Has the material been transformed by powerful electromagnetic forces flowing through the small pipe area, much like electricity flowing through a wire?
How do they go through various layers, types and ages of rocks?
Do you get a breccia pipe or a Kimberlite pipe depending on the amount of the natural electrical discharge through the host rock?
A breccia pipe is a vertical, pipe-like mass of broken rock (breccia), typically a few tens of meters across and hundreds of meters in vertical extent. Breccia pipes formed within Paleozoic and Triassic strata over a broad area around the Grand Canyon, and some contain high-grade uranium ore (Wenrich and Titley, 2008). They were created when groundwater (possibly basin brines), flowing through Redwall Limestone dissolution breccias and along fracture zones, dissolved more limestone, causing collapse of overlying rocks and possibly creating sink holes. Some pipes extend many hundreds of meters upward into the Chinle Group (formerly Chinle Formation; Heckert and Lucas, 2003), indicating that some pipes are at least as young as this Upper Triassic rock unit (Brown and Billingsley, 2010). Some pipes are blind and never broke through to the surface. Breccia pipes are abundant in the Grand Canyon region, with at least 1300 pipes or suspected pipes identified (Sutphin and Wenrich, 1989; Brown and Billingsley, 2010). These breccia pipes have been of interest both for their economic value and because they are adjacent to Grand Canyon National Park and the Colorado River (Spencer and Wenrich, 2013).
Partial database for breccia pipes and collapse features on the Colorado Plateau, northwestern Arizona
Is the fact that there is uranium in the breccia pipes a sign of transmutation of the host material?
Also that the breccia pipes are found near the Grand Canyon, perhaps one of the largest Electric Universe geology features on the planet, an electric discharge event?
The roots of a breccia pipe start within the Mississippian Redwall Limestone and extend up to 3000 ft vertically through various rock strata of the Colorado Plateau in northwestern Arizona.
Breccia Pipe Anatomy
Why does the surface of a breccia pipe have nodules and concretions?
Why are the surface minerals found around the ring?
Why do uranium breccia pipes have a pyrite top?
Mineralization at the surface of the breccia pipes commonly occurs within nodules and concretions associated with pyrite and goethite and along fractures.
Surface expression of mineralization is generally located along the ring fracture of the pipe and is characterized by copper minerals, minor increases in gamma radiation, barite, calcite, goethite, and more rarely pyrite or marcasite (Wenrich, 1985). The highest gamma radiation commonly occurs in comminuted rock or in fracture zones. Most economic uranium pipes contain a pyrite cap that commonly oxidizes to goethite in pseudomorphs after pyrite cubes, concretions, botryoidal masses, and boxwork fracture fillings.
Breccia Pipe Anatomy
Are Kimberlite pipes the more powerful version of a breccia pipe? More energy has flowed through it and finished off the transformation of the host material from rocks/nodules/concretions into diamonds?
Breccia pipes information update 26/10/2015
These are selected quotes from a Thunderblogs article by Andrew Hall. They concern the chemical/metal elements and electromagnetic nature of the Breccia pipes, especially around the Grand Canyon area.
Breccia pipes exist by the hundreds on the lower Colorado Plateau, from the Arizona strip north of Grand Canyon to the edge of the Mogollon Rim. Originally interpreted as volcanic artifacts, the breccia pipes are now considered to be solution-collapse formations — essentially, sinkholes caused by water dissolving a deep layer of subsurface limestone. Overburden collapses leaving a vertical pipe filled with broken rock.
Some are as deep as 1,800 feet and 200 to 400 feet in diameter at the surface. They appear as a round surface feature of reduced vegetation, discoloration, and either a slight mound, or hollow over the actual pipe. Around the pipe, the ground is typically slumped in concentric circles enclosed with a raised rim, although some are flat ground and hard to detect at all.
Three types of sinkhole exist in the region, differentiated by the type of karst formation that formed them, producing different depths, ages and other properties. Of interest to these researchers were mineral bearing formations in breccia pipes thought to be the result of solution-collapse of the Mississippian Redwall Limestone.
These breccia pipes may have commercial ore deposits of high grade uranium, copper, zinc and other minerals. These formations of northern Arizona yield the most compact source of high grade uranium in the United States and are extensively mined.
The thrust of the article, however, was the use of magnetometers to find the breccia pipes since they were found to exhibit dipole anomalies. The magnetic anomaly is typically at the surface, over the cemented breccia chimney itself, and can extend into the pipe fifty-feet or more in depth. The authors did not perform extensive below ground testing.
... The other concern is the minerals, including high grade uranium and varying amounts of a wide range of commercial metals. The breccia pipes contain bitumen in pores and fissures. They exhibit extensive oxidation deep below ground. They have concentric rings surrounded by a raised rim like a crater. And there is the magnetic dipole. All of these features imply an electric formation.
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