Electric Sun and stars

electric sun model cathode anode theoryElectric Sun and stars powered by an Electric Universe? Or a nuclear powered Sun and stars?

A large proportion of those who follow the Electric Universe theory (EU theory) suggest that perhaps the Sun and stars are electrical powered through various methods or models of plasma phenomena.

There is also debate if it is an Cathode Sun Model (Charles Chandler) or an Anode Sun Model (Thunderbolts)?
electric sun cathode anode model stars hotter on outside
Some EU theory believers/investigators consider the idea of a Plasmoid Sun and Stars or the Aether Converter Iron Sun Theory and other variations.

If it is an Electric Universe and stars are powered by natural electromagnetic forces could you even have different systems/models for all the different types of stars?

Electric Sun theory

The SAFIRE Project is investigating the Electric Sun hypothesis. If it is found that it is not an Electric Sun or not an Electric Anode Sun then is that the end of the Thunderbolts version of the Electric Universe theory?

Below are information quotes, with links to their source articles. These are split into groups:

  • History of ES Model
  • Implications of Electric Stars and Electric Universe examples
  • Anode Sun Model
  • Cathode Sun Model

Electric stars in an Electric Universe

Wallace Thornhill explains his ideas of electric suns in this 1 hour video.

The Birth of Electric Sun Model

Some quotes on the history and proponents who lit up the path for a plasma/electromagnetic model for our Sun and stars.

The Electric Sun theory (also Electric Star theory, and Electric Sun Model and Electric Sun Hypothesis) is the idea that the Sun (and stars) derives the main sources of its power electrically from its surroundings, rather than from within by nuclear fusion (the mainstream view).

The Electric Sun is often attributed to a 1972 article by Ralph Juergens, who acknowledges priority to a 1958 Melvin Cook monograph, and inspiration from Immanuel Velikovsky's 1946 monograph, Cosmos Without Gravitation (though Velikovsky himself did not endorse it). Others who have continued to research and promote the Electron Sun theory include Wal Thornhill, and Don Scott.
Electric Sun theory | electricuniverse.info

Alfvén proposed the electrical circuit diagram for a star. It is in the form of a simple Faraday motor, which explains why the Sun’s equatorial plasma is driven fastest. It also explains the presence of the circumstellar disk, formed and held there by electromagnetic forces and not by weak gravity. And the problem of transfer of rotational energy does not arise because the entire system is held by powerful electromagnetic forces and driven like an electric motor.
Assembling the Solar System | holoscience

More than 60 years ago, Dr. Charles E. R. Bruce, of the Electrical Research Association in England, offered a new perspective on the Sun. An electrical researcher, astronomer, and expert on the effects of lightning, Bruce proposed in 1944 that the Sun’s "photosphere has the appearance, the temperature and the spectrum of an electric arc; it has arc characteristics because it is an electric arc, or a large number of arcs in parallel." This discharge characteristic, he claimed, "accounts for the observed granulation of the solar surface." Bruce’s model, however, was based on a conventional understanding of atmospheric lightning, allowing him to envision the “electric” Sun without reference to external electric fields.
The Electric Glow of the Sun | thunderbolts TPOD

The development of Eddington’s theories was ruled more by mathematical aesthetics than empirics. Somehow an explosive nuclear energy source in the core had to be initiated and then tamed. The lethal radiation from the core needed to be contained and ‘cooled’ by collisions in a so-called radiative zone inside the Sun. After about 171,000 years, on average, the more benign energy is transferred to space by convection and subsequent radiation. There is no experimental confirmation of such a bizarre body composed principally of hydrogen, transferring energy internally by radiation, or of the hypothetical thermonuclear reactions at its core. Observations of the Sun are forced to fit the model and anomalies abound.
Our Misunderstood Sun | Wal Thornhill on holoscience

Another outsider was Charles E. R. Bruce. He was a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society (1942), the Institute of Physics (1964), the Institution of Electrical Engineers (1965), and was a member of the Electrical Research Association (ERA) from 1924 until his retirement in 1967. His interest in astronomy and study of lightning led him to write in 1968:

