the light from an exploded star. But the quasar is hundreds of times brighter than the GRB, and certainly bright enough to allow scientists to start to probe the object and its surroundings in some detail.

Theory holds that the very young cosmos would have been filled with neutral hydrogen. Then, as the first stars burned bright, they would have "fried" this neutral gas, ripping electrons from protons to produce the diffuse intergalactic plasma we detect between nearby stars today.

The transition between these periods is dubbed the "epoch of re-ionization", and is considered to be a milestone in cosmic history and astronomers are very keen to tie down the timing of when it occurred.

The light from ULAS J1120+0641 displays the characteristic signature of neutral gas, indicating that, at 770 million years after the Big Bang, the process of re-ionization had some way to go before the process was complete.

Dr Mortlock told BBC News: "This is the first time we have seen a quasar that we are sure is sitting in a significantly neutral Universe - it might be 10%, it might be 50% of the hydrogen is neutral - but all the other ones we've seen, even a 100 million years later, had a fraction of the neutral gas we see in our quasar. Others we've detected had more like 1% or 0.1% of neutral hydrogen. So we see this quasar before the epoch of re-ionization has ended."

What is a puzzle is the scale of the black hole driving this quasar. It has a mass two billion times that of the Sun.

Its detection is one of a number lately that have indicated the presence many super-massive objects in the early cosmos. Scientists are struggling to explain how these objects could have evolved so big, so fast.

"It is safe to say that the existence of this quasar will be giving some theorists sleepless nights," observed Chris Willott from the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre in a News and Views article in Nature.
'Monster' drives cosmic beacon | bbc.co.uk (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13964767)
Title: Mysterious Radio filaments in our galaxies center
Post by: electrobleme on June 30, 2011, 18:52:32

Mysterious Radio filaments in our galaxies center

Mysterious Radio filaments in our galaxies center due to or due to the Electric Universe?

Quote

Unexplained "filaments" of radio-wave emission close to our galaxy's centre may hold proof of the existence of dark matter, researchers have said.

Dark matter is believed to make up most of the mass of our Universe, but it has yet to be definitively spotted.

A report now suggests the filaments' emission arises from dark matter particles crashing into each other.
 |  (http://)

Dark matter is something that is so scientific it can not be observed/measured etc but HAS to be there. The apparent reason for Dark matter and Dark Energy is that when our scientists did their calculations on the universe they came up with only 4% of the universe. So instead of perhaps wondering if their calculations were wrong they decided they were correct and so had to invent 96% of something.

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The filaments have been something of a mystery to astronomers since they were first discovered in the 1980s.

They are known to be regions of high magnetic fields, and they emit radio waves of high frequency - some of them with striking intensity.

"There's a long literature about these objects, and there have been some ideas as to what might generate their emission - but frankly no one really knows," said Dan Hooper, an astrophysicist at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in the US and co-author of the paper, which is still under review by academics.

One explanation for this emission would be what is called synchrotron radiation, which arises when charged particles are accelerated in a magnetic field. There are several ideas that could account for the emission which do not invoke dark matter - so called "astrophysical" mechanisms.

No one really knows? A very sweeping statement showing that there are only certain people who really cound and know what is going on in the universe. Those in the know are official Astrophysicists, astronomers and scientists. The same people who have helped to predict 96% Dark Stuff and with virtually every experiment result from space are surprised and puzzled at what they find as it does not follow what they predict.

Although no one really knows what these mysterious Radio filaments are and the emissions some people who dont count and follow the Electric Universe theory may have an idea.

Quote

'Natural explanation'

Now, Dan Hooper and his colleagues suggest that electrons - created when high-energy dark matter particles smash into each other - could be the what gives rise to the synchrotron radiation detected here on Earth.

He credits co-author Tim Linden for coming up with the idea, which he said "can explain a lot of the different features that are observed" in the filaments' emission - something he said more prosaic "astrophysical" explanations could not claim.

"One thing it explains that the astrophysical possibilities don't is that the filaments that are closer to the galactic centre are brighter than those that are farther away," Dr Hooper told BBC News. "We would say that's because there's more dark matter as you come closer to the galactic centre - it provides a natural explanation for that."

I kid you no, this is what it says, a natural explanation! Somehow Dark matter and Dark Stuff which has never been observed and can not be observed or measured is a natural answer.

Synchrotron radiation appears to be related to Electric Universe events, filaments again would be. And if it is an Electric Universe and their are connections, circuits between everything then you would expect to get filaments.

