We think we know what gravity does but we do not know why it does it. There are theories about gravity but what gravity really is has not been confirmed.
Gravity is the weakest of the natural forces yet seems to have the biggest effect on space and life itself?
Could gravity be an electromagnetic force and not due to mass?
Normal Gravity (Mass Gravity)
Question: What is gravity?
Answer: We don't really know. We can define what it is as a field of influence, because we know how it operates in the universe. And some scientists think that it is made up of particles called gravitons which travel at the speed of light. However, if we are to be honest, we do not know what gravity "is" in any fundamental way - we only know how it behaves.
StarChild Question | NASA
What exactly is the strength of gravity? Surprisingly, physicists still can’t agree on the value of the ‘big G’ constant that features both in Isaac Newton’s law of gravitation — which dates back to the year 1687 — and in Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Different experimental techniques have found contradictory values for it. And the entrance of experiments based on quantum physics that exploit the wave-like aspects of matter have only made the discrepancy worse.
It is also possible that the discrepancy points not to a measurement problem but to something completely new. Some physicists have suggested that different techniques give different results because the physics of gravity itself needs to be revised.
Zombie physics: 6 baffling results that just won't die | Nature
There is a problem with Big G (so called to distinguish it from little g, the acceleration due to gravity at Earth's surface). Current measurements of it are, frankly, all over the place. Seven separate experiments in the past decade or so have given results that have a spread of about 0.05%. For a fundamental constant of physics, that is extraordinarily imprecise.
Don't stop the quest to measure Big G | Nature
gravity is the wimpiest of all forces in the universe.
This weakness also makes it the most mysterious, as scientists can't measure it in the laboratory as easily as they can detect its effects on planets and stars. The repulsion between two positively charged protons, for example, is 10^36 times stronger than gravity's pull between them—that's 1 followed by 36 zeros less macho.
... "Gravity is completely different from the other forces described by the standard model," said Mark Jackson, a theoretical physicist at Fermilab in Illinois. "When you do some calculations about small gravitational interactions, you get stupid answers. The math simply doesn't work."
Greatest Mysteries: What Causes Gravity? | Live Science
Gravity is the weakest of the four universal forces which also include nuclear force, weak radiation force, and electromagnetism ... Gravity affects light, time, matter and biology in a variety of ways. However, there are many questions about gravity that remain unanswered ... What exactly causes gravity? It appears to be a wavelike kinetic force, but no one knows for sure.
What is Gravity? Gravity Lesson | NASA
Gravity is the weakest of the four fundamental interactions of nature. The gravitational attraction is approximately 10−38 times the strength of the strong force (i.e. gravity is 38 orders of magnitude weaker), 10−36 times the strength of the electromagnetic force, and 10−29 times the strength of the weak force.
As a consequence, gravity has a negligible influence on the behavior of sub-atomic particles, and plays no role in determining the internal properties of everyday matter (but see quantum gravity).
On the other hand, gravity is the dominant force at the macroscopic scale, that is the cause of the formation, shape, and trajectory (orbit) of astronomical bodies, including those of asteroids, comets, planets, stars, and galaxies.
It is responsible for causing the Earth and the other planets to orbit the Sun; for causing the Moon to orbit the Earth; for the formation of tides; for natural convection, by which fluid flow occurs under the influence of a density gradient and gravity; for heating the interiors of forming stars and planets to very high temperatures; for solar system, galaxy, stellar formation and evolution; and for various other phenomena observed on Earth and throughout the universe.
Gravity | wikipedia
But physicists think about gravity all the time. To them, gravity is one of the mysteries to be solved in order to get a complete understanding of how the Universe works. So, what is gravity and where does it come from? To be honest, we’re not entirely sure.
... Our understanding of gravity breaks down at both the very small and the very big: at the level of atoms and molecules, gravity just stops working. And we can’t describe the insides of black holes and the moment of the Big Bang without the math completely falling apart.
The problem is that our understanding of both particle physics and the geometry of gravity is incomplete.