“The main observational evidence indicating the existence of cosmic electrical discharges is the same as that which would lead an external observer to conclude that lightning flashes occur in our own atmosphere — namely, the sudden change they effect in the spectra of the Sun, stars and galaxies. In the Sun’s spectrum, lines suddenly appear indicating the existence of gas temperatures of hundreds of thousands or even millions of degrees.”
Charles Bruce quote from Electric Fields in Space, Penguin Science Survey 1968, page 173
Twinkle, twinkle electric star | holoscience

The belief in the electrical neutrality of the universe has led to the theory that stars must generate their energy by feeding on themselves. Despite decades of ad hoc adjustments, the theory still fails to explain most of the observed features of the Sun. The electric model of stars shows that the classification of stars and gas-giant planets on the basis of their calculated mass is incorrect. Stars are an electrical phenomenon and rely on their electrical environment for their mass, appearance and classification. Their cores do not burn with a thermonuclear fire and they are much cooler than the hot plasma discharge that envelops them. The Sun is stone cold compared to its corona. That is why the interior of the Sun, seen through its sunspots, is much cooler than the electrical storms that rage above in its photosphere. The bright plasma shell of a star, particularly giant stars, may be much larger than the solid core that is the focus of the cosmic discharge. Stars and gas giants may occasionally reduce internal electrical stress by ejecting some of their charged core, usually equatorially, in a nova type outburst. The light curves of novae show the typical rapid onset and slow decay of lightning. The result of the outburst is an expulsion disk and closely orbiting companions.
Cassini’s Homecoming | holoscience

Electric Sun theory implications and examples

Electric star births

Plasma physicists argue that stars are formed by an electromagnetic “pinch” effect on widely dispersed gas and dust. The “pinch” is created by the magnetic force between parallel current filaments that are part of the huge electric currents flowing inside a galaxy. It is far more effective than gravity in concentrating matter and, unlike gravity, it can remove excess angular momentum that tends to prevent collapse. Stars will form like beads on a wire until gravity takes over.

The late Ralph Juergens, an engineer from Flagstaff, Arizona, in the 1970’s took the next mental leap to suggest that the electrical input doesn’t stop there and that stars are not thermonuclear engines! This is obvious when the Sun is looked at from an electrical discharge perspective. The galactic currents that create the stars persist to power them. Stars behave as electrodes in a galactic glow discharge. Bright stars like our Sun are great concentrated balls of lightning! The matter inside stars becomes positively charged as electrons drift toward the surface. The resulting internal electrostatic forces prevent stars from collapsing gravitationally and occasionally cause them to “give birth” by electrical fissioning to form companion stars and gas giant planets. Sudden brightening, or a nova outburst marks such an event.

That elucidates why stars commonly have partners and why most of the giant planets so far detected closely orbit their parent star. Stellar evolution theory and the age of stars is an elaborate fiction. The appearance of a star is determined largely by its electrical environment and can change suddenly. Plasma physicists and electrical engineers are best able to recognize plasma discharge phenomena. Stellar physics is in the wrong hands.
Electric Stars | holoscience

But Venus was also identified as a spectacular discharging comet in the ancient congregation of planets. What can be made of that? It can be explained if Venus was the latest child of Saturn. As explained earlier, Saturn shows the symptoms of having given birth recently. The birth would be triggered by a sudden change in Saturn’s electrical environment when it crossed from interstellar space into the Sun’s plasma envelope, or heliosphere. The voltage drop across the Sun’s plasma sheath would almost equal the full driving potential of the Sun, measured in tens of billions of volts. Rather than being an anode in the galactic discharge, Saturn would become a cathode in the Sun’s environment and subject to forming cathode jets. Saturn could be expected to ‘spit the dummy’ in such a circumstance! Venus was one such ‘dummy,’ ejected from the equator of Saturn.
Cassini’s Homecoming | holoscience

