Plasma double layers

double layers dl dls plasmaPlasma double layers - also known as a Langmuir plasma sheath, Langmuir sheath, plasma sheath - information, descriptions etc. Also includes Debye sheaths. More will be added as found.

You can read more about Irving Langmuir, Hannes Alfvén and Kristian Birkeland.

Double layers (plasma sheaths)

A plasma formation by which a plasma protects itself from the environment

Double layers were described in 1929 by the plasma pioneer and Nobel laureate Irving Langmuir. They form when electric current flows through plasma. Another Nobel laureate, Hannes Alfvén, described a double layer as, “… a plasma formation by which a plasma — in the physical meaning of this word — protects itself from the environment. It is analogous to a cell wall by which a plasma—in the biological meaning of this word—protects itself from the environment.”
Cosmic Ions | thunderbolts TPOD

Plasma double layers space electric universe theory

Double layers separate plasma into cells that can have different temperatures or densities

Various components coupled to and driven by electric circuits in space comprise the heart of Electric Universe theory. Charged particles accelerating through powerful electric fields radiate energy in many bandwidths.

Glowing, braided filaments are sometimes visible in “jets” that blast out from stars and some galaxies. Those filaments are called Birkeland currents, and they are the visible portion of enormous electric circuits that form a large-scale structure in the Universe. The circuits generate magnetic fields that can be mapped, so the helical shape characteristic of Birkeland currents is known, since it can be seen.

Plasma’s behavior is driven by conditions in those circuits. Fluctuations in current flow form double layers with enormous voltages between them. This means that electric forces in double layers can be several orders of magnitude stronger than gravity. Double layers separate plasma into cells that can have different temperatures or densities.
Electromagnetic Fire | thunderbolts TPOD

Plasma double layers cosmology universe

Double layers can accelerate charged particles up to enormous energies in a variety of frequencies

Double layers dissipate when they accelerate particles and emit radiation, so they must be powered by external sources, such as Birkeland currents. Since scalability is one of plasma’s emergent characteristics, it reveals itself through electrical events both large and small. Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén maintained that double layers are unique, and that intense energy sources on Earth and in space could be due to double layers “shorting out” and exploding. Double layers can accelerate charged particles up to enormous energies in a variety of frequencies, forming “plasma beams.” If the charge density becomes excessive, they explode, drawing electricity from an entire circuit, discharging more energy than was contained in the double layer.
Juiced Up | thunderbolts TPOD

High current discharges cause the sheathes to glow while creating other sheaths within

It is those braided plasma filaments that confirm the existence of circuits in space. Celestial bodies are not isolated from one another but are connected across vast distances. Electric discharges in plasma create magnetic sheaths along their axes. High current discharges cause the sheathes to glow while creating other sheaths within. Double layers form when positive charges build up in one region and negative charges build up nearby. Electric fields develop between regions, which accelerates charged particles. Electric charges spiral in the magnetic fields, emitting X-rays, extreme ultraviolet, and sometimes gamma rays.
Star Wires | thunderbolts TPOD

Plasma double layers eu theory

Double layers might cutoff the current flow in a galactic circuit causing a catastrophic rise in voltage

Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén affirmed an interest in the acceleration of charged particles, especially those at cosmic ray energies, while at the Nobel Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. His concepts of field-aligned electric fields, combined with the field-aligned currents described by Birkeland, are now seen as necessary for the acceleration of charged particles in the polar aurorae.

Alfvén's proposed idea of "exploding double layers" is one of the foundational principles relied upon by Electric Universe advocates because they generate cosmic rays at extreme energies. Cosmic rays are ionized particles. The majority of cosmic rays are single protons, but nuclei as heavy as uranium have been detected. As consensus theories state, heavy particles are accelerated to relativistic velocities by unknown forces and then whipped out into the galaxy like a shotgun blast, scattering in every direction.

Plasma double layers locations typical voltage drops sourcesHannes Alfvén described a double layer as, "...a plasma formation by which a plasma, in the physical meaning of this word, protects itself from the environment. It is analogous to a cell wall by which a plasma, in the biological meaning of this word, protects itself from the environment."

