Ceres – geomorphology and origin

ceres geomorphology surface originWhat will Ceres geomorphology suggest about the dwarf planet? Will it show evidence of water features such as water erosion? Will it show active geology such as stress fractures, lines, movements?

Will Ceres geomorphology provide a puzzle for astronomers and scientists? Will it change planets formation theories?

Will this dwarf planet or large active asteroid that is Ceres be more like the Electric Universe theory suggests it might be like?

Below is what some websites say about the origin of Ceres, so it can be compared to what they say in the future or what we find.

Origin and evolution

Ceres is probably a surviving protoplanet (planetary embryo), which formed 4.57 billion years ago in the asteroid belt.[52] Although the majority of inner Solar System protoplanets (including all lunar- to Mars-sized bodies) either merged with other protoplanets to form terrestrial planets or were ejected from the Solar System by Jupiter,[73] Ceres is believed to have survived relatively intact.[52] An alternative theory proposes that Ceres formed in the Kuiper belt and later migrated to the asteroid belt.[74] Another possible protoplanet, Vesta, is less than half the size of Ceres; it suffered a major impact after solidifying, losing ~1% of its mass.[75]

The geological evolution of Ceres was dependent on the heat sources available during and after its formation: friction from planetesimal accretion, and decay of various radionuclides (possibly including short-lived elements like 26Al). These are thought to have been sufficient to allow Ceres to differentiate into a rocky core and icy mantle soon after its formation.[12][52] This process may have caused resurfacing by water volcanism and tectonics, erasing older geological features.[52] Due to its small size, Ceres would have cooled early in its existence, causing all geological resurfacing processes to cease.[52][76] Any ice on the surface would have gradually sublimated, leaving behind various hydrated minerals like clay minerals and carbonates.[13]

Today, Ceres appears to be a geologically inactive body, with a surface sculpted only by impacts.[12] The presence of significant amounts of water ice in its composition[7] raises the possibility that Ceres has or had a layer of liquid water in its interior.[52][76] This hypothetical layer is often called an ocean.[13] If such a layer of liquid water exists, it is believed to be located between the rocky core and ice mantle like that of the theorized ocean on Europa.[52] The existence of an ocean is more likely if solutes (i.e. salts), ammonia, sulfuric acid or other antifreeze compounds are dissolved in the water.[52]

When Ceres has an opposition near the perihelion, it can reach a visual magnitude of +6.7.[14] This is generally regarded as too dim to be seen with the naked eye, but under exceptional viewing conditions a very sharp-sighted person may be able to see this dwarf planet. Ceres was at its brightest (6.73) on 18 December 2012.[15] The only other asteroids that can reach a similarly bright magnitude are 4 Vesta, and, during rare oppositions near perihelion, 2 Pallas and 7 Iris.[77] At a conjunction Ceres has a magnitude of around +9.3, which corresponds to the faintest objects visible with 10×50 binoculars. It can thus be seen with binoculars whenever it is above the horizon of a fully dark sky.

Some notable observational milestones for Ceres include:

An occultation of a star by Ceres observed in Mexico, Florida and across the Caribbean on 13 November 1984.[78]
Ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope images with 50 km resolution taken on 25 June 1995.[54][79]
Infrared images with 30 km resolution taken with the Keck telescope in 2002 using adaptive optics.[55]
Visible light images with 30 km resolution (the best to date) taken using Hubble in 2003 and 2004.[12][56]
In 2014, Ceres was found to have an atmosphere with water vapor, confirmed by the Herschel space telescope.[80]
Ceres physical characteristics (wikipedia)

Ceres may have formed later than Vesta, and with a cooler interior. Current evidence suggests that Vesta only retained a small amount of water because it formed earlier, when radioactive material was more abundant, which would have produced more heat. Ceres, in contrast, has a thick ice mantle and may even have an ocean beneath its icy crust.
Dawn spacecraft begins approach to dwarf planet Ceres

The research has implications for how Ceres formed, and supports models that suggest the planets moved around a lot within the solar system during its formation, Küppers told SPACE.com. [See more photos of the dwarf planet Ceres]

Ceres, a dwarf planet or giant asteroid (depending on the definition used), is the largest object in the asteroid belt, orbiting at 2.8 astronomical units (the distance from Earth to the sun). The "snowline" is thought to partition the solar system into dry objects inside the asteroid belt, and icy objects such as comets further out. But the finding of water on Ceres suggests more mixing has occurred.

"One of the most puzzling questions about the origin and evolution of asteroids is why Vesta and Ceres are so different," astrophysicists Humberto Campins and Christine Comfort at the University of Central Florida in Orlando wrote in an article in the same issue of Nature.

Water vapor can transport a lot of heat, so when Ceres formed 4.6 billion years ago, sublimation of water ice might have dissipated much of its heat into space, Campins and Comfort wrote. "This would have stopped Ceres from ending up with an igneous surface like that of Vesta."

Detecting water on Ceres supports models of the solar system in which giant planets, such as Jupiter, migrated to their current positions, mixing material from the outer and inner regions of the solar system. This mixing could have moved Ceres and Vesta far from the sites where they formed. Ceres probably formed close to its current position, but accreted material from further out, Küppers said.

The findings also suggest that asteroids may have delivered some of the water in Earth's oceans.
Water Found on Dwarf Planet Ceres, May Erupt from Ice Volcanoes