Plasma pinch stars and sun

Plasma is a gas in which electrons have been removed from some of the atoms – in other words, it is ionised. Like a metal where the electrons are free to move, plasma is an excellent electrical conductor. 99.999% of matter in the universe is composed of plasma. A charged plasma has a small excess of negative or positive charge. Plasma naturally forms filaments in response to electric and magnetic fields. Those filaments may “pinch” magnetically to form stars. Stars are not isolated but receive electrical power from the galaxy – hence the million degree solar corona.
GRAVITY vs PLASMA | holoscience

Filaments are the Star

Stars can form like silver beads on a string, threading through galaxies for great distances. The filamentary nature of the cosmos was one of Herschel’s most important contributions to the study of plasma phenomena in space. When plasma moves through a cloud of dust and gas, the cloud becomes ionized, initiating an electric field and the flow of electric charge. Electricity moving through any substance forms magnetic fields that tend to align and constrict the current flow. Those fields create what are known as Birkeland currents.

“The greatest surprise was the ubiquity of filaments in these nearby clouds and their intimate connection with star formation.”

Birkeland current filaments carry electric charges through space. They isolate regions of opposite charge and prevent them from neutralizing. Almost every body in the Universe displays some kind of filamentation. Planetary nebulae form elaborate webs of tendrils; Herbig-Haro stars and energetic galaxies emit braided jets.

Since the various loads in galactic circuits radiate energy, they must be powered by coupling with larger circuits. How large those circuits are is not known. However, since galaxies, like stars, can also occur in strings, and are joined together by filaments, it seems as if their proportions are truly universal.

“…these observations revealed that filaments, which may extend to several light-years in length, appear to have a universal width of about one third of a light year. This suggests that something fundamental is lurking underneath.”
Electric Reticulation | Thunderbolts TPOD

saturn configuation Herbig-Haro object HHO
Plasma sheaths and solar wind

An important feature of plasma sheaths, or double layers, is that the electric field on either side of the thin double layer is very weak and the plasma there is ‘quasi neutral.’ That’s why we do not see evidence of a strong electric field from the charged Sun, and why the ‘solar wind’ appears to be electrically neutral. For this reason, the bulk movement and magnetic field of the ‘solar wind’ best signify the Sun’s electrical activity.

The so-called ‘winds’ and ‘jets’ of stars are a form of ‘dark current,’ equivalent to the breeze from an air ionizer. The enigma of prodigious stellar winds accelerating away from the ‘cool’ photospheres of red giant stars is simply solved.
PLASMA COSMOLOGY - Twinkle, twinkle electric star | holoscience

Each star, being an electrical body in a galactic discharge, will have a plasma sheath that limits the weak electric field between the star and the sheath. It is the Sun’s heliosphere. The plasma sheath is a “double layer” where almost the entire voltage drop between the star and the galaxy will be found.
Assembling the Solar System | holoscience

Prominence-solar flare circuit
Electric Sun
Whirling motions in the photosphere act as a generator, feeding energy into the circuit.

The circuit energy can be released either as a solar flare produced by an exploding double layer and/or as a kinetic energy in a rising prominence.
Double Layers in Astrophysics

Nikola Tesla and the Electric Sun

Rays in every respect similar to the cosmic are produced by my vacuum tubes when operated at pressures of ten millions of volts or more, but even if it were not confirmed by experiment, the theory I advanced in 1897 would afford the simplest and most probable explanation of the phenomena. Is not the universe with its infinite and impenetrable boundary a perfect vacuum tube of dimensions and power inconceivable? Are not its fiery suns electrodes at temperatures far beyond any we can apply in the puny and crude contrivances of our making? Is it not a fact that the suns and stars are under immense electrical pressures transcending any that man can ever produce and is this not equally true of the vacuum in celestial space? Finally, can there be any doubt that cosmic dust and meteoric matter present an infinitude of targets acting as reflectors and transformers of energy? If under ideal working conditions, and with apparatus on a scale beyond the grasp of the human mind, rays of surpassing intensity and penetrative power would not be generated, then, indeed, nature has made an unique exception to its laws.
Nikola Tesla - The Eternal Source of Energy of the Universe, Origin and Intensity of Cosmic Rays | jimdo.com

Electric stars have a Marklund convection physical structure?