Double layers might cutoff the current flow in a galactic circuit causing a catastrophic rise in voltage. The powerful energy release, or "exploding double layer" is what astronomers sometimes call a "supernova," or a "gamma ray burst."

Alfvén, said in 1986 (NASA CP 2469): "Double layers in space should be classified as a new type of celestial object (one example is the double radio sources). It is tentatively suggested that x-ray and gamma ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers. In solar flares, DLs with voltages of 10^9 Volts or even more may occur, and in galactic phenomena, we may have voltages that are several orders of magnitude larger."

Plasma, not hot gas, is flowing through space. The physics of electric currents apply, not the physics of winds. Inside planetary nebulae are one or more plasma sheaths, or "double layers," that act like capacitors, alternately storing and releasing electrical energy. The current flow alternately increases and decreases within the sheaths inside and outside the shell. Because plasma in laboratory experiments forms cellular structures separated by thin walls of opposite charge (double layers), it is probable that the same thing happens in nebulae.
Electrodynamic Duo Part Two | thunderbolts TPOD

plasma double layers discharge

Plasma sheaths (double layers) the electric field on either side of the thin double layer is very weak and the plasma there is ‘quasi neutral’

Charged bodies embedded in plasma create about themselves a protective cocoon of plasma, rather like a living cell wall. This cell wall is known as a Langmuir plasma sheath, or ‘double layer,’ which contains most of the voltage difference between the charged body and the surrounding plasma. Only an electric current sustains the charge separation across the double layer. If the surrounding plasma is moving relative to the charged body, the plasma sheath is drawn out into a teardrop or cometary shape. And if the charged body is rotating it will generate a magnetic field that is trapped inside the plasma sheath. This has led to the misnomer — “magnetosphere” — when referring to a plasma sheath.

The father of plasma cosmology, Hannes Alfvén, expressed the opinion that double layers should be classed as “a new type of celestial object.” They are responsible for the radio noise from ‘radio’ galaxies. In interstellar space they produce the cosmic microwave radiation, mistakenly interpreted as the afterglow from the mythical big bang. Alfvén tentatively suggested that X-ray and gamma ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers.

An important feature of plasma sheaths, or double layers, is that the electric field on either side of the thin double layer is very weak and the plasma there is ‘quasi neutral.’ That’s why we do not see evidence of a strong electric field from the charged Sun, and why the ‘solar wind’ appears to be electrically neutral. For this reason, the bulk movement and magnetic field of the ‘solar wind’ best signify the Sun’s electrical activity.
Twinkle, twinkle electric star | holoscience

Electrons moving along a Birkeland current may be accelerated by a plasma double layer. If the resulting electrons approach relativistic velocities (i.e. if they approach the speed of light) they may subsequently produce a Bennett pinch, which in a magnetic field causes the electrons to spiral and emit synchrotron radiation that may include radio, optical (i.e. visible light), x-rays, and gamma rays.
Birkeland current | wikipedia

Plasma double layers hot gas electrons

Compared to the sizes of the plasmas which contain them, double layers are very thin

A double layer is a structure in a and consists of two parallel layers with opposite electrical charge. The sheets of charge cause a strong electric field and a correspondingly sharp change in voltage (electrical potential) across the double layer. Ions and electrons which enter the double layer are accelerated, decelerated, or reflected by the electric field. In general, double layers (which may be curved rather than flat) separate regions of plasma with quite different characteristics. Double layers are found in a wide variety of plasmas, from discharge tubes to space plasmas to the Birkeland currents supplying the Earth's aurora, and are especially common in current-carrying plasmas. Compared to the sizes of the plasmas which contain them, double layers are very thin (typically ten Debye lengths), with widths ranging from a few millimeters for laboratory plasmas to thousands of kilometres for astrophysical plasmas.

