The NASA InSight Mars mission will be full of surprises for geologists and massive modifications of current theories, but not the abandoning of them although a good geology theory should vaguely predict.
A seismometer will measure marsquakes and meteorite strikes, using the waves generated by those events to build a 3-D picture of Mars’ interior. "That is the goal of the InSight mission, is to actually map out the inside of Mars in three dimensions so that we understand the inside of Mars as well as we have come to understand the surface of Mars," said Banerdt.
In doing so, InSight — short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport — is peering back in time to the early solar system. “When we look at the crust of Mars, that’s a snapshot into the past, of what the crust of the Earth might have looked like 4.5 billion years ago, before it got all busy,” said Banerdt. That knowledge will inform understanding of how rocky bodies like the Earth and the moon evolved, as well as planets in other solar systems.
InSight will also take Mars' temperature, by hammering a mechanical mole up to 16 feet underground, if no big rocks block its path. And it will measure the planet's slight wobble as it orbits, providing more information about its structure.
NASA lander survives 'seven minutes of terror' to arrive on Mars USA Today
Peer review scientists and geologists have already had a sample of very limited siesmic data from a previous mission, so they must be able to get close with their predictions. Unless their nebular hypothesis is not correct?
InSight's primary objective is to study the earliest evolutionary history of the processes that shaped Mars. By studying the size, thickness, density and overall structure of Mars' core, mantle and crust, as well as the rate at which heat escapes from the planet's interior, InSight will provide a glimpse into the evolutionary processes of all of the rocky planets in the inner Solar System. The rocky inner planets share a common ancestry that begins with a process called accretion. As the body increases in size, its interior heats up and evolves to become a terrestrial planet, containing a core, mantle and crust. Despite this common ancestry, each of the terrestrial planets is later shaped and molded through a poorly understood process called differentiation. InSight mission's goal is to improve the understanding of this process and, by extension, terrestrial evolution, by measuring the planetary building blocks shaped by this differentiation: a terrestrial planet's core, mantle and crust.
InSight | wikipedia
Venus was predicted to be cold, Immanuel Velikovsky suggested it would be hot because of comparative mythology. Mars surface is very different to what was predicted, with all its geological features that resemble similar structures on our watery and geologically active planet.
InSight is a Mars lander designed to give the Red Planet its first thorough checkup since it formed 4.5 billion years ago. It is the first outer space robotic explorer to study in-depth the "inner space" of Mars: its crust, mantle, and core.
Studying Mars' interior structure answers key questions about the early formation of rocky planets in our inner solar system - Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars - more than 4 billion years ago, as well as rocky exoplanets. InSight also measures tectonic activity and meteorite impacts on Mars today.
The lander uses cutting edge instruments, to delve deep beneath the surface and seek the fingerprints of the processes that formed the terrestrial planets. It does so by measuring the planet's "vital signs": its "pulse" (seismology), "temperature" (heat flow), and "reflexes" (precision tracking).
InSight Mission to Mars | JPL NASA
Peer reviewed science has spectacularly failed with every planet and moon (comets and asteroids) we have viewed in more detail or explored.
Why do we need to know this? Scientists understand very well how Earth's interior is structured, and they have some good models to describe the initiation of this architecture at the Solar System's birth more than 4.5 billion years ago. But Earth is one data point and Mars will give researchers a different perspective on how a rocky planet can be assembled and evolve through time.
InSight chief scientist Bruce Banerdt said: "The small details in how planets evolve are what we think make the difference between a place like Earth where you can go on vacation and get a tan, and a place like Venus where you'll burn in seconds or a place like Mars where you'll freeze to death."
Mars: Nasa lands InSight robot to study planet's interior | BBC
InSight of Mars Heat Flow and Physical Properties
If planetary heat is an electrical property, resistance or potential differences, not due to the conduction of stored internal energy from its formation process, then could these readings relate more to electromagnetic activity in and through the planet of Mars. On Earth we have Telluric currents, flowing of electrical energies.
Could the readings change due to internal or external events and not just the surface position in relationship to the Sun and sunlight or night shadows. Mars has stunning electrical dust devils and world wide dusty plasma storms that can last for months. It is also electrically plasma connected to the Sun and the solar system.
It contains a heater to determine thermal conductivity during descent, and it trails a tether equipped with precise heat sensors placed at 10 cm (3.9 in) intervals to measure the temperature profile of the subsurface. In principle, every 50 cm (1.5 ft) the probe puts out a pulse of heat and its sensors measure how the heat pulse changes with time. If the crust material is a thermal conductor, like metal, the pulse will decay quickly. Together, these measurements yield the rate of heat flowing from the interior.
HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package | wikipedia
InSight of Marsquakes
The InSight lander carries a seismometer, SEIS, that listens to the pulse of Mars. The seismometer records the waves traveling through the interior structure of a planet. Studying seismic waves tells us what might be creating the waves. On Mars, scientists suspect that the waves may be caused by marsquakes, meteorites striking the surface, or hot, molten magma moving at great depths underneath the surface.
Measuring the Pulse of Mars | NASA InSight