An electric star is formed by the equivalent of a lightning bolt in a molecular (plasma) cloud. Just like earthly lightning, cosmic lightning scavenges, squeezes and heats matter along the discharge channel. Where the squeeze is most intense, the current may ‘pinch off’ to give the effect of ‘bead lightning.’ In high-energy plasma lab discharges researchers have found that hot plasma ‘beads’ (known as plasmoids) form along the discharge axis before “scattering like buckshot” when the discharge quenches.

Another important phenomenon known as ‘Marklund convection’ occurs along the discharge axis. It separates the chemical elements radially. Marklund convection causes helium to form a diffuse outer layer, followed by a hydrogen layer, then oxygen and nitrogen in the middle layers, and iron, silicon and magnesium in the inner layers. So electric stars should have a core of heavy elements and an upper atmosphere mostly of hydrogen. This renders the difference between stars and planets to be more apparent than real.

In addition to scavenging elements, stars produce electrically in the high-energy electrical discharges of their photospheres all of the elements required to form rocky planets. Nucleosynthesis of heavy elements does not require a supernova explosion. Planets are then born by electrical expulsion of matter from the body of the star in the form of giant mass ejection events, like we see in miniature in solar outbursts. Large stellar flares and nova outbursts probably signal the birth of planets. Disks of matter encircling stars are not due to gravitational accretion but to electrical expulsion.
STAR FORMATION - Twinkle, twinkle electric star | holoscience

Universally powered electric stars

The basic premise of the Electric Star theory is that stars are immersed in plasma, and are connected by electric circuits that run throughout the galaxy. Since the Sun is also electrically interconnected with the galaxy and its planets, it should be thought of as a charged object that has reached equilibrium with the forces of its environment. That balance is not completely stable, however. The currents flowing into and out of the Sun can sometimes cause tremendous bursts of energy called solar flares.

... Solar flares are most likely cosmic lightning bursts, discharging vast quantities of matter at near relativistic speeds out into space. The circuit connecting the Sun with the Milky Way probably extends for thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of light-years, giving some indication that the electrical energy feeding the solar anode might be substantial, indeed.

As Electric Star theory relates, sunspots, flares, coronal heating, and all other solar activity most likely result from changes in the electrical input from our galaxy. Birkeland current filaments slowly rotate through the Solar System, supplying more or less power to the Sun as they go.
Sunspot AR 2192 | thunderbolts TPOD

Electric starlight

The exception is the work of a remarkable engineer from Flagstaff Arizona, the late Ralph Juergens. In his model, stars simply form a positive electrode (anode) in a galactic glow discharge. The Sun and all stars are lit up by the electrical energy that shapes and flows along the arms of the galaxy. The Sun is a giant ball of lightning! This surprisingly simple model fits all of the observations about our Sun and forms one of the key ideas in the Electric Universe. A star’s size, brightness and color are then largely determined by its electrical environment. That explains the puzzling lack of neutrinos expected from nuclear reactions in the Sun’s core, and how some stars are able to vary their output far more quickly than the thermonuclear model allows.

In the last few years a new class of faint stars has been discovered. They are called L-Type Brown Dwarfs because the element lithium appears in their spectra. They are the most numerous stellar objects in the galaxy and bridge the gap between stars and Jupiter-sized planets. They are too small to be shining from internal thermonuclear power. A further puzzle is that they radiate blue and ultraviolet light even though they are cool at a temperature around 950K. Water molecules dominate their spectra.

All of these puzzles are simply explained by an electric star. There is no lower limit to the size of a body that can accept electric power from the galaxy so the temperatures of smaller dwarfs will range down to levels conducive to life. The light of a red star is due to the distended anode glow of an electrically low-stressed star. The blue and ultraviolet light come from a low-energy corona. (Our Sun’s more compact red anode glow is seen briefly as the chromosphere during total solar eclipses. And the Sun is electrically stressed to the extent that bright anode “tufting” covers its surface with granulations and the corona emits higher energy ultraviolet light and x-rays as relativistic electrons strike it).
Other stars, other worlds, other life? | holoscience

Electric Sunspots

From an Electric Universe perspective, sunspot filaments indicate that they are charge vortices. Looking down into a sunspot means seeing the rotating discharge columns in profile. Electric discharges in plasma form rope-like, hollow tendrils. Since they are funnels of plasma, their centers are darker, where convection cells would appear darker at their edges. Standard theory does not accept that the darker and cooler regions revealed by sunspots means that the Sun, as well as other stars, are cooler in their interiors.

