How are elements formed?

light heavy chemical metal elements formed made created science theoryHow are elements formed? How are elements formed?

What were the origin of elements?

Why and how do we have different chemical elements?

Are elements still being created? Are elements still being transmuted or destroyed in the present without chemical or nuclear fusion processes?

Below is information and explanations of how elements were created according to standard science and the Big Bang theory. These are different to possible ideas that the Electric Universe theory proposes on how elements may have been formed and are being formed now.

Elements formed - standard science theory

All 92 elements on Earth, including those that make up our bodies, were formed at the heart of a star. Small stars like our Sun produce the lighter atoms through fusion reactions. Larger stars with heavier cores make the heavier elements up to iron. The rest are forged by exploding supernovae or the death of largest stars.
How are elements made? |

elements eu theory evidence big bang metal helium

Approximately 73% of the mass of the visible universe is in the form of hydrogen. Helium makes up about 25% of the mass, and everything else represents only 2%. While the abundance of these more massive ("heavy", A > 4) elements seems quite low, it is important to remember that most of the atoms in our bodies and Earth are a part of this small portion of the matter of the universe. The low-mass elements, hydrogen and helium, were produced in the hot, dense conditions of the birth of the universe itself. The birth, life, and death of a star is described in terms of nuclear reactions. The chemical elements that make up the matter we observe throughout the universe were created in these reactions.
Origin of the Elements |

elements big bang theory evidence light heavy metals

Once the universe was created by the Big Bang, the only abundant elements present were hydrogen (H) and helium (He). These elements were not evenly distributed throughout space, and under the influence of gravity they began to "clump" to form more concentrated volumes. Evidence of this uneven distribution can be found in the anisotropies detected in the Cosmic Background Radiation (CMB) by the COBE satellite in the early 90's. These clumps would eventually form galaxies and stars, and through the internal processes by which a star "shines" higher mass elements were formed inside the stars. Upon the death of a star (in a nova or a supernova) these high mass elements, along with even more massive nuclei created during the nova or supernova, were thrown out into space to eventually become incorporated into another star or celestial body.
Formation of the High Mass Elements |

Big Bang theory

elements formation origin creation electric universe theory

During the formation of the universe some 14 billion years ago in the so-called ‘Big Bang’, only the lightest elements were formed – hydrogen and helium along with trace amounts of lithium and beryllium. As the cloud of cosmic dust and gases from the Big Bang cooled, stars formed, and these then grouped together to form galaxies.

The other 86 elements found in nature were created in nuclear reactions in these stars and in huge stellar explosions known as supernovae.
Elements and the ‘Big Bang’ theory - How elements are formed |

how were are elements formed created origin made

When the universe was first created, essentially all matter was in the form of two elements- hydrogen and helium. Their relative abundance (by weight) was 75% hydrogen and 25% helium. (This means that for every He nucleus there were 12 H nuclei/protons)
Formation of the High Mass Elements |

At first quarks and electrons had only a fleeting existence as a plasma because the annihilation removed them as fast as they were created. As the universe cooled, the quarks condensed into nucleons. This process was similar to the way steam condenses to liquid droplets as water vapor cools. Further expansion and cooling allowed the neutrons and some of the protons to fuse to helium nuclei. The 73% hydrogen and 25% helium abundances that exists throughout the universe today comes from that condensation period during the first three minutes. The 2% of nuclei more massive than helium present in the universe today were created later in stars.

... Substantial quantities of nuclei more massive than 4He were not made in the Big Bang because the densities and energies of the particles were not great enough to initiate further nuclear reactions.

