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Everything and anything => weathEU and XEarth => Topic started by: electrobleme on July 05, 2009, 12:26:37



Title: Fountains of the Deep - Black Smokers, White Smokers - Cathode and Anode?
Post by: electrobleme on July 05, 2009, 12:26:37
Black and White Smokers creating Gold and Chemicals?

  • Underwater Gold and mineral Mine?
  • Underwater Black and White Smokers
  • Transitional Smokers?
  • Serpentinization - a natural Anode and Cathode
  • Variation - natural oil seeps

Fountains of the Deep - Water comes out of the ground and underwater at pressure, natural oil seeps from bedrock around the world and the Black Smokers with the less well known opposite type of White Smokers (Lost City) are found at immense distances and pressures underwater.
Around them is found a rich variety of life in different forms. Black and White hydrothermal vents produce alternative energy to each other. Are they variations of each other?

These sea floor Smokers also create a wide range of minerals including Gold and a lot of chemicals. Why does the sea have so much gold in it?


Underwater Gold and mineral Mine?

Quote

The TAG mound contains 1–2 weight per cent (wt per cent) of copper. The black smoker deposits contain 700 parts per million (ppm) of zinc and 250 ppb (parts per billion) of gold, whereas the white smoker deposits contain 1–4 wt per cent of zinc and 3 ppm of gold. The TAG mound has been compared to ancient massive sulphide deposits such as the deposits in Cyprus, Oman, and Newfoundland.
Black and White Hydrothermal vents - encyclopedia.com (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O112-blacksmokersandwhitesmkrs.html[/url)

Black and White Smokers can be found as part of the same mound.  How do you get 2 very different physical events beside each other unless they are related or connected?
Are they anode/cathode or positive/negative or part of XEchange and the circuit of earths underwater weather which is connected to all our weathEU?

Quote
The fallout from plumes forms sediments that are very rich in iron hydroxides. They are found up to tens of kilometres away from the vents. The vent fluid chemistry affects the global elemental cycle.
Hydrothermal vents - Black Smokers and White Smokers - encyclopedia.com  (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O112-blacksmokersandwhitesmkrs.html[/url)


Transitional Smokers?

Scientists say that Black Smokers and White Smokers are very different. But you have Transitional Smokers.

Quote
The chimney samples are divided into three groups according to their mineralogy and metal contents; 1) Black smoker, 2) White smoker, 3) Transitional type. Black smoker chimneys are mainly composed of chalcopyrite and pyrite, and are enriched in high temperature elements such as Cu, Co, Mo, and Se. White smoker chimneys consist of sphalerite and marcasite with trace of pyrite and chalcopyrite, and are enriched in low temperature elements (Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Ga). Transitional chimneys show intermediate characteristics in mineralogy and composition between black and white smokers. Basaltic rocks sampled from the triple junction show wide variation in geochemistry.
Formation of black and white smokers in the North Fiji Basin (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B13A0192K[/url)


Black and White Smokers

Black Smokers and White smokers are fountains at the bottom of the ocean, spewing forth great amounts of energised (heated), acid or alkaline water and minerals.


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Black smokers and white smokers - At the mid-oceanic ridges (MOR) sea water is heated and circulated at depth, forming localized convective systems similar to geothermal systems on land

Black smokers have fluid temperatures of more than 360 °C, whereas white smoker fluids are generally lower in temperature (260–300 °C). Once the vent water enters the sea, the hot fluid mixes with sea water and the dissolved constituents rise because of the buoyancy resulting from the higher temperature. These anomalies are generally referred to as plumes. They can nowadays easily be traced by temperature and chemical anomalies. The latter consist of trace concentrations of metals such as manganese (Mn) or a rare isotope of helium (3He). The plumes are typically about 40 km wide and 1 km high (Fig. 2). Tens of such systems have now been discovered around the globe.

Active hydrothermal vents typically have diameters of 50–200 m, and some are over 20 m high. These structures are generally referred to as mounds. In general, mounds have both black and white smokers. The chemistry of the sea water has been altered by reaction with basalts at depth.
Sea floor Black Smokers and White smokers - encyclopedia.com  (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O112-blacksmokersandwhitesmkrs.html[/url)

Are mounds where you can see cathode/anode part of the circuit or the power source? Similar to an occluded front in weather? Are the underwater Black Smokers and White Smokers found on the sea floor similar in reason to the ash clouds and white pyroclastic flows you sometimes get with Volcanic explosions like Sarychev Peak Volcano (http://everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=71.0)


One of natures Anodes and Cathodes?