What does such an extremely large starspot mean when analyzed from the Electric Star theory? As a previous Picture of the Day argues, stars shine because electricity flows through each galaxy. Stars can be thought of as (relatively) slow-motion lightning. It is this simple understanding that best matches observational evidence. Retired Professor of Electrical Engineering Donald Scott wrote in his acclaimed book The Electric Sky that a star’s size, luminosity, and color have little to do with its age.

Stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are not there based on a conventional model of stellar evolution, they receive input from galactic electrical circuits. As Dr. Scott wrote, the primary indicator for a star’s behavior is current density at its surface. Stars do not rely on internally generated fusion fires to supply them with energy.

Physicist and Electric Universe advocate Wal Thornhill also proposes an electrical model for stars. Electric currents in space are primarily due to the flow of electrons through interstellar plasma, and not the movement of positive ions. This means that stars are lacking in electrons because of a charge separation process. Stars can be considered “positive anodes” in a galactic glow discharge.

Since HD 12545 is an electric star, the dark region is where electric charge is flowing with the least amperage.
Super Spot | Thunderbolts TPOD

Star types due to current
electric saturn stars suns evidence electric universe theory eu

In the ES [Electric Star] model, perhaps the most important factor in determining any given star's characteristics is the strength of the current density in Amperes per square meter (A/m2) measured at that star's surface. If a star's incoming current density increases, the arc discharges on its surface (photospheric tufts) will get hotter, change color (away from red, toward blue), and get brighter. The absolute brightness of a star, therefore, depends on two things: the strength of the current density impinging into its surface, and the star's size (the star's diameter). Therefore, we add another scale to the horizontal axis of the HR diagram: Current Density at the Star's Surface.

... In the ES [Electric Star] model, there is no minimum temperature or mass requirement. If a brown/red dwarf is operating near the upper boundary of the dark current mode, any slight increase in the level of current density impinging on any portion of the surface of that star will shift this plasma into the normal glow mode."

The first region on the lower right of the diagram is where the current density has such a low value that double layers (DLs) (photospheric granules) are not needed by the plasma surrounding the (anode) star. This is the region of the brown and red "dwarfs" and giant gas planets. Recent discoveries of extremely cool L - Type and T - Type dwarfs has required the original diagram to be extended to the lower right (See below). These 'stars' have extremely low absolute luminosity and temperature.

Is saturn a star sun binary system plasma cosmology

Notice that the surface temperature of the T - Type dwarfs is in the range of 1000 K or less! For comparison purposes recall that some points on the surface of Venus are in the range of 900 K. T - Type spectra have features due mostly to Methane - they resemble Jupiter's spectrum. The plasma that constitutes a star of this type is in its 'normal glow' range - or perhaps, even the 'dark current' range. If all stars are indeed powered by a nuclear fusion reaction as is claimed, with the T dwarfs we must be in the 'cold fusion' range! Indeed, for fusion reactions to occur, standard theory requires that the temperature in a star's core must reach at least three million K. And because, in the accepted model, core temperature rises with gravitational pressure, the star must have a minimum mass of about 75 times the mass of the planet Jupiter, or about 7 percent of the mass of our sun. Many of the dwarfs do not meet these requirements. One mainstream astrophysicist, realizing this, has said that these dwarfs must be powered by 'gravitational collapse'.
Stellar Evolution - Electric Cosmology | Electric Cosmos

Supernova - exploding stars

Electric Universe theory agrees with conventional astrophysics in that a supernova can be referred to as an “exploding star.” However, that explosion is due to the breakdown of double layers and not end-game fusion processes. Stars are powered from external currents of electric charge flowing through vast circuits in space. Rather than “core rebound” or “white dwarf accretion,” supernovae are the result of a stellar “circuit breaker”, where the stored electromagnetic energy in the circuit is suddenly focused at one point. When a star’s double layer explodes, the electromagnetic energy stored in a vast galactic circuit flows into the explosion.