It took hundreds of thousands of years of further cooling until the average energies of nuclei and electrons were low enough to form stable hydrogen and helium atoms. After about a billion years, clouds of cold atomic hydrogen and helium gas began to be drawn together under the influence of their mutual gravitational forces. The clouds warmed as they contracted to higher densities. When the temperature of the hydrogen gas reached a few million kelvin, nuclear reactions began in the cores of these protostars. Now more massive elements began to be formed in the cores of the very massive stars.
Origin of the Elements |

elements creation Big Bang Nucleosynthesistheory

The Big Bang was originally proposed in the context of making all the elements. But the lack of a stable nucleus with atomic weight A=5 meant that only isotopes of hydrogen, helium and a trace of lithium are produced in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the original Steady State proposal, all of the heavy elements were produced in stars by burning hydrogen into helium and then combining several helium nuclei [alpha particles] into heavier nuclei like carbon (3 alpha particles) and oxygen (4 alpha particles). In general the heavy element abundances relative to hydrogen are proportional to each other. Some stars have very little oxygen and these usually also have very little iron, and so on.
elements primordial helium big bang theory
But helium is definitely an exception to this rule. There is a non-zero floor to the helium abundance as the oxygen abundance goes to zero. This is shown in the plot at right which shows the helium and oxygen abundances relative to hydrogen by number of nuclei in the Sun and several ionized hydrogen nebulae [H II regions] in our Milky Way [M42 is the Orion nebula, M17 is the Omega nebula], in the nearby dwarf galaxies known as the Large and Small Magellanic clouds [LMC and SMC], and in other extragalactic H II regions. This plot clearly shows that solid line, which allows for the primordial helium produced in the Big Bang, is a much better fit than the dashed line which is the prediction of the Steady State model with no primordial helium. The data for this plot were taken from Figure 1b of a recent paper on the element abundances in the Sun. Shortly before the discovery of the CMB killed the Steady State model, Hoyle & Tayler (1964, Nature, 203, 1008) wrote "The Mystery of the Cosmic Helium Abundance" in which they decided that most of the helium in the Universe was not produced in stars. Hoyle held open the possibility of explosions in supermassive objects instead of a single Big Bang, but ordinary stars were ruled out.
Errors in the Steady State and Quasi-SS Models |

Elements from stars and our Sun

elements formation stars sun creation origin

For most of their lives, stars fuse elemental hydrogen into helium in their cores. Two atoms of hydrogen are combined in a series of steps to create helium-4. These reactions account for 85% of the Sun’s energy. The remaining 15% comes from reactions that produce the elements beryllium and lithium.
Elements and our Sun - How elements are formed |

There are a number of possible pathways for H fusion, but the primary reaction mechanisms are believed to be the PROTON-PROTON CHAIN (p-p chain), or the CARBON-NITROGEN-OXYGEN CYCLE (CNO cycle). Which mechanism is utilized depends on the conditions in the core of a particular star. The proton-proton chain occurs under milder conditions (lower temperature and pressure) than the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle.
Formation of the High Mass Elements |

Dying stars (supernova)

elements supernova formed created fusion origin

When a star’s core runs out of hydrogen, the star begins to die out. The dying star expands into a red giant, and this now begins to manufacture carbon atoms by fusing helium atoms.

More massive stars begin a further series of nuclear burning or reaction stages. The elements formed in these stages range from oxygen through to iron.

During a supernova, the star releases very large amounts of energy as well as neutrons, which allows elements heavier than iron, such as uranium and gold, to be produced. In the supernova explosion, all of these elements are expelled out into space.
chemical elements formation stars nuclear
Our world is literally made up of elements formed deep within the cores of stars now long dead. As Britain’s Astronomer Royal Sir Martin Rees said, “We are literally the ashes of long dead stars.” When you buy a party balloon that floats in air, it is filled with helium gas – most of which was created when the universe was only 3 minutes old!

