Plasma ball lightning: Peer review experiments

Peer review ball lightning experiments investigating the very puzzling and mysterious plasma balls (plasmoids?) or just balls of lightning.

ball lightning evidence experimentIt is remarkable that we could create the synthetic electromagnetic knot - that is, quantum ball lightning - essentially with just two counter-circulating electric currents, added co-lead author Dr Mikko Möttönen, of Aalto University. 'Thus, it may be possible that a natural ball lighting could arise in a normal lightning strike' ...

The quantum gas is cooled down to a very low temperature where it forms a Bose-Einstein condensate: all atoms in the gas end up in the state of minimum energy. The state does not behave like an ordinary gas anymore but like a single giant atom ...

plasma ball lightning experiments peer reviewedTo create the skyrmion, the physicists then applied a tailored magnetic field to the supercooled gas, which influenced the orientation of the magnetic moments of its constituent atoms. The characteristic knotted structure of the skyrmion emerged after less than one thousandth of a second ...

Remarkably, the skyrmion is accompanied by a knotted synthetic magnetic field that strongly influences the quantum gas, Professor Hall said
Physicists Create ‘Shankar Skyrmion’ — Quasiparticle with Properties of Ball Lightning | Sci News

Plasma ball lightning experiments reviewed by peers

Peer reviewed laboratory experimental data from Amherst College and Aalto University, with peer review interpretations and conclusions.

Ball lightning is a rare and little-understood phenomenon, commonly thought to be a localized, traveling electrical discharge with a lifetime significantly exceeding that of ordinary lightning. A topological theory of ball lightning ascribes this surprising persistence to the presence of an electromagnetic knot, with magnetic field lines consisting of closed, linked rings that support tangled electric currents in a plasma of ionized air.
Synthetic electromagnetic knot in a three-dimensional skyrmion

plasmoids ball lightning