Electric Universe advocate Wal Thornhill wrote: “The conventional ‘implosion followed by explosion’ model has many shortcomings…A star also has electromagnetic energy stored in an equatorial current ring. Matter is ejected equatorially by discharges between the current ring and the star…if the stored energy reaches some critical value it may be released in the form of a bipolar discharge, or ejection of matter, along the rotational axis.”
Galactic Speedway | Thunderbolts TPOD

Electric Binary Stars similar to Jupiter-Io system?

In 2002, Kinwah Wu et al proposed:
'a model for stellar binary systems consisting of a magnetic and a non-magnetic white dwarf pair which is powered principally by electrical energy. In our model the luminosity is caused by resistive heating of the stellar atmospheres arising from induced currents driven within the binary. This process is reminiscent of the Jupiter-Io system, but greatly increased in power because of the larger companion and stronger magnetic field of the primary. Electrical power is an alternative stellar luminosity source, following on from nuclear fusion and accretion'
Electric powered binary stars | electricuniverse.info

Heliospheric circuit
Electric Sun diagram

The Sun acts as a unipolar inductor (A) producing a current which goes outward along both the axes (B2) and inward in the equatorial plane C1 and along the magnetic field lines B1.

The current must close at large distances (B3), either as a homogeneous current layer, or - more likely - as a pinched current.

Analogous to the auroral circuit, there may be double layers which should be located symmetrically at the Sun's axes. Such double layers have not yet been discovered.
Double Layers in Astrophysics

Anode Electric Sun Model (Positive Sun)

 anode electric sun model stars powered external

Electric Sun theory presupposes that the Sun is a positive terminal, or anode, in a complex interstellar circuit. The Sun’s negative pole, or cathode, is known as the heliosphere, a shell of charged particles surrounding the Sun’s electric discharge billions of kilometers away. Double layers at the heliosphere’s edge isolate the Sun’s plasma from galactic plasma. Galactic plasma is also called the Interstellar Medium (ISM).

Since Electric Universe theory assumes that all celestial bodies are connected by plasma filaments in vast circuits, the Sun must also be part of those circuits. The Sun is not an electrically stable object, however. Electric charge moves in and out of the Sun, sometimes increasing to the point where plasma discharges occur. Those tremendous lightning bolts are what heliophysicists call solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), although they would not think in terms of lightning.

A dark mode electric discharge radiates from the Sun in all directions. The “solar wind” travels outward to the edge of the Solar System at 700 kilometers per second, where it encounters the heliopause. Heat and pressure cannot explain how charged particles are accelerated as they pass by the planets on their way to the heliospheric cathode. No solar physicists expected such acceleration until it was discovered.

In an Electric Universe an obvious explanation exists for that acceleration: electric fields. Since electric charges travel through the Solar System in filamentary plasma tubes, then the Sun’s dark mode plasma can be affected by its electromagnetic fields. The easiest way to accelerate charge particles is in an electric field.
Solar Media | Thunderbolts TPOD

It is clear from the behavior of its relatively cool photosphere that the Sun is an anode, or positively charged electrode, in a galactic discharge. The red chromosphere is the counterpart to the glow above the anode surface in a discharge tube. When the current density is too high for the anode surface to accommodate, a bright secondary plasma forms within the primary plasma. It is termed ‘anode tufting.’ On the Sun, the tufts are packed together tightly so that their tops give the appearance of ‘granulation.’”