Where Does Gravity Come From? | Universe Today
The origin of mass in the electrical nature of matter
Without accepting his model in its entirety, I consider Ralph Sansbury’s straightforward electrical theory of magnetism and gravity to have conceptual merit. Simply stated, all subatomic particles, including the electron, are resonant systems of orbiting smaller electric charges of opposite polarity that sum to the charge on that particle. These smaller electric charges he calls ‘subtrons.’ This is the kind of simplification of particle physics required by Ockham’s razor and philosophically agreeable, though it leaves unanswered the real nature and origin of the subtrons. In this model, the electron cannot be treated like a fundamental, point-like particle. It must have structure to have angular momentum and a preferred magnetic orientation, known vaguely as ‘spin.’ There must be orbital motion of subtrons within the electron to generate a magnetic dipole. The transfer of energy between the subtrons in their orbits within the classical electron radius must be resonant and near instantaneous for the electron to be a stable particle. The same argument applies to the proton, the neutron, and, as we shall see —the neutrino.
This model satisfies Einstein’s view that there must be some lower level of structure in matter to cause resonant quantum effects. It is ironic that such a model requires the electric force between the charges to operate incomparably faster than the speed of light in order that the electron remain a coherent particle. It means that Einstein’s special theory of relativity, that prohibits signalling faster than light, must be repealed. A recent experiment verifies this.
Electric Gravity in an Electric Universe | Wal Thornhill on his website holoscience
Ralph Sansbury, the author of these calculations involving sub-electron particles, viewed gravity as involving radially oriented electrostatic dipoles generated by spin and orbiting i.e. by pure centripedal/centrifugal force.
In other words, if you were to put the Earth out into pure intergalactic space and stop all of its motions, it would have no gravity. As to the question of a surface charge attenuating gravity in prehistoric times, it doesn't seem to matter how the dipole effect was generated, the surface charge would neutralize it.
'tholden' post on Thornhill's Latest Gravity Presentation | Thunderbolts forum
MOND [Modified Newtonian Dynamics] was offered as an alternative to cold, dark matter’s inferred gravity field. Since stars on the outskirts of galactic disks revolve at greater-than-apparently-possible velocities, they “must be” experiencing the effects of an unseen and undetectable mass. In short, a volume of dark matter five times the volume of normal matter is supposed to exist in and around many, if not all, galaxies. It is that invisible matter that is said to be exerting itself so strongly.
Both phenomena, the deceleration of space probes in the Solar System, as well as the unexpected stellar velocities in galaxies, can be explained by one thing: electricity flowing through dusty plasma.
As a spacecraft travels through the interplanetary medium it builds up a negative charge differential with respect to the positive charge of the Sun. The Sun’s weak, radial electric field, extending outward for almost a light-day without diminishing, and generated by the movement of charged particles known as the “solar wind,” draws the negatively charged object back toward itself.
The linear attributes of MOND gravity theory are a powerful hint at what might actually be taking place in galaxies as well as star systems. Since electric forces can scale by many orders of magnitude, the weak, radial electric field of the Milky Way galaxy, for example, is most likely doing the same thing to the stars at its outer boundary as the Sun is doing to the charged objects within its sphere of influence.
The Sun is not keeping its family of planets in lockstep by gravity alone, its electric field is also acting in an additional, if not principal manner. It is the electric field of the galaxy that is keeping the stars in orbit around the nucleus, in addition to its far less powerful gravitational field. If electric fields and electrical transmission over star-spanning distances are given their due, MOND, dark matter and all the other ad hoc Big Bang theories would vanish.
As Electric Universe advocate Wal Thornhill wrote: “Common sense suggests that it is unlikely that the laws of physics will need to be rewritten, simply that we should understand better those we have. We need not trouble ourselves with arguments about the nature of gravity in this instance because the mystery can be solved if the electrical nature of the universe is acknowledged. The mystery only arises because astrophysics is taught incorrectly. Students are taught that any separation of charge in space is quickly neutralized as electrons rush to neutralize the charge imbalance. As a result, electricity in space is almost never mentioned, except as a transient effect.”