Other names for a double layer are: electrostatic double layer, electric double layer, plasma double layers, electrostatic shock (a type of double layer which is oriented at an oblique angle to the magnetic field in such a way that the perpendicular electric field is much larger than the parallel electric field), space charge layer, and "potential ramp". In laser physics, a double layer is sometimes called an ambipolar electric field. Double layers are conceptually related to the concept of a 'sheath'.

The adopted electrical symbol for a double layer, when represented in an electrical circuit is: ────DL──── If there is a net current present, then the DL is oriented so that the base of the L is in line with direction of current.
Double layer | plasma-universe.com

The voltage drop across the Sun’s plasma sheath would almost equal the full driving potential of the Sun, measured in tens of billions of volts

But Venus was also identified as a spectacular discharging comet in the ancient congregation of planets. What can be made of that? It can be explained if Venus was the latest child of Saturn. As explained earlier, Saturn shows the symptoms of having given birth recently. The birth would be triggered by a sudden change in Saturn’s electrical environment when it crossed from interstellar space into the Sun’s plasma envelope, or heliosphere. The voltage drop across the Sun’s plasma sheath would almost equal the full driving potential of the Sun, measured in tens of billions of volts. Rather than being an anode in the galactic discharge, Saturn would become a cathode in the Sun’s environment and subject to forming cathode jets. Saturn could be expected to ‘spit the dummy’ in such a circumstance! Venus was one such ‘dummy,’ ejected from the equator of Saturn.
Cassini’s Homecoming | holoscience

There is no simple discharge of electricity as one would expect from most regions of high voltage break-down

Birkeland Currents are amazingly efficient mechanisms of transmitting electricity through space. The behaviour of these current filaments are often highly dynamic.

In the filament - the electric current becomes insulated from the surrounding space plasma due to the existence of a spinning vortex of charged particles around the central axial current. The rotating vortex consists of layers of positive and negative charge that are adjacent to each other. They form "double layer" sheaths that prevent the central current from discharging into the bulk plasma surrounding it.

“Double layers” are an area of plasma which separate two different regions of plasma with different characteristics. The voltages and particle velocities in such regions can be very high indeed. Double-layers come in different manifestations and produce complex electric-field fluctuations and particle interactions within the boundary zone separating two different types of plasma, or separating different electric potentials. Hence, there is no simple discharge of electricity as one would expect from most regions of high voltage break-down (e.g.. static electricity and lightning).
Towards a natural plasma explanation of certain UFO phenomena | hozturner

If the charge density becomes excessive, they explode, drawing electricity from an entire circuit,discharging more energy than was contained in the double layer

The electric discharges from the eye of hurricane Hilda were far more powerful than either sprites or jets. Described as “red sprites on steroids”, they are thought to release more than 30 coulombs per second of charge, or 30 amperes, at about 300,000 volts.

These phenomena are most likely manifestations of Birkeland currents pouring electricity into plasma double layers. Double layers dissipate when they accelerate particles and emit radiation, so they must be powered by external sources, such as Birkeland currents. Since scalability is one of plasma’s emergent characteristics, it reveals itself through electrical events both large and small.

Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén maintained that double layers are unique, and that intense energy sources on Earth and in space could be due to double layers “shorting out” and exploding. Double layers can accelerate charged particles up to enormous energies in a variety of frequencies, forming “plasma beams.” If the charge density becomes excessive, they explode, drawing electricity from an entire circuit, discharging more energy than was contained in the double layer.
Juiced Up | Thunderbolts TPOD

Debye sheath (electrostatic sheath)

Debye sheath  electrostatic sheath plasma double layer dl

The Debye sheath is the transition from a plasma to a solid surface

The Debye sheath (also electrostatic sheath) is a layer in a plasma which has a greater density of positive ions, and hence an overall excess positive charge, that balances an opposite negative charge on the surface of a material with which it is in contact. The thickness of such a layer is several Debye lengths thick, a value whose size depends on various characteristics of plasma (e.g. temperature, density, etc.).