The stars receive their power from outside, not inside. Any nuclear reactions are taking place on the surface of the Sun and not in its core. The solar wind is an electric current connecting the Sun with its family of planets and with its galactic clan
Fusion Fires | thunderbolts TPOD

electric sun cathode anode model stars energy fields plasma

In this day and age there is no longer any doubt that electrical effects in plasmas play an important role in the phenomena we observe on the Sun. The major properties of the "Electric Sun (ES) model" are as follows:

Most of the space within our galaxy is occupied by plasma (rarefied ionized gas) containing electrons (negative charges) and ionized atoms (positive charges). Every charged particle in the plasma has an electric potential energy (voltage) just as every pebble on a mountain has a mechanical potential energy with respect to sea level. The Sun is at the center of a plasma cell, called the heliosphere, that stretches far out - several times the radius of Pluto. As of 9/9/2012 the radius of this plasma cell has been measured to be greater than 18 billion km or 122 times the distance from the Sun to Earth. These are facts not hypotheses.

The Sun is at a more positive electrical potential (voltage) than is the space plasma surrounding it - probably in the order of several billion volts.

Positive ions leave the Sun and electrons enter the Sun. Both of these flows add to form a net positive current flowing through the Sun (entering at the poles and leaving radially at lower latitudes). This constitutes a plasma discharge analogous in every way (except size) to those that have been observed in electrical plasma laboratories for decades. Because of the Sun's positive charge (voltage), it acts as the anode in a plasma discharge. As such, it exhibits many of the phenomena observed in earthbound plasma laboratory experiments.

The Sun may be powered, not from within itself, but from outside, by the electric (Birkeland) currents that flow in our arm of our galaxy as they do in all galaxies. This possibility - that the Sun may be externally powered by its galactic environment - is the most speculative idea in the ES hypothesis and is always attacked by critics while they completely ignore all the other more obvious properties of the ES model. In the Plasma Universe model, cosmic sized, low-density currents create the galaxies and the stars within those galaxies by the electromagnetic z-pinch effect. It is only a small extrapolation to ask whether these currents remain in place to power those stars. Galactic currents are of low current density, but, because the sizes of the stars are large, the total current (Amperage) is high. An electrically powered Sun's radiated power would be due to the energy delivered by that amperage. As it travels around the galactic center the Sun may come into regions of higher or lower current density and so its output may vary both periodically and randomly.
The Electric Sun Hypothesis | electric-cosmos.org

electric sun cathode anode model stars eu theory universe solar

As part of galactic interactions, the Electronic Sun theory postulates that sunspots, solar flares, anomalous coronal heating, and coronal mass ejections on the Sun are also due to changes in the electrical supply that it receives from the galaxy. In other words, the Sun is powered externally not internally, and it is not a self-regulating fusion reactor. Rather, Birkeland current filaments carry electricity through the Milky Way, supplying the Sun with more or less power as they go.

In an Electric Universe, plasma discharge behavior is thought to be the best model for solar activity. Laboratory experiments with a positively charged sphere show that a plasma torus forms above its equator. Electric discharges bridge the torus with the middle and lower latitudes of the sphere. Spicules are consistent with the principle of “anode tufting,” a plasma discharge effect expected of a positively charged electronic Sun.

Closeup images of sunspot filaments, seen clearly in sunspot penumbrae, indicate that they are charge vortices. Looking down into a sunspot means seeing the rotating discharge columns in profile. Electric discharges in plasma form rope-like, hollow tendrils. Since they are funnels of plasma, their centers are darker, where convection cells would appear darker at their edges.

The massive filament observed in association with the March 11, 2015 solar eruption spawned an X2.2 solar flare, revealing its electrical association. Although it was an Earth-facing event, it did not affect Earth-based or space-based communication systems. The Sun has not been so violent for several months since that date and appears to be entering a more quiescent phase.

Conventional thinking suggests that the Sun accelerates charged particles (solar flares and prominence eruptions) into space in the same way that sound waves are amplified. The photospheric plasma is said to travel outward through “acoustical wave-guides,” known as magnetic flux tubes. Structures called spicules rise thousands of kilometers above the photosphere and carry the hot gas with them.