Quote
The water venting at Lost City is generally 200°F. The fluids do not get as hot as the black smokers because it is not heated by magma; rather, the heat comes from serpentinization, a chemical reaction between seawater and mantle rock
...At Lost City, the reaction between the rock and seawater produces 10 to 100 times more hydrogen and methane (a hydrocarbon) than a typical black smoker system found along volcanic mid-ocean ridges
...Although nobody has found another field like Lost City, Kelley says she's sure others exist because there are so many other places where mantle rock has been thrust up through the seafloor, exposing it to seawater and serpentinization.
Lost City Pumps Life-essential Chemicals at Rates Unseen at Typical Black Smokers - Oceanus Magazine (http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=12458&tid=282&cid=38007[/url)


Are natures oil seeps a variaton of Black Smokers and hydrothermal vents?

Are they related or are the hydrothermal vents different to natures oil leak? Do natural oil leaks show that oil is still being produced by nature (which is why all oil is found under huge pressure) inside the earth and the Peak Oil Theory is not correct. Considering how much oil we have found and keep finding...
Natural oil seeps have a fall out zone down current, similar to the ocean floor Black and White Smokers.
Are they all part of the life circuit? Not an accident but in a precise area because that is where the location conditions needed them to be.

Quote

While Oil Gently Seeps from the Seafloor

The Santa Barbara seeps, for example emit 5,280 to 6,600 gallons (nearly 20 to 25 tons) of oil per day, and natural seeps have been active for hundreds to thousands of years. Local Native Americans used the oil to waterproof their boats. But I just didn’t appreciate how spectacular they were and what a powerful opportunity they provided to study oil spills.

...To our surprise, we discovered for the first time that on the oil’s journey up to the seafloor, approximately 1,000 compounds in the oil were devoured by microbes living in the rocks beneath the sea floor. Some ate the oil and created intermediate byproducts. These were subsequently eaten by other microbes that likely converted the oil into natural gas.

Munching microbes

Microbes are astonishing and voracious little critters. They can eat almost anything, but our research at the Santa Barbara oil seeps shows they do it systematically: They select compounds whose size and shape are the easiest for them to degrade. So they will chow down on a simple, straight-chained alkane, but will avoid a hopane with twice as many carbon and hydrogen atoms bonded in rings that offer difficult access for enzymes. If they were at a buffet, they would devour the pudding, soup, and rice first and eschew the chewy corned beef and stale crusty bread.
WHOI (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) (http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/viewArticle.do?id=57272&sectionid=1021)


Title: White Smokers - underwater Limestone Fountains - The Lost City
Post by: electrobleme on July 05, 2009, 13:40:19
White Smokers - Limestone Fountains of life, energy, chemicals and minerals?

White smokers are very different to Black Smokers (hydrothermal vents) but can be found next to each other in an underwater mound. This would suggest that they are part of the same system. Black Smokers are said to be caused by super heated water by Magma deep under the surface of the ocean floor and White Smokers by a chemical reaction with the sea water and basalt rock, in a process known as serpentinization (Anode/Cathode?)

Could they both be created as part of a system with Black Smokers having nothing to do with being heated by Magma?

Why do they produce gold?  Is it not because gold is in the Magma or rock but because it is created as part of the XEchange, a natural material with lot of it found in sea water.


White and Black Smokers - producing gold, chemicals and minerals

Quote

The TAG mound contains 1–2 weight per cent (wt per cent) of copper. The black smoker deposits contain 700 parts per million (ppm) of zinc and 250 ppb (parts per billion) of gold, whereas the white smoker deposits contain 1–4 wt per cent of zinc and 3 ppm of gold. The TAG mound has been compared to ancient massive sulphide deposits such as the deposits in Cyprus, Oman, and Newfoundland.

...Active hydrothermal vents typically have diameters of 50–200 m, and some are over 20 m high. These structures are generally referred to as mounds. In general, mounds have both black and white smokers. The chemistry of the sea water has been altered by reaction with basalts at depth.

The so-called TAG hydrothermal mound on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has been studied by researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute in the USA. The TAG mound is typical of mounds found on the MOR in having both black and white smokers. The top of the mound is composed of massive pyrite breccia. At depth, first anhydrite and then amorphous silica are also found. At still greater depth, the basalt wall-rock is rich in silica; the basalts then become rich in the alteration mineral chlorite. The mound itself is a 20-m cone with several black smoker chimney clusters. The minerals that form these chimneys are primarily pyrite (FeS2), with some chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and anhydrite (CaSO4). The fluids have a relatively low concentration of zinc (45 mmol l?1). White smokers are located at the edge of the mound. The minerals forming the vents are primarily pyrite and sphalerite (ZnS). The fluids have elevated concentrations of zinc (300–400 mmol l?1) in comparison with those of the black smokers.
Black and White Hydrothermal vents - encyclopedia.com (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O112-blacksmokersandwhitesmkrs.html[/url)


The Lost City - White Smoker

Quote
Hydrocarbons—molecules critical to life—are routinely generated by the simple interaction of seawater with the rocks under the Lost City hydrothermal vent field in the Atlantic Ocean, according to research led by the University of Washington and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI).