A Debye sheath arises in a plasma because the electrons usually have a temperature on the order of magnitude or greater than that of the ions and are much lighter. Consequently, they are faster than the ions by at least a factor of [lots!]. At the interface to a material surface, therefore, the electrons will fly out of the plasma, charging the surface negative relative to the bulk plasma. Due to Debye shielding, the scale length of the transition region will be the Debye length \lambda_\mathrm{D}. As the potential increases, more and more electrons are reflected by the sheath potential. An equilibrium is finally reached when the potential difference is a few times the electron temperature.

The Debye sheath is the transition from a plasma to a solid surface. Similar physics is involved between two plasma regions that have different characteristics; the transition between these regions is known as a double layer, and features one positive, and one negative layer.
Debye sheath | Wikipedia

Around each negative electrode there is thus a sheath of definite thickness containing only positive ions and neutral atoms

Electrons are repelled from the negative electrode while positive ions are drawn towards it. Around each negative electrode there is thus a sheath of definite thickness containing only positive ions and neutral atoms ... Electrons are reflected from the outside surface of the sheath while all positive ions which reach the sheath are attracted to the electrode ... it follows directly that no change occurs in the positive ion current reaching the electrode. The electrode is in fact perfectly screened from the discharge by the positive ion sheath, and its potential cannot influence the phenomena occurring in the arc, nor the current flowing to the electrode.
Positive Ion Currents from the Positive Column of Mercury Arcs

Debye sheath plasma solid double layers

When a plasma is in contact with a solid, the solid acts as a "sink" draining away the plasma. Recombination of electrons and ions occur at surface. Then:
1. Plasma is normally charged positively with respect to the solid.
2. There is a relatively thin region called the "sheath", at the boundary of the plasma, where the main potential variation occurs.

Reason for potential drop:
1. Different velocities of electrons and ions.
2. If there were no potential variation (E= 0) the electrons and ions would hit the surface at the random rate
Plasma-Solid Boundaries - What is a Plasma? | MIT

Debye shielding confines this barrier to a thin layer of plasma, coating the inside surface of the wall

Virtually all terrestrial plasmas are contained inside solid vacuum vessels. So, an obvious question is: what happens to the plasma in the immediate vicinity of the vessel wall? Actually, to a first approximation, when ions and electrons hit a solid surface they recombine and are lost to the plasma. Hence, we can treat the wall as a perfect sink of particles. Now, given that the electrons in a plasma generally move much faster than the ions, the initial electron flux into the wall greatly exceeds the ion flux, assuming that the wall starts off unbiased with respect to the plasma. Of course, this flux imbalance causes the wall to charge up negatively, and so generates a potential barrier which repels the electrons, and thereby reduces the electron flux. Debye shielding confines this barrier to a thin layer of plasma, whose thickness is a few Debye lengths, coating the inside surface of the wall. This layer is known as a plasma sheath or a Langmuir sheath. The height of the potential barrier continues to grow as long as there is a net flux of negative charge into the wall. This process presumably comes to an end, and a steady-state is attained, when the potential barrier becomes sufficiently large to make electron flux equal to the ion flux.
Langmuir Sheaths | The University of Texas at Austin

The beginning of Langmuir probe theory is the I-V characteristic of the Debye sheath, that is, the current density flowing to a surface in a plasma as a function of the voltage drop across the sheath.
I-V characteristic of the Debye sheath - Langmuir probe | Wikipedia

Plasma double layers and black holes

Closer to the black hole, heat generated by molecular collisions tears atoms apart and the disk glows in extreme ultraviolet and X-rays. This is what is referred to as a black hole’s “corona”.

No direct evidence exists for matter compressed to nearly infinite density. Instead, it is Z-pinches in plasma filaments forming plasmoids that energize stars and galaxies. When charge density is too high, double layers form, catastrophically releasing their excess energy in bursts of X-rays or flares of ultraviolet light.

That electric charge flow in plasma generates magnetic fields that constrict the current channel. Pinched electric filaments remain coherent over long distances, spiraling around each other, and forming helical structures that can transmit power through space. Those filaments are the jets seen in galaxies and stars.
Flash in the Pan | Thunderbolts TPOD