Charged Gravity | Thunderbolts TPOD
What is gravity?
Gravity is due to radially oriented electrostatic dipoles inside the Earth’s protons, neutrons and electrons. The force between any two aligned electrostatic dipoles varies inversely as the fourth power of the distance between them and the combined force of similarly aligned electrostatic dipoles over a given surface is squared. The result is that the dipole-dipole force, which varies inversely as the fourth power between co-linear dipoles, becomes the familiar inverse square force of gravity for extended bodies. The gravitational and inertial response of matter can be seen to be due to an identical cause. The puzzling extreme weakness of gravity (one thousand trillion trillion trillion trillion times less than the electrostatic force) is a measure of the minute distortion of subatomic particles in a gravitational field.
The 2,000-fold difference in mass of the proton and neutron in the nucleus versus the electron means that gravity will maintain charge polarization by offsetting the nucleus within each atom (as shown). The mass of a body is an electrical variable—just like a proton in a particle accelerator. Therefore, the so-called gravitational constant—‘G’ with the peculiar dimension [L]3/[M][T]2, is a variable! That is why ‘G’ is so difficult to pin down.
Electric Gravity in an Electric Universe | Wallace Thornhill on his website holoscience
A fair scale model of the cosmos can represent one light-year (the distance travelled by light in one year) by one mile, and also represent one Astronomical Unit (distance from the Sun to Earth) by one inch. In the model the orbit of the Earth around the Sun will be represented by a circle with a one-inch radius. An 880,000-mile diameter Sun will scale down to a mark of approximately 1/100 inch across – just a speck. Pluto the outermost planet (or planetesimal) will orbit around this speck at a radius of approximately three and a half feet. But the nearest star on the model – another mere speck – will lie four and a half miles away. This is fairly typical of the closest distances between any of the stars in the galaxy.
How conceivable can it be, therefore, for gravity to be the driving factor of a galaxy? We are thinking, comparatively speaking, of gravitational forces between 1/100th inch specks isolated by over four miles from one another.
It may be, therefore, that the way the solar system runs, with our own as the only example we can know to any great extent, is quite different from the way the galaxy runs as a whole. Even if we are right in judging gravity to have a comparatively dominant influence upon the positions and movements of the planetary bodies of our system, that certainly does not imply we would be right to assume gravitational dominance for interstellar forces in a galaxy, and even less so, for intergalactic forces in the cosmos. Indeed, if the galaxies were powered by vast electrical energy transfers through the plasma environment of space, the puny force of gravitation in such a context could be safely ignored altogether.
Gravity or Electricity – which one Rules the Universe? | Thunderbolts
The Electric Universe cosmology is new and is based on the most general case of the behaviour of electrically charged bodies embedded in a charged plasma. Plasma is a gas in which electrons have been removed from some of the atoms – in other words, it is ionised. Like a metal where the electrons are free to move, plasma is an excellent electrical conductor. 99.999% of matter in the universe is composed of plasma. A charged plasma has a small excess of negative or positive charge. Plasma naturally forms filaments in response to electric and magnetic fields. Those filaments may “pinch” magnetically to form stars. Stars are not isolated but receive electrical power from the galaxy – hence the million degree solar corona. Electromagnetic forces are infinitely more powerful than gravity and capable of simply explaining phenomena attributed to Black Holes. Electromagnetic forces can repel or attract. Gravity only attracts – requiring amazing legerdemain to explain colossal outpourings of matter from centres of galaxies. Plasma cosmology is the practical realm of electrical engineers. It is verifiable by experiment because of the enormous scalability of the phenomena.