Hydrocarbons-molecules with various combinations of hydrogen and carbon atoms-are crucial to cellular life. For instance, cell walls can be built from simple hydrocarbon chains, and amino acids are short hydrocarbon chains hooked up with nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur atoms.

Black smokers are so named because it can appear as if dark smoke is billowing from them. In fact, the “smoke” is actually iron- and sulfur-rich minerals precipitating from scalding vent waters—as hot as 760°F—meet the icy cold depths. The spires and mounds that form are mottled mixes of sulfide minerals.

In contrast, structures at the Lost City hydrothermal vent field are nearly pure carbonate—the same material as limestone in caves—and they range in color from white to cream to gray. These structures drape the cliffs at Lost City and range from the size of tiny toadstools to the 18-story column named Poseidon, which dwarfs most known black smoker vents by at least 100 feet.

The water venting at Lost City is generally 200°F. The fluids do not get as hot as the black smokers because it is not heated by magma; rather, the heat comes from serpentinization, a chemical reaction between seawater and mantle rock.

That’s also the reason for all the hydrocarbons. Naturally occurring carbon dioxide is locked in mantle rock. At Lost City, the reaction between the rock and seawater produces 10 to 100 times more hydrogen and methane (a hydrocarbon) than a typical black smoker system found along volcanic mid-ocean ridges, Proskurowski and Kelley found.

The Lost City system forms hydrocarbons in higher concentrations and with more complexity than at typical black smoker systems, says Kelley, a UW professor of oceanography and principal investigator on a 2005 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) expedition that gathered samples analyzed for the Science paper.

The hydrocarbons produced at Lost City were not formed from atmospheric carbon dioxide because none of the carbon carries the radioisotopic signature that would be present if they had been exposed to sunlight, Proskurowski says.

Analysis of rock from Lost City shows that the hydrocarbons are not coming from the living biosphere either. Rock in contact with seawater has a very consistent ratio of carbon dioxide to helium. But the rock at Lost City had a strikingly different ratio. It turns out that the depleted amount of carbon dioxide in the rocks roughly equals the amount of hydrocarbons being produced in the fluids, he says.

Lost City is exceptional, Kelley says, because chemical reactions in the seafloor produce acetate, formate, hydrogen, and alkaline fluids. All these substances may have been key to the emergence of life, according to work published recently by Michael Russell and A.J. Hall of Glasgow and William Martin of Germany.

The Lost City hydrothermal vent field lies about 2,300 miles east of Florida, along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, at a depth of 2,600 feet. Microorganisms there thrive in alkaline vent fluids, some nearly as caustic as liquid drain cleaner. This contrasts to the previously studied black-smoker vents, where organisms have adjusted to acidic water. Lost City microbes live off methane and hydrogen instead of the carbon dioxide that is the key energy source for life at black-smokers.

Although nobody has found another field like Lost City, Kelley says she's sure others exist because there are so many other places where mantle rock has been thrust up through the seafloor, exposing it to seawater and serpentinization. It is likely that even more mantle rock was present in the oceans of early Earth, Kelley says.
Lost City Pumps Life-essential Chemicals at Rates Unseen at Typical Black Smokers - Oceanus Magazine (http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=12458&tid=282&cid=38007[/url)


Title: Fountains of the Deep: Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS)
Post by: electrobleme on July 05, 2009, 15:17:26
Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS)

These are thought to be created by Black Smokers, with plate tectonics moving them onto the land. Does this mean that the Abitibi Greenstone belt of Canada was a Mid Ocean Ridge? Maybe they were produced on the seafloor then the land pulled up or they are a land variation of what process causes the Black and maybe White Smokers?

Sea floor spreading or Mid Ocean Rifts are where new material is produced. If the earth is expanding or producing its own material (http://www.xearththeory.com/#midoceanridges) then you would expect to see fresh material. If minerals and chemicals are produced inside the earth or at points of potential difference then these ridges are a good location. Scientists say that the youngest or freshest rock found is in these areas.


Volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits (VHMS) - Gold and other minerals also formed

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Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits also known as VMS deposits are among the most highly mined all orders in the world. They are found on all the continents, and are fossilized black smokers found associated with global rift systems or spreading centers. Good examples of this kind of deposit can be found in Canada; especially in the provinces of Québec and Ontario. These include some of the biggest deposits ever found such as those found at Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec, or Sudbury and Timmins Ontario.

The Horne deposit at Rouyn-Noranda was so large that it actually created a company just on the basis of that one deposit (the massive sulfide deposits)

The VMS deposit at Sudbury. Ontario however has a different origin in the early Proterozoic a large meteorite struck the area and created a crater over 250 miles in diameter. Subsequently the crater filled with gabbro that was charged with nickel and copper. Since the metals were heavier then the surrounding gabbro melt they settled to the bottom of the crater. Subsequent earth movements greatly distorted the crater however to the form it is today.

Timmins, Ontario was the site of the Porcupine gold rush in the early 1900s. This was the largest gold rush ever far exceeding both the California Gold Rush and the Klondike Gold Rush. The gold mines of Timmins are still operating although many of the original mines have closed down over the years the Timmins area has produced over 67,000,000 ounces of gold.

The Kidd Creek mine itself is being operated for the base metals copper, lead, zinc, silver, indium and cadmium. It is a very similar deposit to the Horne deposit in Rouyn- Noranda although the mineralogy is somewhat different.

All of these VMS deposits are found in the Abitibi Greenstone belt of Canada this extends from Wawa Ontario for over 500 miles into Quebec. It is one of the most highly mineralized areas in the world having a large number of mines, prospects, and mineral showings.

It is assumed by geologists today that these great mineral deposits originally formed at the bottom of the sea over 2 billion years ago in rift zones also known as spreading centers as black smokers. These are ultra hot Springs jetting water out of the bottom of the sea at about 400°C. This hot water is charged with heavy metal sulfides that precipitate out of the water just as soon as it cools off. The heavy metal sulfides that precipitate out of the water look like black smoke and quickly fall out onto the ocean bottom surrounding the smoker. The smoker even develops the chimney of metal sulfides. This all gets caught up into plate tectonics and true tectonic action of eventually comes ashore onto some continent as a mineral deposit.
Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Ore Deposits (http://ezinearticles.com/?Volcanogenic-Massive-Sulfide-Deposits&id=1640731[/url)


Ancient massive sulphide deposits on Cyprus, Oman and Newfoundland

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The TAG mound contains 1–2 weight per cent (wt per cent) of copper. The black smoker deposits contain 700 parts per million (ppm) of zinc and 250 ppb (parts per billion) of gold, whereas the white smoker deposits contain 1–4 wt per cent of zinc and 3 ppm of gold. The TAG mound has been compared to ancient massive sulphide deposits such as the deposits in Cyprus, Oman, and Newfoundland. The total amount of copper in the TAG mound is about 3.9?×?106 tonnes: more or less identical to that of the Cyprus deposit (3?×?106 t). The major difference between the Cyprus and the TAG metal deposits is that no anhydrite is found in Cyprus whereas the TAG mound has about 105 m3 of that mineral. This is due to the retrograde solubility of the anhydrite, which has been dissolved out by cold waters that have percolated through the Cyprus formation over a long period of time. This has caused the Cyprus mound, to collapse and form a breccia. The only other difference is that the TAG mound contains amorphous silica (SiO2), whereas the Cyprus mound has jasper—a microcrystalline form of silica, SiO2. Jasper is a typical ageing product of amorphous silica.
black smokers and white smokers - VMS - encyclopedia.com (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O112-blacksmokersandwhitesmkrs.html[/url)


Title: Black Smokers - spires made of copper and iron ores 3 miles underwater
Post by: electrobleme on April 12, 2010, 17:58:33

Black Smokers - spires made of copper and iron ores 3 miles underwater


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British explorers have found the world's deepest undersea volcanic vents more than three miles under the sea.

Scientists from the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton made the discovery in the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean using a remote-controlled robot submarine.

They discovered slender spires made of copper and iron ores.

The water being pumped out from of the so-called "black smokers" is hot enough to melt lead.

The area is almost half a mile deeper than has ever been seen before and, with extremely high water pressure, it is tantamount to a "hell on Earth".

The boiling water that gushes out from deep-sea vents helps to nourish colonies of marine creatures.
British team finds so-called "hell on Earth" | yahoo.com (http://uk.news.yahoo.com/4/20100412/tuk-british-team-finds-so-called-hell-on-dba1618.html)