Examples of element making (nucleogenesis) in helium burning reactions:

3 helium atoms fusing to give a carbon atom: 3 @ 4He → 12C
carbon atom + helium atom fusing to give an oxygen atom: 12C + 4He → 16O
oxygen atom + helium atom fusing to give a neon atom: 16O + 4He → 20Ne
neon atom + helium atom fusing to give a magnesium atom: 20Ne + 4He → 24Mg
Dying stars - How elements are formed |

As the fusion process continues, the concentration of Fe increases in the core of the star, the core contracts, and the temperature increases again. When the temperature reaches a point where Fe can undergo nuclear reactions, the resulting reactions are different than the ones that have previously taken place. Fe nuclei are the most stable of all atomic nuclei. Because of this, when they undergo nuclear reactions, they don't release energy, but absorb it. Therefore, there is no release of energy to balance the force of gravity. In fact, there is actually a decrease in the internal pressure that works with gravity to make the collapse of the core more intense. In this collapse, the Fe nuclei in the central portion of the core are broken down into alpha particles, protons, and neutrons and are compressed even further. However, they cannot be infinitely compressed. Eventually, the outer layers of material rebound off the compressed core and are thrown outward.

... Under the extreme conditions of this collision, two things happen that lead to the formation of the heaviest elements. First, the temperature reaches levels that cannot be attained by even the most massive stars. This gives the nuclei present large kinetic energies, making them very reactive. Second, because of the breaking apart of the iron nuclei in the central core, there is a high concentration of neutrons (called the neutron flux) that are ejected from the core during the supernova. These neutrons are captured by surrounding nuclei, and then decay to a proton by emitting an electron and an antineutrino. Each captured neutron will cause the atomic number of that nucleus to go up by one upon its decay.
Formation of the High Mass Elements |

elements from supernova type 1a 2 white dwarf heavy star

Supernova explosions that have created most of the heavy elements in the Universe can be classified into Type II from massive stars and Type Ia from white dwarfs, which synthesize different amounts of heavy elements in different ratios. For the first time, we have measured the amount of elements from Oxygen to Iron in hot gas in clusters of galaxies through observations with the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite "Suzaku." By comparing our results with the predicted amounts of heavy elements from the two types of supernovae, we have determined the total number of supernovae throughout the history of the Universe, and shown that there were roughly 3 times more Type II supernovae than Type Ias. We tehrefore infer that many massive stars existed during the formation of these galaxies, with a large number of supernova explosions. In the present-day universe, Type II Supernovae are rare in clusters of galaxies, but the evidence for a lareg number of past Type II supernovae still remain in the heavy elements that they created.
The Elemental Abundances of Clusters of Galaxies Reveal the Number of Supernova Explosions Since the Big Bang |

chemical elements carbon oxygen helium oxygen formation consumes carbon

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol “O” and atomic number 8. It is the 3rd most abundant chemical element in the universe and in our galaxy. Only 0.9% of the Sun’s mass is oxygen.

... On Earth, oxygen is the most abundant element by mass in the lithosphere (46%), in air it represents 21%, in the ocean it represents 89%, so it is also an essential element to sustain most life on earth , representing 25% of the biosphere and specifically 65% of the human body.

... Oxygen in nature is composed of three stable isotopes, 18-O, 17-O and 16-O which is the most abundant (99.7%) and 14 radioactive isotopes (15-O is the most stable with an average life of 122.24 seconds, decaying into Nitrogen)

Most of the 16-O is formed at the end of the helium fusion process in massive stars in the center of supernova stars in the presence of carbon and helium (nuclear fusion because 12-Carbon with an alpha particle 4-Helium). It is said that the process of “oxygen formation consumes carbon”.
Oxygen |

Man-made elements

Only 90 of the 116 known elements occur naturally, so where have the other 26 come from? The answer is to be found in the development of nuclear power plants and machines known as particle accelerators:

Scientists discovered that, by allowing fast neutrons to collide with the common isotope of uranium known as U-238 in a nuclear reactor, the ‘new’ element plutonium was made.
By smashing atoms together in machines known as particle accelerators, it was discovered that new elements could be made. For example, bombarding atoms of the element curium with atoms of neon made element 106 – seaborgium.
Man-made elements - How elements are formed |