Mysterious Radio filaments are brighter the closer you get to the galatic center than the ones further away? If you have an Electric Universe circuit powering these things ...

Quote

Dr Hooper said:"The question is: why would all of these filaments which are different astrophysically, contain different stuff, located in different places - all sorts of different properties - all have electrons with that much energy?

"In the dark matter explanation, that's easy - dark matter is the same everywhere."

Cause or effect?


Quote


'Severe conflict'

Dr Hooper has also published papers recently suggesting that dark matter particles of the same energies fit with recent results from the Fermi space telescope (in an article in Physics Letters B) and with efforts to detect dark matter on Earth in so-called "direct detection" experiments (in an as-yet unpublished paper on Arxiv).

"That's definitely one of the strengths of this model; the results seem promising," said Sukanya Chakrabarti, an astrophysicist from the Florida Atlantic University.

However, theoretical models of a substance that has never been detected necessarily require a number of educated guesses and estimates - guesses that could radically affect whether or not a given theory stands up.

"When you do these kind of 'indirect detection' experiments, there are many parameters that go into your model," Professor Chakrabarti told BBC News. "All that stuff that's not known - it's hard to do a study of all these and convince yourself of all mechanisms [that lead to the emission]."

So is any of this true apart from the observed mysterious Radio filaments themselves? But its ok because these are scientific theory reports based on the facts of the Big Bang Theory, Einstein's Theory of Relativity, Newtons Theory of Gravity ...

Quote

What will resolve these issues in the case of the filaments are simply more observations using more radio telescopes.

"Many of these filaments have only limited data available about them," said Dr Hooper. "I hope this paper inspires radio astronomers to look more carefully at these objects."

This is a good idea, how about we look at what we can see or find out about them and report on what we can see not what we are told we see? But of course if what we observe makes no sense to the theory then what we observe is usually wrong or interpreted differently.
Title: comet lovejoy - dirty snowball or electric rock comets
Post by: electrobleme on December 20, 2011, 17:34:18


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A small comet survived what astronomers figured would be a sure death when it danced uncomfortably close to the broiling sun.

Comet Lovejoy, which was only discovered a couple of weeks ago, was supposed to melt Thursday night when it came close to where temperatures hit several million degrees. Astronomers had tracked 2,000 other sun-grazing comets make the same suicidal trip. None had ever survived.

But astronomers watching live with NASA telescopes first saw the sun's corona wiggle as Lovejoy went close to the sun. They were then shocked when a bright spot emerged on the sun's other side. Lovejoy lived.

"I was delighted when I saw it go into the sun and I was astounded when I saw something re-emerge," said U.S. Navy solar researcher Karl Battams.

comet lovejoy survived as it very likely discharged or charged enough to balance itself out and stop the electrical stress on it which normally means electric comets break up


Quote
And the comet lost something pretty important: its tail.

"It looks like the tail broke off and is stuck" in the sun's magnetic field, Pesnell said.

the fact that comet lovejoy survived and then its tail is no longer seen would perhaps give more evidence to the idea that the immense comet tails that stretch millions of miles behind them and glow like a neon light are electrical in nature
Title: Dust ring around star disappears
Post by: electrobleme on July 30, 2012, 20:08:44

Dust ring around star disappears

Bit of a surprise for scientists as their beloved dust rings encircling a star are the birth of planets theory gets blown away. Thankfully they offer 2 theories as to why more than all the sand on the beaches of earth has disappeared but then say both theories fail to answer it with the facts concerned.

But there will not be any question of the basic theories and maths the whole thing is based on as they can not be wrong.

Gary Gilligan in his God King Scenario and his book Comet Venus explains using solar system catastrophe that our solar system had lots of dust that cleared up within a few hundred year (http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=178.msg733#msg733)s. Evidence to back up the God King Scenario?

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Vanishing Dust Belt Around Star Baffles Scientists

A dusty disk around a distant star has faded surprisingly fast, leaving scientists few clues to how it disappeared.

Only a few years ago, the space around the star TYC 8241 2652 1 was filled with dust and gas, but recent observations show the region — an ideal spot for alien planets to form — has all but vanished.

"It's like the classic magician's trick: Now you see it, now you don't," principal investigator Carl Melis of the University of California, San Diego said in a statement. "Only in this case, we're talking about enough dust to fill an inner solar system, and it really is gone!"
 
A quick exit

Tiny specks of dust orbiting a star absorb its energy and shine in infrared light. As the glow brightens and dims, astronomers can estimate how much material surrounds the star.