GRAVITY vs PLASMA | Wallace Thornhill on Holoscience
The largest dinosaurs are many times the size of an elephant. And dinosaur skeletons aren't as well-designed for bearing weight as elephant skeletons. Dinosaurs are impossibly large for planet Earth, but their bones are proof that they must have existed. How could that be? The limit on size depends on weight, and weight depends on the force of gravity. Most conventional theories assume that gravity throughout the universe has always been and will always be a constant property of matter. But that's only an assumption, and it must be verified empirically.
The Electric Universe offers a different point of view. Gravity is not a constant. It's a variable that depends on the plasma environment. So Earth in the Mesozoic Era may have had less gravity than it has today. Holden calculates that in order for the largest dinosaurs to function, gravity must have been at least 1/3 (and possibly as low as 1/4) what it is today. He also postulates that gravity increased suddenly at the close of the age of dinosaurs but not to the present value. Lower-than-present gravity continued into the following ages of giant mammals and possibly even to the days when early humans were building giant monuments like Stonehenge.
Impossible Dinosaurs | Thunderbolts TPOD
Almost all the matter in space is in the form of plasma. Clouds of gas and dust contain free charged particles — ions, electrons and charged dust (molecules). These charged particles respond strongly to electric and magnetic fields. In cosmic molecular clouds, where stars are formed, just one charged particle in ten thousand neutral particles is sufficient for electric and magnetic forces to overcome gravity.
Twinkle, twinkle electric star | Holoscience
A significant fact, usually overlooked, is that Newton’s law of gravity does not involve time. This raises problems for any conventional application of electromagnetic theory to the gravitational force between two bodies in space, since electromagnetic signals are restricted to the speed of light. Gravity must act instantly for the planets to orbit the Sun in a stable fashion. If the Earth were attracted to where the Sun appears in the sky, it would be orbiting a largely empty space because the Sun moves on in the 8.3 minutes it takes for sunlight to reach the Earth. If gravity operated at the speed of light all planets would experience a torque that would sling them out of the solar system in a few thousand years. Clearly, that doesn’t happen. This supports the view that the electric force operates at a near infinite speed on our cosmic scale, as it must inside the electron. It is a significant simplification of all of the tortuous theorizing that has gone into the nature of gravity and mass. Einstein’s postulates are wrong. Matter has no effect on empty space. Space is three-dimensional—something our senses tell us. There is a universal clock so time travel and variable aging is impossible—something that commonsense has always told us. But most important—the universe is connected and coherent.
‘Instantaneous’ gravity - Electric Gravity in an Electric Universe | Holoscience
Another serious problem faced by conventional thinking is that the quantum shifts seem to occur galaxy-wide without delay. No object has been found with two different redshifts. Yet a change propagating at the speed of light would take something like 100,000 years to traverse a galaxy. It seems that the kind of particle dipole distortions that create inertial mass and gravity propagate at the near infinite speed of the electrostatic force. So, once begun, the quantum shift in atomic orbitals could spread across a galaxy in less than a second. I suppose it could be termed “galactic quantum entanglement.”
The Remarkable Slowness of Light | Holoscience
A simple calculation shows that the sub-particles that form an electron must travel at a speed far in excess of the speed of light – some 2.5 million light-years per second, or from here to the far side of the Andromeda galaxy in one second! So the electrostatic force must act at a speed which is almost infinite on our scale for the electron to be stable.
Electric Universe Theory (EU theory) basics | Holoscience
Electric Gravity links and articles
- Electric Gravity in an Electric Universe | Holoscience
- The Remarkable Slowness of Light | Holoscience
- GRAVITY vs PLASMA | Holoscience
- Gravity or Electricity – which one Rules the Universe? | thunderbolts
- Thornhill's Latest Gravity Presentation and related discussion Clarification Request for Wal Thornhill | Thunderbolts forum
- Electric gravity? Comet 67P | everythingselectric
- Electromagnetic orbits evidence? Small asteroid has mini moon | everythingselectric
- Planets orbits due to electromagnetic forces? | everythingselectric
- The Problem with Gravity: New Mission Would Probe Strange Puzzle | Space
- Electromagnetic gravity related articles on everythingselectric