However, if the Sun is the locus of positive charge with respect to interstellar plasma, sunspots will appear when electric discharges penetrate the photosphere, allowing electric current to flow into its depths. Electromagnetic flux tubes expose the Sun’s cooler interior. The idea of acoustic heat transfer from the core cannot be supported by any observations of the Sun.
Electromagnetic Fire | thunderbolts TPOD

In the electrical model, the Sun is the “anode” or positively charged body in the electrical exchange, while the "cathode" or negatively charged contributor is not a discrete object, but the invisible “virtual cathode” at the limit of the Sun’s coronal discharge. (Coronal discharges can sometimes be seen as a glow surrounding high-voltage transmission wires, where the wire discharges into the surrounding air). This virtual cathode lies far beyond the planets. In the lexicon of astronomy, this is the “heliopause.” In electrical terms, it is the cellular sheath or “double layer” separating the plasma cell that surrounds the Sun ("heliosphere”) from the enveloping galactic plasma.
The Electric Glow of the Sun | thunderbolts TPOD

Physicist and Electric Universe advocate Wal Thornhill also proposes an electrical model for stars. Electric currents in space are primarily due to the flow of electrons through interstellar plasma, and not the movement of positive ions. This means that stars are lacking in electrons because of a charge separation process. Stars can be considered “positive anodes” in a galactic glow discharge.
Super Spot | Thunderbolts TPOD

Cathode Electric Sun Model(Negative Sun)

Ralph Juergens electric sun cathode anode model stars solar discharge

The Electric Star model was inspired by Birkeland (1908), while Bruce (1944) was the first to say that the Sun was primarily an EM phenomenon, and Juergens (1979) went on to say that the primary source of energy in the Sun is an electric current between the Sun and the rest of the heliosphere.

The evidence that Juergens was on the right track is accumulating, though it appears that he had the polarity backwards. This we can determine simply on the basis of the gross physical characteristics of electrostatic discharges. If the Sun was positively charged, with a stream of electrons flowing inward from the interplanetary medium, nearing the Sun the electron streams would achieve relativistic speeds, and get pinched into discrete discharge channels that would connect with the Sun at distinct footpoints, like lightning. (See the left pane of Figure 1.) This, of course, is not at all what happens. The discharges actually take the form of "helmet streamers" with "footpoints" (if that term is even appropriate) that cover vast amounts of the solar surface. The flow is outward, and the streamers are pinched away from the Sun, becoming discrete filaments at roughly 2 SR. (See the right pane of Figure 1.)

The nature of the charging mechanism that creates the potential is another issue, which is discussed elsewhere. Regardless, it's clear that the properties of the Sun match those of a negative discharge quite nicely, while the Sun as an anode receiving electrons from the interplanetary medium would have properties that are entirely absent.
Critique of Ralph Juergens' Electric Star Model | Charles Chandler

I'm contending that there is an electric field between the Sun, which has a net negative charge, and the heliosphere, which has a net positive charge. That will get positive ions moving toward the Sun. In the case of highly ionized iron atoms spewed out in CMEs, the acceleration back into the Sun can be relativistic.

But we also see lighter elements (especially hydrogen) streaming out from the Sun in the solar wind, at up to 800 km/s. That's not really what you would call a relativistic velocity, but it's way past anything predictable on the basis of the thermal velocity (even at millions of degrees), so this is clearly non-Newtonian as well. So I'm contending that these positive ions are motivated away from the Sun by electron drag. Given the flow of electrons away from the Sun, some of the positive ions will get drug along with the electron stream. Once accelerated in that direction, the ions become candidates for electron uptake. As neutral atoms, the electric field no longer affects them, but they still might be hit by a free electron every now and again, and further accelerated. Hence in an electric field, as a general rule, positive ions go one way and electrons go the other, but the further you get from the cathode, the more chance there is of finding counter-streaming atomic nuclei.
Chandler's Astrophysics

Prove Cathode Sun Model | List of Charles Chandler investigations

Electric Sun Models links

The articles and websites quoted above are not listed below, these are forum discussions or other website places.

The Anode Sun Vs The Plasmoid Model (Thunderbolts forum)
Anode Sun vs Cathode Sun (Thunderbolts forum)
Questions about Safire (Thunderbolts forum)
Thunderbolts Picture of The Day subjects (old articles) - Solar (Thunderbolts)
Thunderbolts Picture of The Day subjects (old articles) - Stars (Thunderbolts)
On the "Electric Sun" Hypothesis ("debunked" article)