The disk around the star TYC 8241 2652 1 was discovered in 1983 and  remained relatively constant for 2 1/2 decades. Scientists estimated that 1,000 trillion grains of dust — the equivalent of all the sand on the beaches of Earth — circled this younger version of our sun.

But in 2009, things changed.

Observations by the Gemini South telescope in Chile and several other instruments found that the infrared light emitted by the dust had dropped by more than half. In subsequent studies, the amount of dust around the star had all but vanished, dropping by a factor of nearly 30 in two years.

Such a dramatic change is astonishingly fast when compared to the million-year time scale of most astronomical events, researchers said. [Top 10 Star Mysteries]

"The dust disappearance at TYC 8241 2652 1 was so bizarre and so quick, initially I figured that our observations must simply be in error in some strange way," said study co-author Ben Zuckerman of the University of California, Los Angles.

The quickly vanishing disk may help scientists better understand how planets formed in early solar systems, including our own, researchers said.

The case of the disappearing disk

The amount of dust around a star rises and falls over time. After a star forms, young planets are created from the leftover debris, known as a protoplanetary disk.

But the early life of a solar system is typically a time of violent collisions, so while much of the dust is initially swept up in the creation process, the disk is repopulated as large chunks of rock crash into one other. The disk around the 10-million-year-old star was thought to be in this second stage, with rocky objects constantly smashing together.

Where did the dust disappear to so quickly? Two different theories have been advanced to explain what caused the sudden loss.

The first model suggests that the dust fell into the star, while the second proposes that the explosive impacts could have blown much of the dust completely out of the system.

The second theory, known as the collisional cascade model, would likely require time scales longer than two years to clear the dust from the system, researchers said.

But there's still a nagging mystery. Neither of the two theories clearly fits the evidence obtained by observations of TYC 8241 2652 1.

"A perplexing thing about this discovery is that we don't have a really satisfactory explanation to address what happened around this star," Melis said.
Vanishing Dust Belt Around Star Baffles Scientists | space.com (http://www.space.com/16426-star-dust-missing-disk-mystery.html)
Title: 2 planets (or more) orbiting 2 suns orbiting each other
Post by: electrobleme on August 30, 2012, 09:15:09


2 planets (or more) orbiting 2 suns orbiting each other

A pair of planets circling a pair of stars was not predicted and has surprised science and scientists but its back to that famous drawing board. And they now expect to find more planets orbiting the 2 stars orbiting each other.

They will modify the theories that did not predict this but they wont change how they got to the main basic foundations. Of course not, why should they as it so successfully predicted ...

Quote

Greg Laughlin, professor of astrophysics and planetary science at the University of California, said the discovery could turn our understanding of how planets appeared after the Big Bang on its head.

"This is an amazing discovery," he told SPACE.com "These planets are very difficult to form using the currently accepted paradigm, and I believe that theorists will be going back to the drawing board to try to improve our understanding of how planets are assembled."

It was often assumed before that that a system of multiple planets would struggle to exist under the gravity of two stars at the same time, with planets either pulling away from the orbit or crashing into each other.

Now, scientists are expecting to find more such systems.
Two Planets, Two Suns: NASA discovery could help find alien life | rt.com (http://rt.com/news/circumbinary-planets-kepler-nasa-863/)
Title: Water on the moon. Surprised and exactly as not predicted
Post by: electrobleme on October 16, 2012, 01:42:02
Water on the moon. Surprised and exactly as not predicted

Water on the moon? Don't be silly. Even after looking at the moon rocks for 40 or 50 years no water on the moon. Whoops. Exactly as not predicted by science. They now think it may come from the interaction of the moon with the 'solar wind' which is a plasma flow which you might think of as an electrical current.

Which would help to explain why there are at least 2 speeds for the solar wind that we know of and why the solar wind accelerates the further away it gets from the sun. Perhaps the sun and our solar system are acting as a natural CERN?

Quote
The traditional view that the Moon was entirely dry has been proven incorrect in recent years, with growing evidence that icy drops of water can be found on its surface.

In 2009, a Nasa satellite slammed into a crater and threw up a plume which scientists found contained an unexpectedly high amount of ice, and small amounts of water have also been found in powder and rock in the Moon's outer layer.

But although the discoveries have proven the existence of water, the problem which has continued to baffle scientists is where it came from.

... Solar wind is a flow of particles continually flowing away from the Sun. The Earth's magnetic field deflects them away from our planet, but the Moon has no such protection.
Water particles found on surface of the moon, scientists say | telegraph.co.uk (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/9607901/Water-particles-found-on-surface-of-the-moon-scientists-say.html)