Plasma: Metals into Fourth State of Matter

Liquid metal converted to plasma. Geology, space dusty plasmas and minerals, resistant and sometimes willing chemical elements forced to be transmuted.

University of Rochester’s Dr Mohamed Zaghoo and colleagues observed, however, there is another way to create a plasma: under high density conditions, heating a liquid metal to very high temperatures will also produce a dense plasma.

“The transition to the latter has not been observed scientifically before and is precisely what we did,” Dr Zaghoo said.

“One of the unique aspects of this observation is that liquid metals at high densities exhibit quantum properties. However, if they are allowed to cross over to the plasma state at high densities, they will exhibit classical properties.”
Physicists Transform Liquid Metal into Dense Plasma | Sci-News

Geological structures transformed in situ. Opals. Localised extreme physical conditions.

Andrew Hall plasma arc blast geology

Element transmutations

Plasmas consist of a hot soup of free moving electrons and ions that easily conducts electricity.

Although they are not common naturally on Earth, plasmas comprise most of the matter in the observable Universe, such as the surface of the Sun.

Physicists are able to generate artificial plasmas here on Earth, typically by heating a gas to thousands of degrees Fahrenheit, which strips the atoms of their electrons.
Physicists Transform Liquid Metal into Dense Plasma | Sci-News

Shockwave geology

Pressure differences in planets surface material seems to be a go to formation. Easy and a favourite route to the End Zone. With Andrew Hall's shockwaves, plasma arc blast geological transformations and conversions of rock, earth and other substances.

They hypothesized that at certain conditions — extremely high densities or extremely low temperatures — electrons or protons have to assume certain quantum properties that are not described by classical physics. A plasma, however, does not follow this paradigm.

In order to observe a liquid metal crossing over to a plasma, Dr Zaghoo and co-authors started off with metallic deuterium, which displayed the classical properties of a liquid.

To increase the density of deuterium, they cooled it to minus 422 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 252 degrees Celsius).

The researchers then used lasers to set off a strong shockwave through ultracool liquid deuterium.

The shockwave compressed deuterium to pressures up to 5 million times greater than atmospheric pressure, while also increasing its temperatures to almost 180,000 degrees Fahrenheit (100,000 degrees Celsius).
Physicists Transform Liquid Metal into Dense Plasma | Sci-News

Of the different forces or physical properties that are proposed to transform material is increasing or decreasing surrounding pressure the easiest, least energetic?